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Patricia Vu-Eickmann, Jian Li, Andreas Müller, Peter Angerer, Adrian Loerbroks
BACKGROUND: Numerous epidemiological studies among health care staff have documented associations of adverse psychosocial working conditions with poorer health-related outcomes, a reduced quality of patient care and intentions to leave the profession. The evidence for physician assistants in Germany remains limited though. METHODS: We surveyed a total of 994 physician assistants between September 2016 and April 2017. Psychosocial working conditions were measured by the established effort-reward imbalance (ERI) questionnaire and by a questionnaire specifically developed to capture psychosocial working conditions among physicians...
April 24, 2018: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health
Hui-Juan Jia, Xin Wang, Xin Fu, Xiao-Feng DU, Wei-Wei Zheng, Feng Luo
Cholinergic receptor activation and intracellular current injection lead to the persistent activity (PA), which may be involved in inducing neural plasticity. Our previous study showed that PA is closely related to the activation of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs) in pyramidal neurons of mouse primary auditory cortex (AI). However, the subtypes of mAChRs involved in PA remain unclear. Thus, using whole-cell patch-clamp recording and pharmacological methods, we investigated the role of different mAChR subtypes in inducing PA in AI layer V pyramidal neurons of young mice...
April 25, 2018: Sheng Li Xue Bao: [Acta Physiologica Sinica]
Samuel Hoffmann, Carl Beierkuhnlein, Richard Field, Antonello Provenzale, Alessandro Chiarucci
Protected areas (PAs) constitute major tools in nature conservation. In the European Union (EU), the Birds and Habitats Directives are the most important policies for conservation strategy, legally preserving Europe's characteristic, rare, endemic and threatened biota. We used occurrence data for species listed in the directives' Annexes to assess the uniqueness of major PAs in the EU (National Parks, Biosphere Reserves); this is important for preserving the EU's focal species. We developed a novel, multifunctional approach to calculate different metrics of conservation value that represent different components of species diversity within the PAs, involving inventory diversity, deviation from the species-area relationship, species rarity and differentiation diversity...
April 24, 2018: Scientific Reports
Jeremy C Jones, Gyanendra Kumar, Subrata Barman, Isabel Najera, Stephen W White, Richard J Webby, Elena A Govorkova
The clinical severity and annual occurrence of influenza virus epidemics, combined with the availability of just a single class of antivirals to treat infections, underscores the urgent need to develop new anti-influenza drugs. The endonuclease activity within the viral acidic polymerase (PA) protein is an attractive target for drug discovery due to the critical role it plays in viral gene transcription. RO-7 is a next-generation PA endonuclease inhibitor of influenza A and B viruses, but its drug resistance potential is unknown...
April 24, 2018: MBio
Aleksandra Mańkowska, Michał Harciarek, John B Williamson, Kenneth M Heilman
OBJECTIVES: Several studies have reported that positive emotions are primarily mediated by the left hemisphere and negative emotions by the right hemisphere. Since each hemisphere primarily allocates attention toward the contralateral hemispace, we wanted to learn how inducing a spatial attentional orienting bias to right and left egocentric hemispace might influence the recognition and perception of visually presented emotional scenes. METHOD: Participants were 42 healthy, right-handed young adults...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
Emeline Tanguy, Nawal Kassas, Nicolas Vitale
Cellular membranes are composed of thousands of different lipids usually maintained within a narrow range of concentrations. In addition to their well-known structural and metabolic roles, signaling functions for many lipids have also emerged over the last two decades. The latter largely depend on the ability of particular classes of lipids to interact specifically with a great variety of proteins and to regulate their localization and activity. Among these lipids, phosphatidic acid (PA) plays a unique role in a large repertoire of cellular activities, most likely in relation to its unique biophysical properties...
April 23, 2018: Biomolecules
Chittima Aryuthaka, Kenji Kito
Daptonema chonispiculum sp. n. and D. phuketense sp. n. are described from the Ban Pa Khlok seagrass bed, Phuket Province, Thailand. Daptonema chonispiculum sp. n. is characterized by spicules with funnel-shaped proximal ends, and D. phuketense sp. n. is unique in having the third caudal gland filled with fibrous contents. Each new species also differs from most related species in body length, de Man's indices, length of the cephalic setae and somatic/cervical setae, distance of the amphids from the anterior of the body, and length of the spicules...
