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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753957/brainstem-blood-brain-barrier-disruption-using-focused-ultrasound-a-demonstration-of-feasibility-and-enhanced-doxorubicin-delivery
#1
Saira Alli, Carlyn A Figueiredo, Brian Golbourn, Nesrin Sabha, Megan Yijun Wu, Andrew Bondoc, Amanda Luck, Daniel Coluccia, Colin Maslink, Christian Smith, Heiko Wurdak, Kullervo Hynynen, Meaghan O'Reilly, James T Rutka
Magnetic Resonance Image-guided Focused Ultrasound (MRgFUS) has been used to achieve transient BBB opening without tissue injury. Delivery of a targeted ultrasonic wave causes an interaction between administered microbubbles and the capillary bed resulting in enhanced vessel permeability. The use of MRgFUS in the brainstem has not previously been shown but could provide value in the treatment of tumours such as Diffuse Intrinsic Pontine Glioma (DIPG) where the intact BBB has contributed to the limited success of chemotherapy...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750762/the-functional-anatomy-of-the-superficial-fat-compartments-of-the-face-a-detailed-imaging-study
#2
Thilo L Schenck, Konstantin C Koban, Alexander Schlattau, Konstantin Frank, Jonathan M Sykes, Stefan Targosinski, Katharina Erlbacher, Sebastian Cotofana
BACKGROUND: The superficial (subcutaneous) facial fat compartments contribute to the signs of facial aging, but a comprehensive anatomic description of their location and their functional behavior during the application of soft tissue fillers still remains elusive. METHODS: We investigated 30 fresh frozen cephalic specimens from 13 male and 17 female Caucasian body donors (age: 78.3 ± 14.2 years, body mass index: 23.1 ± 5.3 kg/m). Upright positioned contrast enhanced CT scans and additional MR imaging was performed...
March 15, 2018: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750031/glypican-1-antibody-conjugated-gd-au-nanoclusters-for-fi-mri-dual-modal-targeted-detection-of-pancreatic-cancer
#3
Xin Huang, Chengqi Fan, Huanhuan Zhu, Wenjun Le, Shaobin Cui, Xin Chen, Wei Li, Fulei Zhang, Yong Huang, Donglu Sh, Zheng Cui, Chengwei Shao, Bingdi Chen
Introduction: Pancreatic cancer (PC) has a poor prognosis with high mortality, due to the lack of effective early diagnostic and prognostic tools. Materials and methods: In order to target and diagnose PC, we developed a dual-modal imaging probe using Glypican-1 (GPC-1) antibody conjugated with Gd-Au nanoclusters (NCs; Gd-Au-NC-GPC-1). GPC-1 is a type of cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycan, which is often highly expressed in PC. The probe was successfully prepared with a hydrodynamic diameter ranging from 13...
2018: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744935/fast-magnetic-resonance-fingerprinting-for-dynamic-contrast-enhanced-studies-in-mice
#4
Yuning Gu, Charlie Y Wang, Christian E Anderson, Yuchi Liu, He Hu, Mette L Johansen, Dan Ma, Yun Jiang, Ciro Ramos-Estebanez, Susann Brady-Kalnay, Mark A Griswold, Chris A Flask, Xin Yu
PURPOSE: The goal of this study was to develop a fast MR fingerprinting (MRF) method for simultaneous T1 and T2 mapping in DCE-MRI studies in mice. METHODS: The MRF sequences based on balanced SSFP and fast imaging with steady-state precession were implemented and evaluated on a 7T preclinical scanner. The readout used a zeroth-moment-compensated variable-density spiral trajectory that fully sampled the entire k-space and the inner 10 × 10 k-space with 48 and 4 interleaves, respectively...
