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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728162/realistic-lenalidomide-dose-adjustment-strategy-for-transplant-ineligible-elderly-patients-with-relapsed-refractory-multiple-myeloma-japanese-real-world-experience
#1
Aya Nakaya, Shinya Fujita, Atsushi Satake, Takahisa Nakanishi, Yoshiko Azuma, Yukie Tsubokura, Masaaki Hotta, Hideaki Yoshimura, Kazuyoshi Ishii, Tomoki Ito, Shosaku Nomura
Lenalidomide is an immunomodulatory drug administered orally in the treatment of multiple myeloma. Some elderly patients require a reduced lenalidomide dose because of comorbidities and/or adverse events. This study investigated the actual dose of lenalidomide in elderly patients, finding that most received reduced (5-10 mg) doses. The most common reasons for dose reduction were renal dysfunction (54% of patients), fatigue (grade ≥3; 20%), hematologic disorder (grade ≥3; 14%), and rash (grade ≥3; 9%)...
July 21, 2017: Acta Haematologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727206/the-mother-offspring-dyad-microbial-transmission-immune-interactions-and-allergy-development
#2
REVIEW
Maria C Jenmalm
The increasing prevalence of allergy in affluent countries may be caused by reduced intensity and diversity of microbial stimulation, resulting in abnormal postnatal immune maturation. Most studies investigating the underlying immunomodulatory mechanisms have focused on postnatal microbial exposure, for example demonstrating that the gut microbiota differs in composition and diversity during the first months of life in children who later do or do not develop allergic disease. However, it is also becoming increasingly evident that the maternal microbial environment during pregnancy is important in childhood immune programming, and the first microbial encounters may occur already in utero...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726797/multiple-myeloma
#3
REVIEW
Shaji K Kumar, Vincent Rajkumar, Robert A Kyle, Mark van Duin, Pieter Sonneveld, María-Victoria Mateos, Francesca Gay, Kenneth C Anderson
Multiple myeloma is a malignancy of terminally differentiated plasma cells, and patients typically present with bone marrow infiltration of clonal plasma cells and monoclonal protein in the serum and/or urine. The diagnosis of multiple myeloma is made when clear end-organ damage attributable to the plasma cell proliferative disorder or when findings that suggest a high likelihood of their development are present. Distinguishing symptomatic multiple myeloma that requires treatment from the precursor stages of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance and smouldering multiple myeloma is important, as observation is the standard for those conditions...
July 20, 2017: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726737/respiratory-tract-infections-and-the-role-of-biologically-active-polysaccharides-in-their-management-and-prevention
#4
REVIEW
Milos Jesenak, Ingrid Urbancikova, Peter Banovcin
Respiratory tract infections (RTIs) are the most common form of infections in every age category. Recurrent respiratory tract infections (RRTIs), a specific form of RTIs, represent a typical and common problem associated with early childhood, causing high indirect and direct costs on the healthcare system. They are usually the consequence of immature immunity in children and high exposure to various respiratory pathogens. Their rational management should aim at excluding other severe chronic diseases associated with increased morbidity (e...
July 20, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726635/as-cath1-6-novel-cathelicidins-with-potent-antimicrobial-and-immunomodulatory-properties-from-alligator-sinensis-play-pivotal-roles-in-host-anti-microbial-immune-responses
#5
Yan Chen, Shasha Cai, Xue Qiao, Mali Wu, Zhilai Guo, Renping Wang, Yi-Qun Kuang, Haining Yu, Yipeng Wang
Crocodilians are regarded as possessing a powerful immune system. However, the composition and action of crocodilian immune system has remained unclear until now. Cathelicidins, the principal family of host defense peptides, play pivotal roles in vertebrate immune defense against microbial invasions. However, cathelicidins from crocodilians have not been extensively studied to date. In the present study, six novel cathelicidins (As-CATH1~6) were identified and characterized from the endangered Chinese Alligator ( Alligator sinensis )...
