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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649828/dimerization-of-the-conserved-n-terminal-domain-of-a-spider-silk-protein-controls-the-self-assembly-of-the-repetitive-core-domain
#1
Joschka Bauer, Thomas Scheibel
Spider silk proteins comprise a repetitive core domain with polyalanine and glycine/proline stretches flanked by highly conserved nonrepetitive N- and C-terminal domains. The termini are responsive to assembly triggers, sensing changes in the ionic (H+, phosphate) and mechanical (shear stress) environment along the spinning duct. Upon assembly, the N-terminal domain dimerizes in a pH-dependent manner induced by protonation of conserved acidic residues. So far, dimerization of N-terminal spider silk domains has been individually investigated in the absence of large core domains...
June 26, 2017: Biomacromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641175/atmospheric-dust-deposition-on-soils-around-an-abandoned-fluorite-mine-hammam-zriba-ne-tunisia
#2
Chaima Djebbi, Fredj Chaabani, Oriol Font, Ignasi Queralt, Xavier Querol
The present study focuses on the eolian dispersion and dust deposition, of major and trace elements in soils in a semi-arid climate, around an old fluorite (CaF2) and barite (BaSO4) mine, located in Hammam Zriba in Northern Tunisia. Ore deposits from this site contain a high amount of metal sulphides constituting heavy metal pollution in the surrounding environment. Samples of waste from the surface of mine tailings and agricultural topsoil samples in the vicinity of the mine were collected. The soil samples and a control sample from unpolluted area, were taken in the direction of prevailing northwest and west winds...
June 19, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637931/comparative-miromics-of-salt-tolerant-and-salt-sensitive-rice
#3
Kavita Goswami, Anita Tripathi, Neeti Sanan-Mishra
Increase in soil salt causes osmotic and ionic stress to plants, which inhibits their growth and productivity. Rice production is also hampered by salinity and the effect of salt is most severe at the seedling and reproductive stages. Salainity tolerance is a quantitative property controlled by multiple genes coding for signaling molecules, ion transporters, metabolic enzymes and transcription regulators. MicroRNAs are key modulators of gene-expression that act at the post-transcriptional level by translation repression or transcript cleavage...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Integrative Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636123/sem-imaging-of-the-stimulatory-response-of-raw264-7-cells-against-porphyromonas-gingivalis-using-a-simple-technique-employing-new-conductive-materials
#4
Chisato Takahashi, Yoshiki Umemura, Ayako Naka, Hiromitsu Yamamoto
In the medical biology, it is essential to understand not only biological morphology but also the interaction between biological materials and agents. To study these, electron microscopy (EM) is often utilized. However, sample preparation techniques for EM require a high level of skill and a considerable time. Here, we conducted EM using a simple technique employing a conductive liquid, BEL-1, and compared the results with another simple technique employing an ionic liquid, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([BMIM][BF4 ])...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623231/cry6aa1-a-bacillus-thuringiensis-nematocidal-and-insecticidal-toxin-forms-pores-in-planar-lipid-bilayers-at-extremely-low-concentrations-and-without-the-need-of-proteolytic-processing
#5
Eva Fortea, Vincent Lemieux, Léna Potvin, Vimbai Chikwana, Samantha Griffin, Thimothy Hey, David McCaskill, Kenneth Narva, Sek Yee Tan, Xiaoping Xu, Vincent Vachon, Jean-Louis Schwartz
Cry6Aa1 is a Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxin active against nematodes and corn rootworm insects. Its 3-D molecular structure, which has been recently elucidated, is unique among those known for other Bt toxins. Typical three-domain Bt toxins permeabilise receptor-free planar lipid bilayers (PLBs) by forming pores at doses in the 1-50 μg/ml range. Solubilisation and proteolytic activation are necessary steps for PLB permeabilisation. In contrast to other Bt toxins, Cry6Aa1 formed pores in receptor-free bilayers at doses as low as 200 pg/ml in a wide range of pH (5...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613334/contrasting-the-dynamics-of-elastic-and-non-elastic-deformations-across-an-experimental-colloidal-martensitic-transition
#6
Saswati Ganguly, Priti S Mohanty, Peter Schurtenberger, Surajit Sengupta, Anand Yethiraj
We present a framework to segregate the roles of elastic and non-elastic deformations in the examination of real-space experiments of solid-solid Martensitic transitions. The Martensitic transformation of a body-centred-tetragonal (BCT) to a body-centred-orthorhombic (BCO) crystal structure has been studied in a model system of micron-scale ionic microgel colloids (P. S. Mohanty, P. Bagheri, S. Nöjd, A. Yethiraj and P. Schurtenberger, Phys. Rev. X, 2015, 5, 011030). Non-affine fluctuations, i.e., displacement fluctuations that do not arise from purely elastic (affine) deformations, are detected in particle configurations acquired from the experiment...
June 14, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608908/molecular-dynamics-study-of-the-effect-of-tetraglyme-plasticizer-on-dual-cation-ionomer-electrolytes
#7
Xingyu Chen, Fangfang Chen, Maria Forsyth
Molecular dynamics simulations were carried out to study the effect of tetraglyme on a dual-cation conducting ionomer, containing an alkali metal cation (Li(+) or Na(+)) and an ammonium cation, to answer the question as to why the experimental ionic conductivities in these ionomer systems show contrasting responses upon the addition of tetraglyme. Our study shows ion transport in these systems is mainly achieved by ion hopping through the structural re-arrangement of interconnected ion clusters. Thus, an interconnected ion cluster network is a favorable condition for ion hopping...