May 9, 2018: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737955/comparison-of-two-neutral-oral-contrast-agents-in-pediatric-patients-a-prospective-randomized-study
#5
Jonathan R Dillman, Alexander J Towbin, Rebecca Imbus, Julie Young, Erica Gates, Andrew T Trout
Purpose To prospectively compare small bowel distention provided by, as well as patient acceptance of, two different neutral (negative) oral contrast materials used for cross-sectional enterography in a pediatric population. Materials and Methods In this noninferiority study, 66 pediatric patients undergoing clinical computed tomographic (CT) or magnetic resonance (MR) enterography were randomized to receive either a flavored beverage for neutral abdominal and pelvic imaging (Breeza; Beekley Medical, Bristol, Conn) or a low-density barium sulfate suspension...
May 8, 2018: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737953/gadolinium-distribution-in-cerebrospinal-fluid-after-administration-of-a-gadolinium-based-mr-contrast-agent-in-humans
#6
Florian Berger, Rahel A Kubik-Huch, Tilo Niemann, Hans Ruedi Schmid, Michael Poetzsch, Johannes M Froehlich, Jürg H Beer, Michael J Thali, Thomas Kraemer
Purpose To evaluate whether gadolinium penetrates human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) after MR imaging (MRI) with a gadolinium-based contrast agent (GBCA). Materials and Methods For this retrospective study, the authors analyzed 60 CSF samples from 57 patients (median age, 50 years; range, 3-92 years) who underwent one contrast material-enhanced MRI examination with gadoterate meglumine within 60 days of CSF extraction between January and December 2016. CSF samples from patients who underwent MRI without contrast material administration (n = 22) or those who underwent contrast-enhanced MRI at least 1 year before extraction (n = 2) were analyzed and used as control samples...
May 8, 2018: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737949/oral-contrast-agents-for-pediatric-ct-and-mr-enterography-it-s-a-matter-of-good-taste
#7
Donald P Frush
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 8, 2018: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737435/anti-epcam-scfv-gadolinium-chelate-a-novel-targeted-mri-contrast-agent-for-imaging-of-colorectal-cancer
#8
Kannika Khantasup, Pairash Saiviroonporn, Suwatchai Jarussophon, Warangkana Chantima, Tararaj Dharakul
OBJECTIVES: The development of targeted contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) facilitates enhanced cancer imaging and more accurate diagnosis. In the present study, a novel contrast agent was developed by conjugating anti-EpCAM humanized scFv with gadolinium chelate to achieve target specificity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The material design strategy involved site-specific conjugation of the chelating agent to scFv. The scFv monomer was linked to maleimide-DTPA via unpaired cysteine at the scFv C-terminus, followed by chelation with gadolinium (Gd)...
May 8, 2018: Magma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734497/pseudoprogression-of-brain-tumors
#9
Stefanie C Thust, Martin J van den Bent, Marion Smits
This review describes the definition, incidence, clinical implications, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of pseudoprogression of brain tumors, in particular, but not limited to, high-grade glioma. Pseudoprogression is an important clinical problem after brain tumor treatment, interfering not only with day-to-day patient care but also the execution and interpretation of clinical trials. Radiologically, pseudoprogression is defined as a new or enlarging area(s) of contrast agent enhancement, in the absence of true tumor growth, which subsides or stabilizes without a change in therapy...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734449/-contrast-enhanced-ultrasound-liver-imaging-reporting-and-data-system-ceus-li-rads
#10
Christoph F Dietrich, Andrej Potthoff, Thomas Helmberger, Andre Ignee, Juergen K Willmann
The American College of Radiology (ACR) endorsed the Liver Imaging Reporting and Data System (LI-RADS) for standardized reporting and data collection of computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in high-risk patients (liver cirrhosis). The LI-RADS imaging criteria are used to classify 'observations' from 'definitely benign' (LR-1) to 'definitely HCC' (LR-5) based on imaging criteria.Coincidently, the recent approval in the United States of a microbubble contrast agent for liver imaging (Lumason® , known as SonoVue® in Europe and elsewhere), LI-RADS...
