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Qin Jiang, Xiyue Li, Shanshan Cheng, Yuxiu Gu, Gui Chen, Yuexin Shen, Yixi Xie, Yi Cao
We have recently proposed that the interaction between food components and nanoparticles (NPs) should be considered when evaluating the toxicity of NPs. In the present study, we used THP-1 differentiated macrophages as a model for immune cells and investigated the combined toxicity of low levels of palmitate (PA; 10 or 50μM) and ZnO NPs. The results showed that PA especially at 50μM changed the size, Zeta potential and UV-vis spectra of ZnO NPs, indicating a possible coating effect. Up to 32μg/mL ZnO NPs did not significantly affect mitochondrial activity, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) or release of interleukin 6 (IL-6), but significantly impaired lysosomal function as assessed by neutral red uptake assay and acridine orange staining...
October 18, 2016: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Anita D'Anselmo, Daniele Marzoli, Alfredo Brancucci
The role of memory retention and attentional control on hemispheric asymmetry was investigated using a verbal dichotic listening paradigm, with the consonant-vowel syllables (/ba/,/da/,/ga/,/ka/,/pa/and/ta/), while manipulating the focus of attention and the time interval between stimulus and response. Attention was manipulated using three conditions: non-forced (NF), forced left (FL) and forced right (FR) attention. Memory involvement was varied using four delays (0, 1, 3 and 4 s) between stimulus presentation and response...
October 19, 2016: Hearing Research
Ana Mladenovič, Sandra Hamler, Nina Zupančič
The environmental acceptability of geotechnical composites made of treated municipal sewage sludge (SwS) and paper ash (PA) after two different curing periods has been investigated. The mineral composition of such composites, including their content of major oxides, is mainly influenced by the PA. The content of potentially toxic elements (PTEs) in the initial materials and in the composites varies considerably. In the SwS the Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni and Zn contents are above the legally permitted limits. The PTE content of PA are lower, but still somewhat above the permitted values for Ba and Cu...
October 21, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Silvana B Sandbakk, Javaid Nauman, Nina Zisko, Øyvind Sandbakk, Nils Petter Aspvik, Dorthe Stensvold, Ulrik Wisløff
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether meeting physical activity (PA) recommendations and/or having high age-specific cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) attenuate the adverse effect of prolonged sedentary time on cardiovascular risk factor (CV-RF) clustering in older adults. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study of Norwegian women (495) and men (379) aged 70 to 77 years from August 22, 2012, through June 30, 2013. Sedentary time and PA were assessed by accelerometers and CRF by directly measured peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak)...
October 8, 2016: Mayo Clinic Proceedings
Alexandra R McNeill, Adam R Hyndman, Roger J Reeves, Alison J Downard, Martin Ward Allen
ZnO is a prime candidate for future use in transparent electronics however development of practical materials requires attention to factors including control of its unusual surface band bending and surface reactivity. In this work, we have modified the O polar (000(1)over bar), Zn-polar (0001), and m-plane (10(1)over bar0) surfaces of ZnO with phosphonic acid (PA) derivatives and measured the effect on the surface band bending and surface sensitivity to atmospheric oxygen. Core level and valence band synchrotron X-ray photoemission spectroscopy were used to measure the surface band bending introduced by PA modifiers with substituents of opposite polarity dipole moment: octadecylphosphonic acid (ODPA) and 3,3,4,4,5,5,6,6,7,7,8,8,8-tridecafluorooctylphosphonic acid (F13OPA)...
October 21, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Rachel Hirschey, Isaac Lipkus, Lee Jones, Christopher Mantyh, Richard Sloane, Wendy Demark-Wahnefried
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVES: To test effects of gain-framed versus loss-framed mailed brochures on increasing physical activity (PA) among colorectal cancer (CRC) survivors.
. DESIGN: Randomized trial with repeated measures at baseline, 1 month, and 12 months postintervention.
. SETTING: Mail recruitment from tumor registries.
. SAMPLE: 148 inactive CRC survivors who had completed primary therapy. 
. METHODS: PA and constructs from the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) were assessed at baseline, 1 month, and 12 months...