July 18, 2017: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726579/the-immunomodulatory-role-of-bmp-2-on-macrophages-to-accelerate-osteogenesis
#6
Fei Wei, Yinghong Zhou, Jing Wang, Changsheng Liu, Yin Xiao
Bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) is one of the most frequently used osteogenic factors for osteogenesis. Macrophages, acting as both immune cells and osteoclast precursors, have an indispensable functional input during multiple stages of bone healing. This study aims to investigate the immunoregulatory role of BMP-2 on macrophages and the subsequent effects on osteogenesis. In the subcutaneous implantation study, gelatin sponge incorporated with 20 μg/mL BMP-2 rendered significantly enhanced macrophage infiltration compared to the gelatin sponge control...
July 20, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726182/autoimmune-hypothyroidism-is-three-times-more-frequent-in-female-prolactinoma-patients-compared-to-healthy-women-data-from-a-cross-sectional-case-control-study
#7
Atanaska Elenkova, Iliana Аtanasova, Georgi Кirilov, Еmil Natchev, Ralitza Ivanova, Roussanka Кovatcheva, Silvia Vandeva, Dimitar Tcharaktchiev, Sabina Zacharieva
BACKGROUND: The potent immunomodulatory action of prolactin has been demonstrated in many experimental in vitro studies. In accordance with these data, our retrospective analyses revealed higher prevalence of autoimmune thyroid diseases in prolactinoma patients compared to general population. PURPOSE: A cross-sectional case-control study was carried out in a single tertiary referral centre. The main aim was to assess the frequency of newly diagnosed autoimmune thyroid diseases in female patients with prolactinomas...
July 19, 2017: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726099/lipoxygenases-modulate-the-effect-of-glutoxim-on-na-transport-in-the-frog-skin-epithelium
#8
Z I Krutetskaya, A V Melnitskaya, V G Antonov, A D Nozdrachev
Using voltage-clamp technique, the involvement of lipoxygenases in the effect of immunomodulatory drug glutoxim on Na(+) transport in frog skin was investigated. It was shown for the first time that preincubation of the skin with lipoxygenase inhibitors caffeic acid, baicalein, and nordihydroguaiaretic acid significantly decreases the stimulatory effect of glutoxim on Na(+) transport. The data suggest the involvement of lipoxygenase oxidation pathway of arachidonic acid metabolism in the glutoxim effect on Na(+) transport in frog skin epithelium...
May 2017: Doklady. Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724761/isg15-modulates-type-i-interferon-signaling-and-antiviral-response-during-hepatitis-e-virus-replication
#9
Harini Sooryanarain, Adam J Rogers, Dianjun Cao, Mary Etna R Haac, Yogesh A Karpe, Xiang-Jin Meng
Hepatitis E virus (HEV), a single-stranded positive-sense RNA virus, generally causes a self-limiting acute viral hepatitis, although chronic HEV infection has recently become a significant clinical problem in immunocompromised individuals especially in solid organ transplant recipients. Innate immunity, via type-I interferon (IFN) response, plays an important role during initial stages of a viral infection. ISG15, an IFN-induced ubiquitin-like protein, is known to have an immunomodulatory role, as well as can impart a direct antiviral effect against a wide spectrum of virus families...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724741/body-height-and-immune-efficacy-testing-body-stature-as-a-signal-of-biological-quality
#10
Bogusław Pawłowski, Judyta Nowak, Barbara Borkowska, Daria Augustyniak, Zuzanna Drulis-Kawa
According to the good genes hypothesis and energy allocation theory, human adult body height may reflect biological quality. An important aspect of this quality is immune system functioning (ISF). The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between ISF and body height in healthy people. The ISF was determined by several important innate (total complement and lysozyme activity, neutrophil function) and adaptive immune parameters (lymphocytes, IgA and IgG, and response to the flu vaccine). Overall, 96 males and 97 females were subjected to flu vaccination, and of these, 35 males and 34 females were subjected to tetanus...