May 2018: Zeitschrift Für Gastroenterologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29727401/signal-changes-in-the-dentate-nucleus-and-globus-pallidus-on-unenhanced-t1-weighted-magnetic-resonance-images-after-intrathecal-administration-of-macrocyclic-gadolinium-contrast-agent
#11
Kerem Ozturk, Omer Fatih Nas, Esra Soylu, Bahattin Hakyemez
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate signal changes in the dentate nucleus and globus pallidus (GP) on unenhanced T1-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) images (T1 WI) in a cohort of patients who have received intrathecal macrocyclic ionic gadolinium-based contrast agent (GBCA) gadoterate meglumine. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A group of 20 patients (male/female ratio, 8:12; mean age, 39.5 ± 15.5 years) who had not received intravenous GBCA but had received an intrathecal macrocyclic ionic GBCA (plus baseline and an additional final magnetic resonance imaging [MRI] for reference) from 2012 to 2017 were retrospectively included in this institutional review board-approved study...
April 30, 2018: Investigative Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725913/is-mri-imaging-in-pediatric-age-totally-safe-a-critical-reprisal
#12
REVIEW
Sergio Salerno, Claudio Granata, Marco Trapenese, Vittorio Cannata, Davide Curione, Maria Camilla Rossi Espagnet, Andrea Magistrelli, Paolo Tomà
Current radiological literature is strongly focussed on radiation imaging risks. Indeed, given there is a small but actual augment in cancer risk from exposure to ionizing radiation in children, it is important to understand what the risk of alternative techniques could be. We retrospectively review literature data concerning possible MR imaging risks, focussing on the biological effects of MR, sedation and gadolinium compound risks when dealing with infant patients. The main concerns can be summarized in: (1) Biological effects of non-ionizing electromagnetic fields (EMF) employed-whose mechanisms of interaction with human tissues are polarization, induced current, and thermal heating, respectively...
May 3, 2018: La Radiologia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29716831/in-vivo-mr-in-the-drug-pipeline
#13
Jeffrey L Evelhoch
The application of in vivo magnetic resonance (MR) in drug development has several requirements that differ significantly from most applications primarily because the biopharmaceutical industry must develop new safe and effective drugs more quickly and at lower cost in a highly regulated environment. In vivo MR is recognized as a useful method to provide biomarkers for target engagement, treatment response, safety and mechanism of action that can be translated between animal and clinical studies. Thus, it has the potential to help identify drugs that are more likely to be safe and effective earlier in the process of drug development, which may help reduce the time and money required to get new drugs to patients with an unmet medical need...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Magnetic Resonance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29715121/correlation-between-k-trans-and-microvessel-density-in-different-tumors-a-meta-analysis
#14
Hans Jonas Meyer, Andreas Wienke, Alexey Surov
BACKGROUND/AIM: Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE MRI) is a technique based on the measurement of the signal intensity of the investigated tissue before, during, and after administration of an intravenous contrast agent. DCE MRI parameters can reflect tumor angiogenesis and, therefore, can provide information about tumor behavior. The purpose of this meta-analysis was to analyze the reported data regarding associations between Ktrans (volume transfer constant) and microvessel density (MVD) in different tumors...
May 2018: Anticancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705043/using-1-h-2-o-mr-to-measure-and-map-sodium-pump-activity-in-vivo
#15
Charles S Springer
The cell plasma membrane Na+ ,K+ -ATPase [NKA] is one of biology's most [if not the most] significant enzymes. By actively transporting Na+ out [and K+ in], it maintains the vital trans-membrane ion concentration gradients and the membrane potential. The forward NKA reaction is shown in the Graphical Abstract [which is elaborated in the text]. Crucially, NKA does not operate in isolation. There are other transporters that conduct K+ back out of [II, Graphical Abstract] and Na+ back into [III, Graphical Abstract] the cell...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Magnetic Resonance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29700591/the-role-of-mr-imaging-in-the-assessment-of-renal-allograft-vasculature
#16
REVIEW
Raj Gondalia, Federica Vernuccio, Daniele Marin, Mustafa R Bashir
Renal allograft dysfunction after transplantation is a relatively common occurrence with various potential etiologies. Vascular etiologies are of particular importance as early surgical or minimally invasive intervention can, in some cases, salvage the graft. Diagnosis of vascular pathology resulting in allograft dysfunction requires a thorough workup, of which imaging is a key component. Generally, ultrasound is the first-line imaging modality. More recently, MRI has been shown to be an effective and safe modality for diagnosis of vascular pathology after renal transplantation, particularly for diagnosis of transplant renal artery stenosis...
