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Vitamin D AND NAD ratio

Pranee Thongthai, La-or Chailurkit, Suwannee Chanprasertyothin, Hataikarn Nimitphong, Piyamitr Sritara, Wichai Aekplakorn, Boonsong Ongphiphadhanakul
OBJECTIVE: Vitamin D deficiency is related to increased risks for a number of diseases. To date, at least 3 candidate genes, vitamin D binding protein (VDBP) gene (GC), 25-hydroxylase (CYP2R1), and 7-dehydrocholesterol reductase/NAD synthetase 1 (DHCR7/NADSYN1), have been associated with serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) levels, but their influences on the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in relation to other known risk factors have not been clearly defined. METHODS: The study assessed 4,476 individuals aged 14 to 93 years from the Thailand 4th National Health Examination Survey (2008-2009) and the Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand (EGAT) (2008) cohorts...
March 2015: Endocrine Practice
John T Pinto, Arthur J L Cooper
Flavin-dependent monooxygenases and oxidoreductases are located at critical branch points in the biosynthesis and metabolism of cholesterol and vitamin D. These flavoproteins function as obligatory intermediates that accept 2 electrons from NAD(P)H with subsequent 1-electron transfers to a variety of cytochrome P450 (CYP) heme proteins within the mitochondria matrix (type I) and the (microsomal) endoplasmic reticulum (type II). The mode of electron transfer in these systems differs slightly in the number and form of the flavin prosthetic moiety...
March 1, 2014: Advances in Nutrition
C Annweiler, Y Rolland, A M Schott, H Blain, B Vellas, O Beauchet
BACKGROUND: Hypovitaminosis D has been cross-sectionally associated with dementia and stroke. The objective of this longitudinal study was to determine whether serum vitamin D deficiency at baseline could predict the onset of non-Alzheimer dementias (NAD) within 7 years among older women. METHODS: Forty high-functioning older women (78.4 years, 76.4/82.0; median, 25th/75th percentile) from the EPIDOS Toulouse study were divided into two groups based on vitamin D deficiency (i...
2011: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders
J Khalili, H F Biloklytska
The effect of fluoride (F) and supplementary vitamins and minerals on lipid peroxidation (LPO) and redox state (RS) in heart, kidney and liver of 40 (4 groups of 10) male Wistar rats were studied. One group of rats was left untreated as control, group 1 was received 5 mg/l NaF in their drinking water, group 2 was received 5 mg/l NaF in their drinking water plus vitamins (A, C, and D) in their diet, and group 3 was received 5 mg/l NaF in their drinking water plus vitamins (A, C, and D) and minerals (Mg-, Mn-, Zn-sulfate, and Na-citrate) in their diet...
2009: Fiziolohichnyĭ Zhurnal
G Siegenthaler, D Gumowski-Sunek, J H Saurat
Synthetic retinoids that have distinct therapeutic activity on psoriatic plaques act at least in part through the metabolic pathways of natural retinoids. The metabolism of retinol, retinal, and retinoic acid in human epidermis in general and psoriatic plaques in particular has not been previously analyzed. This appears to be an important issue, because enzymatic formation of retinoic acid from retinol within target cells is thought to be the source of biologically active retinoic acid therein and might be subjected to regulation...
November 1990: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
Tsutomu Fukuwatari, Yuko Morikawa, Etsuro Sugimoto, Katsumi Shibata
The effects of dietary orotic acid on the metabolism of tryptophan to niacin in weaning rats was investigated. The rats were fed with a niacin-free, 20% casein diet containing 0% (control diet) or 1% orotic acid diet (test diet) for 29 d. Retardation of growth, development of fatty liver, and enlargement of liver were observed in the test group in comparison with the control group. The concentrations of NAD and NADP in liver significantly decreased, while these in blood did not decrease compared to the control group...
June 2002: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
J P Bell, S I Mosfer, D Lang, F Donaldson, M J Lewis
Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is a cardiovascular risk factor. A possible role for endothelial dysfunction in this condition was investigated in a Dunkin-Hartley guinea pig aortic-banded pressure overload-induced model of LVH. Aortic banding produced significant elevation of fore- and hindlimb blood pressure (BP), heart-to-body weight ratios, plasma angiotensin II (ANG II), endothelin-1 (ET-1), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) levels, and coronary microvascular endothelial cell (CMEC) NAD(P)H-dependent superoxide (O) production, and a significant decrease in basal and stimulated CMEC cGMP levels...
