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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107695/contrast-enhanced-%C3%AE-ct-imaging-of-early-articular-changes-in-a-pre-clinical-model-of-osteoarthritis
#1
D S Reece, T Thote, A S P Lin, N J Willett, R E Guldberg
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to characterize early osteoarthritis (OA) development in cartilage and bone tissues in the rat medial meniscus transection (MMT) model using non-destructive equilibrium partitioning of an ionic contrast agent micro-computed tomography (EPIC-μCT) imaging. Cartilage fibrillation, one of the first physiological developments in OA, was quantified in the rat tibial plateau as three-dimensional (3D) cartilage surface roughness using a custom surface-rendering algorithm...
October 28, 2017: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049297/functional-connectivity-structure-of-cortical-calcium-dynamics-in-anesthetized-and-awake-mice
#2
Patrick W Wright, Lindsey M Brier, Adam Q Bauer, Grant A Baxter, Andrew W Kraft, Matthew D Reisman, Annie R Bice, Abraham Z Snyder, Jin-Moo Lee, Joseph P Culver
The interplay between hemodynamic-based markers of cortical activity (e.g. fMRI and optical intrinsic signal imaging), which are an indirect and relatively slow report of neural activity, and underlying synaptic electrical and metabolic activity through neurovascular coupling is a topic of ongoing research and debate. As application of resting state functional connectivity measures is extended further into topics such as brain development, aging and disease, the importance of understanding the fundamental physiological basis for functional connectivity will grow...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28948252/exploring-the-bulk-phase-structure-of-ionic-liquid-mixtures-using-small-angle-neutron-scattering
#3
Christopher P Cabry, Lucía D'Andrea, Karina Shimizu, Isabelle Grillo, Peixun Li, Sarah Rogers, Duncan W Bruce, José N Canongia Lopes, John M Slattery
Small-angle neutron scattering experiments, supported by molecular dynamics simulations, have been performed on a range of compositions of the [C2mim]1-x[C12mim]x[Tf2N] ionic liquid mixture system. Isotopic contrast variation, through selective deuteration of both cations, has been used to assist in fitting the data to different scattering models. These data, and subsequent fitting, show that the structure of the ionic liquid mixtures changes substantially as a function of composition. Mixtures where x < 0...
September 26, 2017: Faraday Discussions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931812/evidence-for-percolation-diffusion-of-cations-and-reordering-in-disordered-pyrochlore-from-accelerated-molecular-dynamics
#4
Romain Perriot, Blas P Uberuaga, Richard J Zamora, Danny Perez, Arthur F Voter
Diffusion in complex oxides is critical to ionic transport, radiation damage evolution, sintering, and aging. In complex oxides such as pyrochlores, anionic diffusion is dramatically affected by cation disorder. However, little is known about how disorder influences cation transport. Here, we report results from classical and accelerated molecular dynamics simulations of vacancy-mediated cation diffusion in Gd2Ti2O7 pyrochlore, on the microsecond timescale. We find that diffusion is slow at low levels of disorder, while higher disorder allows for fast diffusion, which is then accompanied by antisite annihilation and reordering, and thus a slowing of cation transport...
September 20, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891160/co2-angiography-colorless-odorless-but-definitely-not-useless
#5
EDITORIAL
Robert D Safian
Contemporary approaches to minimize the risk of acute kidney injury from radiographic contrast (AKI-RC) rely on preferential use of low- or non-ionic contrast; pre-hydration; and limiting contrast volume. This study utilized a meta-analysis of 677 patients to compare the risk of AKI-RC after CO2 peripheral angiography versus iodinated contrast (4.3% vs. 11.1%, odds ratio [OR] 0.465, P = 0.048). There was no difference in AKI-RC in patients with CKD. This study has many limitations. CO2 angiography is an important technique; proper understanding of its strengths and limitations is essential...