November 1, 2016: Oncology Nursing Forum
Sophia A Hayes, Dana Zive, Betty Ferrell, Susan W Tolle
BACKGROUND: The Physician Orders for Life-Sustaining Treatment (POLST) Paradigm records advance care planning for patients with advanced illness or frailty as actionable medical records. The National POLST Paradigm Task Force recommends that physicians, advanced practice registered nurses (APRNs), and physician assistants (PAs) be permitted to execute POLST forms. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the percentage of Oregon POLST forms signed by APRNs, and examine the obstacles faced by states attempting to allow APRNs to sign POLST forms...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Palliative Medicine
Zhong-Jie Wang, Ling Qin, Jin-Xi Chen, He-Gen Zheng
Two luminescent Cd(II) metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) were prepared from electron-rich π-conjugated fluorescent ligands. They are isostructural with sql nets. Their strong luminescences can be quenched by a series of nitroaromatic explosives. Notably, MOF 1 shows highly selective and sensitive detection of 4-nitrophenol (4-NP), while MOF 2 exhibits good responses toward picric acid (PA) compared with other nitroaromatic explosives. This different order of quenching efficiency is because there are H-bonding interactions between MOF 1 and 4-NP, while MOF 2 lacks these H-bonding interactions...
October 21, 2016: Inorganic Chemistry
Muhammad Rafehi, Joachim C Burbiel, Isaac Y Attah, Aliaa Abdelrahman, Christa E Müller
The Gq protein-coupled, ATP- and UTP-activated P2Y2 receptor is a potential drug target for a range of different disorders, including tumor metastasis, inflammation, atherosclerosis, kidney disorders, and osteoporosis, but pharmacological studies are impeded by the limited availability of suitable antagonists. One of the most potent and selective antagonists is the thiouracil derivative AR-C118925. However, this compound was until recently not commercially available and little is known about its properties...
October 20, 2016: Purinergic Signalling
Michał Bronikowski, Małgorzata Bronikowska, Beata Pluta, Janusz Maciaszek, Maciej Tomczak, Agata Glapa
The promotion of physical activity (PA) in children and their parents requires effective planning and sometimes even interventions. This study shows the effect of PA during a 15-week intervention program "Junior for Seniors" by applying a socioecological model to the interpretation of the data. This comprehensive approach emphasizes the fact that health promotion should focus not only on intrapersonal factors but also on the multilevel factors that might be determinants and modulators of increased PA. In 2015, 24 children ("juniors," 14 girls and 10 boys, aged M = 7...
2016: BioMed Research International
James Gavin, Madeleine McBrearty, Kit Malo, Michael Abravanel, Tatiana Moudrakovski
The purpose of this study was to explore adolescents' perceptions of psychosocial influences - personal characteristics, environmental factors and behavioural undertakings - influencing their prolonged involvement in sports and physical activity (PA). A qualitative approach was adopted wherein 16 adolescents (8 boys, 8 girls; mean age 15.9 years), who had been physically active for at least the last 8 years, and sixteen adults identified as their 'parents' or 'guardians' participated in semi-structured interviews...
2016: International Journal of Exercise Science
Nathan D Nuzum, Ashlee M Hendy, Aaron P Russell, Wei-Peng Teo
Individual responses to transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) are varied and therefore potentially limit its application. There is evidence that this variability is related to the contributions of Indirect waves (I-waves) recruited in the cortex. The latency of motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) can be measured through transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), allowing an individual's responsiveness to tDCS to be determined. However, this single-pulse method requires several different orientations of the TMS coil, potentially affecting its reliability...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Anukul Ghimire, Mads Andersen, Lindsay M Burrowes, James Christopher Bouwmeester, Andrew D Grant, Israel Belenkie, Nowell M Fine, Barry A Borlaug, John V Tyberg
Using the reservoir-wave approach (RWA) we previously characterized pulmonary vasculature mechanics in a normal canine model. We found reflected backward-travelling waves that decrease pressure and increase flow in the proximal pulmonary artery (PA). These waves decrease right ventricular (RV) afterload and facilitate RV ejection. With pathological alterations to the pulmonary vasculature, these waves may change and impact RV performance. Our objective in this study was to characterize PA wave reflection and the alterations in RV performance in cardiac patients, using the RWA...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
Jay S Naik, Jessica M Osmond, Benjimen R Walker, Nancy L Kanagy
Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a recently described gaseous vasodilator produced within the vasculature by the enzymes cystathionine γ-lyase and 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtansferase. Previous data demonstrate that endothelial cells (EC) are the source of endogenous H2S production and are required for H2S-induced dilation. However, the signal transduction pathway activated by H2S within EC has not been elucidated. TRPV4 and large conductance Ca(2+)-activated K channels (BK channels) are expressed in EC. H2S-induced dilation is inhibited by luminal administration of iberiotoxin and disruption of the endothelium...