October 2001: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
A Storch, A Kaftan, K Burkhardt, J Schwarz
6-Hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) is widely used to generate animal models of Parkinson's disease. However, little is known about the intracellular events leading to cell death of dopaminergic neurones. Here we correlate indices of energy production and cell viability in human dopaminergic neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells after exposure to 6-OHDA. The toxin induces a time and dose-dependent decrease in cell survival with an IC50 value of 25 microM after 24 h. In contrast to the mitochondrial complex I inhibitor 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+), 6-OHDA-induced reduction of cell viability is not associated with a decrease of intracellular ATP content, intracellular ATP/ADP ratio or NAD+ content...
2000: Journal of Neural Transmission
K Yasunari, M Kohno, H Kano, K Yokokawa, M Minami, J Yoshikawa
BACKGROUND: To explore the role of intracellular oxidative stress in high glucose-induced atherogenesis, we examined the effect of probucol and/or alpha-tocopherol on the migration and growth characteristics of cultured rabbit coronary vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). METHODS AND RESULTS: Chronic high-glucose-medium (22. 2 mmol/L) treatment increased platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB-mediated VSMC migration, [3H]thymidine incorporation, and cell number compared with VSMCs treated with normal-glucose medium (5...
March 16, 1999: Circulation
R A Jacob, D M Gretz, P C Taylor, S J James, I P Pogribny, B J Miller, S M Henning, M E Swendseid
To determine the human folate requirement on the basis of changes in biochemical pathways, we studied the effect of controlled folate intakes on plasma homocysteine and lymphocyte DNA methylation and deoxynucleotide content in healthy postmenopausal women. Eight women (49-63 y of age) were housed in a metabolic unit and fed a low folate diet containing 56 microg/d of folate for 91 d. Folate intake was varied by supplementing 55-460 microg/d of folic acid (pteroylglutamic acid) to the diet to provide total folate intake periods of 5 wk at 56 microg/d, 4 wk at 111 microg/d and 3 wk at 286-516 microg/d...
July 1998: Journal of Nutrition
H D Bakker, H R Scholte, J A Jeneson, H F Busch, N G Abeling, A H van Gennip
An 11-year-old girl with exercise intolerance, fatiguability from early childhood, had high blood lactate levels. Histochemistry showed increased activity of succinate dehydrogenase at the periphery of the muscle fibres, whereas aggregates of mitochondria were seen by electron microscopy. Biochemical investigation of isolated mitochondria and homogenate from muscle showed evidence of a severe complex I deficiency. In contrast, succinate dehydrogenase, complex II+III and complex IV were increased in activity...
1994: Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease
E Mezey
The metabolic effects of ethanol are due to a direct action of ethanol or its metabolites, changes in the redox state occurring during its metabolism, and modifications of the effects of ethanol by nutritional factors. Ethanol causes hyperglycemia or hypoglycemia depending on whether glycogen stores are adequate, inhibits protein synthesis, and results in fatty liver and in elevations in serum triglyceride levels. Increases in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol after ethanol ingestion may explain the lower risk of myocardial infarction and death from coronary disease after moderate drinking...
January 1985: Federation Proceedings
S Kakuta, E E Golub, J C Haselgrove, B Chance, P Frasca, I M Shapiro
The objective of this investigation was to examine the redox status of chondrocytes in normal and rachitic growth cartilages and to relate energy metabolism to cell maturation and the initiation of mineralization. The redox status was evaluated by chemical analysis and by microfluorimetric scanning of rapidly frozen, freeze-fractured tibial growth cartilages. In the normal epiphysis, the redox pattern of both avian and lagomorph cartilages were very similar. Thus, in the proliferative tissue zone the NAD/NADH ratio was high; in the hypertrophic zone, the cells appeared to be reduced...
October 1986: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
D T Forman
The metabolic effects of ethanol are due to a direct action of ethanol or its metabolites, changes in the redox state occurring during its metabolism, and modifications of the effects of ethanol by several nutritional factors. Ethanol causes hyperglycemia or hypoglycemia depending whether or not glycogen stores are adequate, inhibits protein synthesis, and results in a fatty liver and elevations in serum triglyceride levels. Increases in serum lactate, results from the increased reduced nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide/nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide + (NADH/NAD+) ratio, and hyperuricemia probably occurs owing to the increased turnover of adenine nucleotides after ethanol ingestion...