September 1, 2017: Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880082/perovskite-type-incoo3-with-low-spin-co-3-effect-of-in-o-covalency-on-structural-stabilization-in-comparison-with-rare-earth-series
#6
Koji Fujita, Takahiro Kawamoto, Ikuya Yamada, Olivier Hernandez, Hirofumi Akamatsu, Yu Kumagai, Fumiyasu Oba, Pascal Manuel, Ryo Fujikawa, Suguru Yoshida, Masayuki Fukuda, Katsuhisa Tanaka
Perovskite rare-earth cobaltites ACoO3 (A = Sc, Y, La-Lu) have been of enduring interest for decades due to their unusual structural and physical properties associated with the spin-state transitions of low-spin Co(3+) ions. Herein, we have synthesized a non-rare-earth perovskite cobaltite, InCoO3, at 15 GPa and 1400 °C and investigated its crystal structure and magnetic ground state. Under the same high-pressure and high-temperature conditions, we also prepared a perovskite-type ScCoO3 with an improved cation stoichiometry in comparison to that in a previous study, where synthesis at 6 GPa and 1297 °C yielded a perovskite cobaltite with cation mixing on the A-site, (Sc0...
September 7, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857310/orotracheal-manganese-enhanced-mri-memri-an-effective-approach-for-lung-tumor-detection
#7
Andrea Bianchi, Oliviero L Gobbo, Sandrine Dufort, Lucie Sancey, François Lux, Olivier Tillement, Jean-Luc Coll, Yannick Crémillieux
Lung cancer is a primary cause of cancer deaths worldwide. Timely detection of this pathology is necessary to delay or interrupt lung cancer progression, ultimately resulting in a possible better prognosis for the patient. In this context, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is especially promising. Ultra-short echo time (UTE) MRI sequences, in combination with gadolinium-based contrast agents, have indeed shown to be especially adapted to the detection of lung neoplastic lesions at submillimeter precision. Manganese-enhanced MRI (MEMRI) increasingly appears to be a possible effective alternative to gadolinium-enhanced MRI...
August 31, 2017: NMR in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28832168/distinct-effects-of-multivalent-macroion-and-simple-ion-on-the-structure-and-local-electric-environment-of-a-weak-polyelectrolyte-in-aqueous-solution
#8
Chen Qu, Benxin Jing, Shengqin Wang, Yingxi Zhu
Adding ionic species can critically affect the structure of weak polyelectrolyte (PE) chains, whose charge density in aqueous solution can be greatly regulated by bathing solution conditions such as pH and added ions. Distinct from simple ions that can be treated as point charges, multivalent macroions of finite size, including many charged nanoparticles and biopolymers, could show strong electrostatic coupling with PEs and effectively modify the conformation and assembly of PEs in aqueous solution. In this work, we have compared the effects of hydrophilic multivalent macroion of finite size and simple divalent ion on the conformational transition of a model weak polybase, poly(2-vinylpyridine) (P2VP), in dilute aqueous solution...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801044/cationic-ionic-liquid-surfactant-polyacrylamide-gel-electrophoresis-for-enhanced-separation-of-acidic-and-basic-proteins-with-single-step-ribonuclease-b-glycoforms-separation
#9
Punprabhashi Vidanapathirana, Farhana Hasan, Kaitlyn Mussio, Anuja Pande, Michael Brands, Noureen Siraj, Anne Grove, Isiah M Warner
Cationic ionic liquids-based surfactants (ILS), such as 4-methyl pyridinium bromide (CnPBr, where n=4,6,8), were used in preparation of polyacrylamide gels, sample buffer, and running buffer for cationic ILS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (ILS-PAGE). These ILS are liquids in the pure state and were selected for improved separation of ribonuclease b (Rib b) glycoforms in a single step and a protein mixture containing bovine serum albumin (BSA, pI-4.8, 66.5kDa), ovalbumin (Ova, pI-4.6, 44.3kDa), α-chymotrypsinogen (α-Chy, pI-8...
July 29, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795435/effect-of-carbon-supports-on-enhancing-mass-kinetic-current-density-of-fe-n-c-electrocatalysts
#10
Xinghua Chen, Fei He, Yanfei Shen, Yiran Yang, Hao Mei, Songqin Liu, Toshiyuki Mori, Yuanjian Zhang
The mass kinetic current density (mass JK ) of most extensively reported M-N/C catalysts (M represents non-precious metal elements such as Fe, Co, and Cu), a potential alternative to noble metal catalysts in fuel cells, is poorer than that of commercial Pt/C. Thus, deep understanding of the intrinsic roles of carbon supports may contribute to the development of M-N/C catalysts from a practical point of view. Herein, the routinely used carbon supports, i.e. carbon black (CB) and carbon nanotubes (CNT) that have different morphology and crystallinity, were investigated to uncover the factors that affected the mass JK of Fe-N/C in electrocatalytic oxygen reduction...