April 26, 2018: Abdominal Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689381/on-the-use-of-superparamagnetic-hydroxyapatite-nanoparticles-as-an-agent-for-magnetic-and-nuclear-in-vivo-imaging
#17
Alessio Adamiano, Michele Iafisco, Monica Sandri, Martina Basini, Paolo Arosio, Tamara Canu, Giovanni Sitia, Antonio Esposito, Vincenzo Iannotti, Giovanni Ausanio, Eirini Fragogeorgi, Maritina Rouchota, George Loudos, Alessandro Lascialfari, Anna Tampieri
The identification of alternative biocompatible magnetic NPs for advanced clinical application is becoming an important need due to raising concerns about iron accumulation in soft issues associated to the administration of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (NPs). Here, we report on the performance of previously synthetized iron-doped hydroxyapatite (FeHA) NPs as contrast agent for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The MRI contrast abilities of FeHA and Endorem® (dextran coated iron oxide NPs) were assessed by 1 H nuclear magnetic resonance relaxometry and their performance in healthy mice was monitored by a 7 Tesla scanner...
April 21, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680674/multifunctional-hybrid-nanoconstruct-of-zerovalent-iron-and-carbon-dots-for-magnetic-resonance-angiography-and-optical-imaging-an-in-vivo-study
#18
N Nimi, Ariya Saraswathy, Shaiju S Nazeer, Nimmi Francis, Sachin J Shenoy, Ramapurath S Jayasree
In magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), gadolinium (Gd) complexes are very often used as contrast agents to enhance the signal from soft tissue deformities and vascular anomalies, to improve the accuracy of diagnosis. The safety concern of using Gd complexes in renally compromised patients pose limitations on its application. To overcome this scenario, we introduce a nontoxic zerovalent iron based nanoparticle as a novel contrast agent for MR angiography and a hybrid version of the same to serve as a dual function contrast agent for targeted liver imaging...
April 10, 2018: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676964/advanced-imaging-techniques-in-evaluation-of-colorectal-cancer
#19
Roberto García-Figueiras, Sandra Baleato-González, Anwar R Padhani, Antonio Luna-Alcalá, Ana Marhuenda, Joan C Vilanova, Iria Osorio-Vázquez, Anxo Martínez-de-Alegría, Antonio Gómez-Caamaño
Imaging techniques are clinical decision-making tools in the evaluation of patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). The aim of this article is to discuss the potential of recent advances in imaging for diagnosis, prognosis, therapy planning, and assessment of response to treatment of CRC. Recent developments and new clinical applications of conventional imaging techniques such as virtual colonoscopy, dual-energy spectral computed tomography, elastography, advanced computing techniques (including volumetric rendering techniques and machine learning), magnetic resonance (MR) imaging-based magnetization transfer, and new liver imaging techniques, which may offer additional clinical information in patients with CRC, are summarized...
April 20, 2018: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675900/virus-inspired-nanogenes-free-from-man-made-materials-for-host-specific-transfection-and-bio-aided-mr-imaging
#20
Jing-Yi Zhu, Ming-Kang Zhang, Xian-Guang Ding, Wen-Xiu Qiu, Wu-Yang Yu, Jun Feng, Xian-Zheng Zhang
Many viruses have a lipid envelope derived from the host cell membrane that contributes much to the host specificity and the cellular invasion. This study puts forward a virus-inspired technology that allows targeted genetic delivery free from man-made materials. Genetic therapeutics, metal ions, and biologically derived cell membranes are nanointegrated. Vulnerable genetic therapeutics contained in the formed "nanogene" can be well protected from unwanted attacks by blood components and enzymes. The surface envelope composed of cancer cell membrane fragments enables host-specific targeting of the nanogene to the source cancer cells and homologous tumors while effectively inhibiting recognition by macrophages...
April 20, 2018: Advanced Materials
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