October 7, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Felipe B Schuch, Davy Vancampfort, Xuemei Sui, Simon Rosenbaum, Joseph Firth, Justin Richards, Philip B Ward, Brendon Stubbs
Physical activity (PA) is protective from future depression, however, the potential impact of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) on the development of depression is less clear. We aimed to investigate if lower levels of CRF are associated with a higher risk for depression onset. Major electronic databases were searched, from inception to January 2016 for prospective cohort studies evaluating the association between CRF and incident depression. Pooled hazard ratio (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated...
October 17, 2016: Preventive Medicine
Divya Arora, Nisha Sharma, Venugopal Singamaneni, Vishal Sharma, Manoj Kushwaha, Vidushi Abrol, Santosh Guru, Sonia Sharma, Ajai Prakash Gupta, Shashi Bhushan, Sundeep Jaglan, Prasoon Gupta
BACKGROUND: The genus Xylaria has been reported as a rich source of biologically active secondary metabolites. In the present study, an endophytic fungus Xylaria psidii has been isolated from the leaf sample of Aegle marmelos (L.) Corr., characterized on the basis of its morphological features and sequence data for the ITS region (KU291350) of the nuclear ribosomal DNA. Biological screening of ethyl acetate extract of Xylaria psidii displayed a potential therapeutic effect on pancreatic cancer cells...
November 15, 2016: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
Benjamin Bohman, Finn Rasmussen, Ata Ghaderi
BACKGROUND: Parental self-efficacy (PSE) refers to beliefs of parents to effectively engage in behaviors that result in desired outcomes for their children. There are several instruments of PSE for promoting healthy dietary or physical activity (PA) behaviors in children. These measures typically assess PSE in relation to some quantity or frequency of behavior, for example, number of servings or times per week. However, measuring PSE in relation to contextual circumstances, for example, psychological states and situational demands, may be a more informative approach...
October 20, 2016: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity
Xin Tong, Jiani Chen, Sung-Pa Park, Xi Wang, Chiyi Wang, Minglian Su, Dong Zhou
The aim of this study was to better understand social support in adult people with epilepsy (PWE) in China and to explore the factors related to weaker or stronger social support in PWE when compared with a group of matching healthy controls. Consecutively, we recruited PWE from the epilepsy outpatient clinic of the West China Hospital and healthy controls from nearby urban and rural areas. People with epilepsy and healthy controls were gender- and age-matched. Each participant was interviewed and completed the following instruments: the Social Support Rating Scale (SSRS) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS)...
October 17, 2016: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
E Matyja, W Grajkowska, K Stępień, E Naganska
Pilocytic astrocytomas (PAs) are the most frequent primary astroglial tumours affecting children and adolescents. They occur sporadically or in association with a genetically determined syndrome - neurofibromatosis type 1. Classic PA usually manifests as a well-circumscribed, often cystic, slowly growing tumour, which corresponds to WHO grade I. The majority of pilocytic tumours arise along the neuraxis, predominantly in the cerebellum. They are associated with favourable long-term outcome or spontaneous regression, even after incomplete resection...
2016: Folia Neuropathologica
L Murli, A Thukral, M J Sankar, S Vishnubhatla, A K Deorari, V K Paul, A Sakariah, Dolma, R Agarwal
OBJECTIVE: To determine the agreement between transcutaneous bilirubin (TcB) measured from shielded skin and serum total bilirubin (STB) in infants (34 to 41 weeks of gestation) with hyperbilirubinemia receiving phototherapy (PT). STUDY DESIGN: In this prospective cohort study, we shielded a small area of skin on sternum using a commercial photo-opaque patch (BilEclipseTM, Philips Respironics, Murrysville, PA, USA). The TcB from the shielded skin (TcBs) and STB were measured at four time points-before initiation, 12 and 24 h during and once after (12 h) cessation of PT...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
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