August 9, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783048/exploring-the-behavior-and-metabolic-transformations-of-senps-in-exposed-lactic-acid-bacteria-effect-of-nanoparticles-coating-agent
#11
Maria Palomo-Siguero, Yolanda Madrid
The behavior and transformation of selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) in living systems such as microorganisms is largely unknown. To address this knowledge gap, we examined the effect of three types of SeNP suspensions toward Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus LB-12 using a variety of techniques. SeNPs were synthesized using three types of coating agents (chitosan (CS-SeNPs), hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC-SeNPs) and a non-ionic surfactant, surfynol (ethoxylated-SeNPs)). Morphologies of SeNPs were all spherical...
August 5, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771012/reconciling-dlvo-and-non-dlvo-forces-and-their-implications-for-ion-rejection-by-a-polyamide-membrane
#12
Yijue Diao, Mengwei Han, Josue A Lopez-Berganza, Lauren Valentino, Benito Marinas, Rosa M Espinosa-Marzal
Recognizing the significance of surface interactions for ion rejection and membrane fouling in nanofiltration, we revise the theories of DLVO (named after Derjaguin, Landau, Verwey, and Overbeek) and non-DLVO forces in the context of polyamide active layers. Using an atomic force microscope, surface forces between polyamide active layers and a micrometer-large and smooth silica colloid were measured in electrolyte solutions of representative monovalent and divalent ions. While the analysis of DLVO forces, accounting for surface roughness, provides how surface charge of the active layer changes with electrolyte concentration, scrutiny of non-DLVO hydration forces gives molecular insight into the composition of the membrane-solution interface...
August 21, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750242/rotational-diffusion-of-magnetic-nanoparticles-in-protein-solutions
#13
Ana C Bohórquez, Chuncheng Yang, Donald Bejleri, Carlos Rinaldi
The rotational diffusion of polyethylene glycol coated magnetic nanoparticles in serum albumin solutions was investigated in a range spanning 0mgmL(-1) to 200mgmL(-1). Rotational diffusivities were determined from dynamic magnetic susceptibility measurements, which provide a non-optical means to probe rotation of nanoparticles in small volume samples. Experimental rotational diffusivities were compared to those estimated using the Stokes-Einstein relation and macroscopic measurements of the viscosity of the protein solutions...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742972/stimuli-responsive-directional-vesicular-assembly-with-tunable-surface-functionality-and-impact-on-enzyme-inhibition
#14
Amrita Sikder, Debes Ray, Vinod K Aswal, Suhrit Ghosh
The article describes the self-assembly of a series of unsymmetrical bola-shaped π-amphiphiles (NDI-1, NDI-1a, NDI-2, NDI-3, and NDI-4) consisting of a hydrophobic naphthalene-diimide (NDI) chromophore attached to a nonionic hydrophilic wedge and an anionic headgroup in the two opposite arms of the central NDI. By design, only a single hydrazide group is linked either on the ionic or nonionic arm of the NDI. NDI-1 and NDI-1a are regioisomers differing only in the location of the hydrazide group, placed in the nonionic or ionic arm, respectively...
August 8, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726390/glycolipid-biosurfactants-activate-dimerize-and-stabilize-thermomyces-lanuginosus-lipase-in-a-ph-dependent-fashion
#15
Jens Kvist Madsen, Jørn Døvling Kaspersen, Camilla Bertel Andersen, Jannik Nedergaard Pedersen, Kell Kleiner Andersen, Jan Skov Pedersen, Daniel E Otzen
We present a study of the interactions between the lipase from Thermomyces lanuginosus (TlL) and the two microbially produced biosurfactants (BSs), rhamnolipid (RL) and sophorolipid (SL). Both RL and SL are glycolipids; however, RL is anionic, while SL is a mixture of anionic and non-ionic species. We investigate the interactions of RL and SL with TlL at pH 6 and 8 and observe different effects at the two pH values. At pH 8, neither RL nor SL had any major effect on TlL stability or activity. At pH 6, in contrast, both surfactants increase TlL's thermal stability and fluorescence and activity measurements indicate interfacial activation of TlL, resulting in 3- and 6-fold improved activity in SL and RL, respectively...