July 26, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724382/activation-of-cannabinoid-receptor-type-2-attenuates-surgery-induced-cognitive-impairment-in-mice-through-anti-inflammatory-activity
#11
Lingling Sun, Rui Dong, Xin Xu, Xi Yang, Mian Peng
BACKGROUND: Neuroinflammation plays a major role in postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD). Accumulated evidence indicates that cannabinoid receptor type 2 (CB2R) can mediate anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects in part by controlling microglial activity. However, the impact of CB2R on postoperative cognition has not been investigated. We hypothesized that CB2R is involved in surgery-induced cognitive impairment in adult mice. METHODS: Adult C57BL/6 mice were subjected to intramedullary fixation surgery for tibial fracture under isoflurane anesthesia and CB2R agonist (JWH133) or CB2R antagonist (AM630) treatment...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724202/population-pharmacokinetics-of-lenalidomide-in-healthy-volunteers-and-patients-with-hematologic-malignancies
#12
Jamie N Connarn, Renfang Hwang, Yue Gao, Maria Palmisano, Nianhang Chen
A population pharmacokinetic (PopPK) model of lenalidomide was developed using data pooled from 13 clinical studies (dose range, 5-400 mg) in participants who were considered to have adequate capability for renal excretion of lenalidomide (creatinine clearance [CrCl] > 50 mL/min). The analysis population included 305 healthy volunteers and 83 patients with multiple myeloma or myelodysplastic syndromes. A 1-compartment model with linear absorption and elimination described well the observed data for both healthy volunteers and patients...
July 19, 2017: Clinical Pharmacology in Drug Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723692/angiotensin-ii-regulates-dendritic-cells-through-activation-of-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-p65-erk1-2-and-stat1-pathways
#13
Yan Meng, Chen Chen, Yang Liu, Cui Tian, Hui-Hua Li
BACKGROUND: Activation of dendritic cells (DCs) is necessary to initiate immune responses. Angiotensin II (Ang II) has been reported to have a proinflammatory and immunomodulatory function. However, the role of Ang II in regulation of DCs and the underlying mechanisms remain illdefined. METHODS: The effects of Ang II on the proliferation, maturation, phagocytosis, migration, and communication with T cells of DCs were analysed utilizing MTT, flow cytometry, ELISA, transwell assay and mixed lymphocyte culture...
July 19, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723561/crosstalk-between-regulatory-t-cells-and-tumor-associated-dendritic-cells-negates-anti-tumor-immunity-in-pancreatic-cancer
#14
Jung-Eun Jang, Cristina H Hajdu, Caroline Liot, George Miller, Michael L Dustin, Dafna Bar-Sagi
Regulatory T (Treg) cell infiltration constitutes a prominent feature of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA). However, the immunomodulatory function of Treg cells in PDA is poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that Treg cell ablation is sufficient to evoke effective anti-tumor immune response in early and advanced pancreatic tumorigenesis in mice. This response is dependent on interferon-γ (IFN-γ)-producing cytotoxic CD8(+) T cells. We show that Treg cells engage in extended interactions with tumor-associated CD11c(+) dendritic cells (DCs) and restrain their immunogenic function by suppressing the expression of costimulatory ligands necessary for CD8(+) T cell activation...
July 18, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722481/clinical-management-of-pediatric-acute-onset-neuropsychiatric-syndrome-part-i-psychiatric-and-behavioral-interventions
#15
Margo Thienemann, Tanya Murphy, James Leckman, Richard Shaw, Kyle Williams, Cynthia Kapphahn, Jennifer Frankovich, Daniel Geller, Gail Bernstein, Kiki Chang, Josephine Elia, Susan Swedo
OBJECTIVE: This article outlines the consensus guidelines for symptomatic treatment for children with Pediatric Acute-Onset Neuropsychiatric Syndrome (PANS) and Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Syndrome Associated with Streptococcal Infection (PANDAS). METHODS: Extant literature on behavioral, psychotherapeutic, and psychopharmacologic treatments for PANS and PANDAS was reviewed. Members of the PANS Research Consortium pooled their clinical experiences to find agreement on treatment of PANS and PANDAS symptoms...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721309/retinal-pigment-epithelial-cells-are-a-potential-reservoir-for-ebola-virus-in-the-human-eye
#16
Justine R Smith, Shawn Todd, Liam M Ashander, Theodosia Charitou, Yuefang Ma, Steven Yeh, Ian Crozier, Michael Z Michael, Binoy Appukuttan, Keryn A Williams, David J Lynn, Glenn A Marsh
PURPOSE: Success of Ebola virus (EBOV) as a human pathogen relates at the molecular level primarily to blockade the host cell type I interferon (IFN) antiviral response. Most individuals who survive Ebola virus disease (EVD) develop a chronic disease syndrome: approximately one-quarter of survivors suffer from uveitis, which has been associated with presence of EBOV within the eye. Clinical observations of post-Ebola uveitis indicate involvement of retinal pigment epithelial cells. METHODS: We inoculated ARPE-19 human retinal pigment epithelial cells with EBOV, and followed course of infection by immunocytochemistry and measurement of titer in culture supernatant...