March 12, 2018: Zootaxa
Thomas Ziegler, Patrick David, Tim N Ziegler, Cuong T Pham, Truong Q Nguyen, Minh D Le
New morphological data including hemipenis morphology is provided for Opisthotropis jacobi, a poorly known Mountain Stream Keelback from Vietnam and China, based on three newly collected individuals from Sa Pa (Lao Cai Province) and Tam Dao (Vinh Phuc Province) in northern Vietnam. In addition, morphological data from Vietnam is summarized based on the original description (Angel Bourret 1933), on the overview book by Bourret (1936) and on a number of smaller, little-known contributions by the latter author along with re-examination of specimens deposited in the herpetological collection of the Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle, Paris...
January 21, 2018: Zootaxa
Sun Zheng, Zheng Lan
Intravascular photoacoustic (IVPA) imaging can discriminate between normal arterial tissues and atheromatous plaques in images, particularly images of lipid-rich plaques with high spatial resolution and optical contrast. However, conventional IVPA only recovers the deposited optical energy that is the product of the tissue optical absorption coefficient and local optical fluence. Herein, a one-step model-based method for single-wavelength IVPA imaging system is proposed. The proposed method directly reconstructs the optical absorption coefficient from the boundary measurement of acoustic pressure...
April 21, 2018: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Konstantinos Mantsopoulos, Miguel Goncalves, Michael Koch, Heinrich Iro, Abbas Agaimy
Pleomorphic adenoma (PA) of the submandibular gland is known to have a very low recurrence rate. The aim of this study was to investigate the histopathological and capsular characteristics of submandibular gland PA, looking for any differences between submandibular PA and the reported data for PA of the parotid gland as possible explanation for its low recurrence rate. We reviewed 72 submandibular gland PAs resected at our center between 2000 and 2016. Patient age ranged from 14 to 77 years (mean, 47.2). At least follow (range, 12 to 170 months; mean, 82), none of the 72 patients developed a local recurrence...
April 18, 2018: Annals of Diagnostic Pathology
Ting Zhang, Ju Yang, Yongwei Sun, Yan Kang, Jia Yang, Zhi Qi
Ecological studies have revealed significant decreases in calcium (Ca) levels in various soils, and widely occurring physiological Ca deficits worldwide. These changes may cause decreases in plant diversity and increases in plant vulnerability to environmental stress, but the underlying cellular mechanism is not well understood. In this study, we found that in Arabidopsis thaliana roots, deprivation of Ca2+ , but not other minerals, dramatically enhanced plasma membrane invagination, endosome formation, and trafficking to the vacuole through the trans-Golgi network and pre-vacuole compartment, a typical pathway of endocytosis...
April 10, 2018: Journal of Plant Physiology
Ryan E Rhodes, Nnenna Nwachukwu, Alison Quinlan
OBJECTIVES: The family home is an important environment for reducing sedentary behavior and increasing physical activity (PA). Exergames are gaining attention as a possible modality for increasing energy expenditure within the home setting. The purpose of this study was to explore the use, correlates, and preferences of family exergaming. METHODS: An online survey of exergame preferences, social cognition (theory of planned behavior), and behaviors that parents perceive as displaced during exergaming was conducted among a representative sample of 483 Canadian parents with a child between the ages of 6 and 14 years of age who own a videogame platform in their family home...
April 24, 2018: Games for Health
Tammy C Tobin, Ashley Shade
Microbiology increasingly relies upon bioinformatics to understand complex microbial interactions. Nevertheless, biology undergraduates often lack the basic quantitative and computer-based skills required for bioinformatics analyses. To address these issues, the course module 'A Town on Fire! 16S rRNA Gene Amplicon Analysis of Microbial Communities Overlying the Centralia, PA Mine Fire' was developed for an undergraduate microbiology lecture course. In this module, microbiology students used Quantitative Insights into Microbial Ecology (QIIME) to perform taxonomic, phylogenetic and statistical analyses on bacterial communities from three hot mine fire-impacted surface soils using 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequences...
April 23, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Letters
Yoshiharu Fujimori, Tomoko Baba, Kyohei Yamazaki, Satoshi Hashimoto, Yasushi Yamanaka, Kenichiro Ebisuda, Kazuto Kurihara, Naoki Koike, Nao Takeuchi, Shigeru Nishiyama, Yuya Terasawa, Tadamasa Wakabayashi, Taku Imai
AIMS: Fractional flow reserve (FFR), assessed using distal coronary pressure/aortic pressure (Pd)/(Pa) ratio, functionally evaluates coronary stenosis. An assessment method without vasodilators would be helpful. A single intracoronary bolus of saline decreases Pd because of the speculated low-viscosity effect. We hypothesized that saline-induced Pd/Pa ratio (SPR) could functionally evaluate coronary stenosis. This study aimed to test the accuracy and utility of SPR for predicting FFR ≤0...