May 1988: Annals of Clinical and Laboratory Science
D N Iakhnina, I I Agabekova
Activity of enzymes participating in metabolism of glutamate and content of nicotinamide nucleotides was studied in rat liver tissue within 24 hrs after intramuscular administration of alpha-tocopheryl acetate at doses of 30 mg and 300 mg per kg of body mass. Excess of the vitamin was responsible for a decrease in the ratio NAD+/NADH in cytosol, for stimulation of glutamate dehydrogenase reaction, for a decrease of aspartate aminotransferase activity in mitochondria and of alanine aminotransferase activity in cytosol as well as for an increase of NADPH content...
May 1986: Voprosy Medit︠s︡inskoĭ Khimii
Y Kinuta
To verify the lipid peroxidation in the focal cerebral ischemia, the levels of alpha-tocopherol, ubiquinone and ascorbate were measured in the ischemic center in rats. The former two were endogeneous lipid soluble antioxidants and the last was a water soluble antioxidant. alpha-Tocopherol, reduced ubiquinone-9 and -10, and reduced ascorbate decreased to 79%, 73%, 66%, and 76% 0.5 hour after ischemia, respectively. alpha-Tocopherol decreased to 63% 6 hours after ischemia, and then reached a plateau, while reduced ubiquinones and reduced ascorbate declined further to 16% and 10% 12 hours after ischemia, respectively, and then reached plateau levels...
January 1, 1989: Nihon Geka Hokan. Archiv Für Japanische Chirurgie
M Stio, T Iantomasi, M T Vincenzini, C Treves
We have previously reported that rats fed on the Steenbock and Black's rickets-inducing diet (deficient in vitamin D and with an altered Ca/P ratio) show metabolic modifications in kidney and intestinal mucosa. We have therefore decided to investigate if also in liver, seat of vitamin D hydroxylation, changes in the metabolic pattern occur. An increase of mitochondrial NAD+-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase and a decrease of citrate and ATP content was demonstrated in liver of rachitic rats, together with changes in ATP-citrate lyase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity...
1989: Comptes Rendus des Séances de la Société de Biologie et de Ses Filiales
K C Posch, M H Boerman, R D Burns, J L Napoli
Holocellular retinol binding protein (holo-CRBP) was substrate for retinal synthesis at physiological pH with microsomes prepared from rat liver, kidney, lung, and testes. Four observations indicated that retinal synthesis was supported by holo-CRBP directly, rather than by the unbound retinol in equilibrium with CRBP. First, the rate of retinal synthesis with holo-CRBP exceeded the rate that was observed from the concentration of unbound retinol in equilibrium with CRBP. Second, NADP was the preferred cofactor only with holo-CRBP, supporting a rate about 3-fold greater than that of NAD...
June 25, 1991: Biochemistry
S M Henning, J Z Zhang, R W McKee, M E Swendseid, R A Jacob
Because ascorbic acid is an important contributor to the oxidant defense system in body tissues, we studied the effects of a low dietary intake of ascorbic acid on various indicators of oxidant defense and oxidant damage. During a 13-wk study eight healthy men (25-43 y), residing in a live-in metabolic unit, were fed controlled diets containing different amounts of ascorbic acid for four consecutive periods: period 1 = 250 mg/d for 4 d; period 2 = 5 mg/d for 32 d; period 3 = 10 or 20 mg/d for 28 d and period 4 = 60 or 250 mg/d for 28 d...
December 1991: Journal of Nutrition
S M Cassan, D H Simmons
Human erythrocytes admixed with vitamin E supplements (50 mug/ml) were exposed to NO2 in concentrations of 200-600 p.p.m. at 37 degrees C for 2 h. No protective effect against the increase in the redox ratio [NAD+]/[NADH]normally produced by NO2 was observed. It is postulated that NO2 increases the redox ratio by a mechanism independent of that producing hemolysis and prevented by vitamin E. This may involve alteration of NADH dependent enzymes by NO2.
1975: Environmental Physiology & Biochemistry
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