July 2017: Translational Vision Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720797/commensal-gut-microbiota-immunomodulatory-actions-in-bone-marrow-and-liver-have-catabolic-effects-on-skeletal-homeostasis-in-health
#17
Chad M Novince, Carolyn R Whittow, Johannes D Aartun, Jessica D Hathaway, Nicole Poulides, Michael B Chavez, Heidi M Steinkamp, Kaeleigh A Kirkwood, Emily Huang, Caroline Westwater, Keith L Kirkwood
Despite knowledge the gut microbiota regulates bone mass, mechanisms governing the normal gut microbiota's osteoimmunomodulatory effects on skeletal remodeling and homeostasis are unclear in the healthy adult skeleton. Young adult specific-pathogen-free and germ-free mice were used to delineate the commensal microbiota's immunoregulatory effects on osteoblastogenesis, osteoclastogenesis, marrow T-cell hematopoiesis, and extra-skeletal endocrine organ function. We report the commensal microbiota has anti-anabolic effects suppressing osteoblastogenesis and pro-catabolic effects enhancing osteoclastogenesis, which drive bone loss in health...
July 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720491/the-immunomodulatory-effects-of-the-enalapril-in-combination-with-benznidazole-during-acute-and-chronic-phases-of-the-experimental-infection-with-trypanosoma-cruzi
#18
Ana Luisa Junqueira Leite, Guilherme de Paula Costa, Laís Roquete Lopes, Ludmilla Walter Dos Reis Mota, Paula Melo de Abreu Vieira, André Talvani
Trypanosoma cruzi infection triggers a chronic inflammatory process responsible for the alterations in the extracellular matrix and functionality of the heart. The angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors affects T. cruzi in vitro survelence and modulates in vivo some inflammatory mediators. In this study, we investigated the treatment with an ACE inhibitor (Enalapril) and the Benznidazole (Bz) in a single and combination therapies (CT) in C57BL/6 mice infected with VL-10 strain of the T. cruzi. Animals were treated during 20days with different doses of Bz (100, 80, 60mg/kg), Enalapril (25, 20, 15mg/kg) and their CT (100+25; 80+20; 60+15mg/kg) and euthanized at 30° (acute) and at 120° (chronic) days post infection...
July 15, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720074/regeneration-of-long-distance-peripheral-nerve-defects-after-delayed-reconstruction-in-healthy-and-diabetic-rats-is-supported-by-immunomodulatory-chitosan-nerve-guides
#19
Lena Stenberg, Maria Stößel, Giulia Ronchi, Stefano Geuna, Yaobin Yin, Susanne Mommert, Lisa Mårtensson, Jennifer Metzen, Claudia Grothe, Lars B Dahlin, Kirsten Haastert-Talini
BACKGROUND: Delayed reconstruction of transection or laceration injuries of peripheral nerves is inflicted by a reduced regeneration capacity. Diabetic conditions, more frequently encountered in clinical practice, are known to further impair regeneration in peripheral nerves. Chitosan nerve guides (CNGs) have recently been introduced as a new generation of medical devices for immediate peripheral nerve reconstruction. Here, CNGs were used for 45 days delayed reconstruction of critical length 15 mm rat sciatic nerve defects in either healthy Wistar rats or diabetic Goto-Kakizaki rats; the latter resembling type 2 diabetes...
July 18, 2017: BMC Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720071/developmental-expression-and-dysregulation-of-mir-146a-and-mir-155-in-down-s-syndrome-and-mouse-models-of-down-s-syndrome-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#20
A Arena, A M Iyer, I Milenkovic, G G Kovács, I Ferrer, M Perluigi, E Aronica
miR-146a and miR-155 are key regulators of the innate immune response. We hypothesized that an inflammation-mediated dysregulation of these miRNAs may occur in patients with Down syndrome (DS) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). The miRNA expression patterns were investigated by in situ hybridization in developing hippocampus from controls, patients with DS and in adults with AD pathology (DS and sporadic AD; sAD). quantitative real-time PCR was employed to evaluate the miRNA levels in the hippocampus of sAD and in mouse models of DS and AD...
July 6, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
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