April 24, 2018: EuroIntervention
Alexander C Engel, Carolyn R Broderick, Nancy van Doorn, Louise L Hardy, Belinda J Parmenter
BACKGROUND: Physical activity provides many health benefits, yet few children meet the physical activity recommendations. In school-age children, low proficiency in fundamental movement skills (FMS) is associated with low physical activity (PA). It is unknown if the same relationship exists in pre-schoolers (aged 3-5 years). OBJECTIVES: The aims of this review were to firstly evaluate interventions for improving FMS and PA levels in children aged 3-5 years and 5-12 years, and secondly to determine, where possible, if there is a similar relationship between change in FMS and change in PA across both age groups...
April 21, 2018: Sports Medicine
Yui Shibayama, Norio Wada, Mitsuhide Naruse, Isao Kurihara, Hiroshi Ito, Takashi Yoneda, Yoshiyu Takeda, Hironobu Umakoshi, Mika Tsuiki, Takamasa Ichijo, Hisashi Fukuda, Takuyuki Katabami, Takanobu Yoshimoto, Yoshihiro Ogawa, Junji Kawashima, Yuichi Ohno, Masakatsu Sone, Megumi Fujita, Katsutoshi Takahashi, Hirotaka Shibata, Kohei Kamemura, Yuichi Fujii, Koichi Yamamoto, Tomoko Suzuki
Context: In adrenal venous sampling (AVS) for patients with primary aldosteronism (PA), apparent bilateral aldosterone suppression (ABAS), defined as lower aldosterone/cortisol ratios in the bilateral adrenal veins than that in the inferior vena cava, is occasionally experienced. ABAS is uninterpretable with respect to lateralization of excess aldosterone production. We previously reported that ABAS was not a rare phenomenon and was significantly reduced after adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) administration...
May 1, 2018: Journal of the Endocrine Society
J Isaac Peña-Garcia, Sana Shaikh, Alexandre Lacasse
Group B streptococcus infections (GBSI) are commonly associated with neonates and pregnant women, but may also affect nonpregnant adults. Among its spectrum of manifestations, perinephric abscess (PA) is exceedingly rare. Comorbid conditions such as diabetes mellitus (DM) and immunosuppression increase the risk of GBSI. We describe a 61-year-old Vietnamese man with compensated alcoholic cirrhosis, who presented with acute encephalopathy following subacute, progressive abdominal pain. He was afebrile and hemodynamically stable...
2018: Journal of Community Hospital Internal Medicine Perspectives
In-Bong Song, Hyejung Gu, Hye-Ju Han, Na-Young Lee, Ji-Yun Cha, Yeon-Kyong Son, Jungkee Kwon
Environmental stimuli can lead to the excessive accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which is one of the risk factors for premature skin aging. Here, we investigated the protective effects of 7-MEGATM 500 (50% palmitoleic acid, 7-MEGA) against oxidative stress-induced cellular damage and its underlying therapeutic mechanisms in the HaCaT human skin keratinocyte cell line (HaCaT cells). Our results showed that treatment with 7-MEGA prior to hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 )-induced damage significantly increased the viability of HaCaT cells...
April 2018: Toxicological Research
Suborno Jati, Suman Kundu, Arijit Chakraborty, Sushil Kumar Mahata, Victor Nizet, Malini Sen
Bacterial pathogens are associated with severe infections (e.g., sepsis) and exacerbation of debilitating conditions such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The interactions of bacterial pathogens with macrophages, a key component of innate immunity and host defense, are not clearly understood and continue to be intensively studied. Having previously demonstrated a role of Wnt5A signaling in phagocytosis, we proceeded to decipher the connection of Wnt5A signaling with infection by pathogenic bacteria, namely Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) and Streptococcus pneumoniae (SP), which are related with the progression of COPD and sepsis...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Rachel Schiff, Elinor Saiegh-Haddad
This study addressed the development of and the relationship between foundational metalinguistic skills and word reading skills in Arabic. It compared Arabic-speaking children's phonological awareness (PA), morphological awareness, and voweled and unvoweled word reading skills in spoken and standard language varieties separately in children across five grade levels from childhood to adolescence. Second, it investigated whether skills developed in the spoken variety of Arabic predict reading in the standard variety...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
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