August 15, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725558/temperature-dependent-optoacoustic-response-and-transient-through-zero-gr%C3%A3-neisen-parameter-in-optically-contrasted-media
#16
Elena Petrova, Anton Liopo, Alexander A Oraevsky, Sergey A Ermilov
Non-invasive optoacoustic mapping of temperature in tissues with low blood content can be enabled by administering external contrast agents. Some important clinical applications of such approach include temperature mapping during thermal therapies in a prostate or a mammary gland. However, the technique would require a calibration that establishes functional relationship between the measured normalized optoacoustic response and local tissue temperature. In this work, we investigate how a key calibration parameter - the temperature of zero optoacoustic response (T0 ) - behaves in different environments simulating biological tissues augmented with either dissolved or particulate (nanoparticles) contrast agents...
September 2017: Photoacoustics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641175/atmospheric-dust-deposition-on-soils-around-an-abandoned-fluorite-mine-hammam-zriba-ne-tunisia
#17
Chaima Djebbi, Fredj Chaabani, Oriol Font, Ignasi Queralt, Xavier Querol
The present study focuses on the eolian dispersion and dust deposition, of major and trace elements in soils in a semi-arid climate, around an old fluorite (CaF2) and barite (BaSO4) mine, located in Hammam Zriba in Northern Tunisia. Ore deposits from this site contain a high amount of metal sulphides constituting heavy metal pollution in the surrounding environment. Samples of waste from the surface of mine tailings and agricultural topsoil samples in the vicinity of the mine were collected. The soil samples and a control sample from unpolluted area, were taken in the direction of prevailing northwest and west winds...
October 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613334/contrasting-the-dynamics-of-elastic-and-non-elastic-deformations-across-an-experimental-colloidal-martensitic-transition
#18
Saswati Ganguly, Priti S Mohanty, Peter Schurtenberger, Surajit Sengupta, Anand Yethiraj
We present a framework to segregate the roles of elastic and non-elastic deformations in the examination of real-space experiments of solid-solid Martensitic transitions. The Martensitic transformation of a body-centred-tetragonal (BCT) to a body-centred-orthorhombic (BCO) crystal structure has been studied in a model system of micron-scale ionic microgel colloids (P. S. Mohanty, P. Bagheri, S. Nöjd, A. Yethiraj and P. Schurtenberger, Phys. Rev. X, 2015, 5, 011030). Non-affine fluctuations, i.e., displacement fluctuations that do not arise from purely elastic (affine) deformations, are detected in particle configurations acquired from the experiment...
July 21, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592365/assisted-baseline-subtraction-in-complex-chromatograms-using-the-beads-algorithm
#19
J A Navarro-Huerta, J R Torres-Lapasió, S López-Ureña, M C García-Alvarez-Coque
The data processing step of complex signals in high-performance liquid chromatography may constitute a bottleneck to obtain significant information from chromatograms. Data pre-processing should be preferably done with little (or no) user supervision, for a maximal benefit and highest speed. In this work, a tool for the configuration of a state-of-the-art baseline subtraction algorithm, called BEADS (Baseline Estimation And Denoising using Sparsity) is developed and verified. A quality criterion based on the measurement of the autocorrelation level was designed to select the most suitable working parameters to obtain the best baseline...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475912/transport-of-multi-walled-carbon-nanotubes-stabilized-by-carboxymethyl-cellulose-and-starch-in-saturated-porous-media-influences-of-electrolyte-clay-and-humic-acid
#20
Bing Han, Wen Liu, Xiao Zhao, Zhengqing Cai, Dongye Zhao
This study investigated the transport behaviors of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and starch stabilized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) through a saturated quartz sand column in the presence of electrolytes, model clays, and natural organic matter (humic acid) through column breakthrough experiments and model simulations. Both stabilizers, CMC and starch, greatly enhanced the breakthrough of MWNTs, with a full breakthrough plateau (C/C0) ranging from 0.69 to 0.90 at ionic strength from 0.3 to 10mM. Between the two stabilizers, CMC was more effective in resisting particle deposition, and thus CMC-stabilized MWNTs were more transportable through the medium...
December 1, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
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