June 13, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595404/self-consistent-field-theory-of-polyelectrolyte-brushes-with-finite-chain-extensibility
#8
Inna O Lebedeva, Ekaterina B Zhulina, Oleg V Borisov
Polyelectrolyte brushes are formed by charged macromolecules tethered by the end segment to a solid-liquid interface. At low ionic strength of the solution, the intermolecular electrostatic interactions lead to strong stretching of the macromolecules that may, as a result, approach the limit of their extensibility (the contour length). Here, we present an analytical theory of polyelectrolyte brushes developed within the Poisson-Boltzmann approximation which explicitly accounts for finite extensibility of the brush-forming chains...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592365/assisted-baseline-subtraction-in-complex-chromatograms-using-the-beads-algorithm
#9
J A Navarro-Huerta, J R Torres-Lapasió, S López-Ureña, M C García-Alvarez-Coque
The data processing step of complex signals in high-performance liquid chromatography may constitute a bottleneck to obtain significant information from chromatograms. Data pre-processing should be preferably done with little (or no) user supervision, for a maximal benefit and highest speed. In this work, a tool for the configuration of a state-of-the-art baseline subtraction algorithm, called BEADS (Baseline Estimation And Denoising using Sparsity) is developed and verified. A quality criterion based on the measurement of the autocorrelation level was designed to select the most suitable working parameters to obtain the best baseline...
May 29, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28581732/microwave-assisted-synthesis-of-perovskite-srsno3-nanocrystals-in-ionic-liquids-for-photocatalytic-applications
#10
Tarek Alammar, Ines Hamm, Viktoria Grasmik, Michael Wark, Anja-Verena Mudring
Nanosized SrSnO3 photocatalysts have been successfully synthesized by microwave synthesis in various ionic liquids (ILs) followed by a heat treatment process to optimize the materials' crystallinity. The influence of the ILs with various cations such as 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium ([C4mim](+)), 6-bis(3-methylimidazolium-1-yl)hexane ([C6(mim)2](2+)), butylpyridinium ([C4Py](+)), and tetradecyltrihexylphosphonium ([P66614](+)) and bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)amide ([Tf2N](-)) as the anion on the structure, crystallization, and morphology of the products was investigated...
June 5, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576325/distinct-physiological-and-molecular-responses-in-arabidopsis-thaliana-exposed-to-aluminum-oxide-nanoparticles-and-ionic-aluminum
#11
Yujian Jin, Xiaoji Fan, Xingxing Li, Zhenyan Zhang, Liwei Sun, Zhengwei Fu, Michel Lavoie, Xiangliang Pan, Haifeng Qian
Nano-aluminium oxide (nAl2O3) is one of the most widely used nanomaterials. However, nAl2O3 toxicity mechanisms and potential beneficial effects on terrestrial plant physiology remain poorly understood. Such knowledge is essential for the development of robust nAl2O3 risk assessment. In this study, we studied the influence of a 10-d exposure to a total selected concentration of 98 μM nAl2O3 or to the equivalent molar concentration of ionic Al (AlCl3) (196 μM) on the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana on the physiology (e...
May 30, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548213/metal-dependent-strengthening-and-weakening-of-m-h-and-m-c-bonds-by-an-oxo-ligand-thermal-gas-phase-activation-of-methane-by-omh-and-mh-m-mo-ti
#12
Marjan Firouzbakht, Shaodong Zhou, Patricio González-Navarrete, Maria Schlangen, Martin Kaupp, Helmut Schwarz
The thermal gas-phase reactions of methane with [OMoH](+) and [MoH](+) were investigated by using electrospray-ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) complemented by quantum-chemical calculations. In contrast to the inertness of [MoH](+) towards methane, [OMoH](+) activates the C-H bond to form the ionic product [OMo(CH3 )](+) concomitantly with the liberation of H2 . The origin of the varying reactivities is traced back to a different influence of the oxo ligand on the Mo-C and Mo-H bonds. While the presence of this ligand weakens both the Ti-H and the Ti-CH3 bonds, both the Mo-H and Mo-CH3 bonds are strengthened...
May 26, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540400/imaging-of-cerebral-ischemic-edema-and-neuronal-death
#13
REVIEW
Rüdiger von Kummer, Imanuel Dzialowski
PURPOSE: In acute cerebral ischemia, the assessment of irreversible injury is crucial for treatment decisions and the patient's prognosis. There is still uncertainty how imaging can safely differentiate reversible from irreversible ischemic brain tissue in the acute phase of stroke. METHODS: We have searched PubMed and Google Scholar for experimental and clinical papers describing the pathology and pathophysiology of cerebral ischemia under controlled conditions...
May 24, 2017: Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539398/a-balance-of-outward-and-linear-inward-ionic-currents-is-required-for-the-generation-of-slow-wave-oscillations
#14
Jorge Golowasch, Amitabha Bose, Yinzheng Guan, Dalia Salloum, Andrea Roeser, Farzan Nadim
Regenerative inward currents help produce slow oscillations through a negative-slope conductance region of their current-voltage relationship that is well approximated by a linear negative conductance. We used dynamic clamp injections of a linear current with such conductance, INL, to explore why some neurons can generate intrinsic slow oscillations whereas others cannot. We addressed this question, in synaptically isolated neurons of the crab Cancer borealis, after blocking action potentials. The pyloric network consists of a distinct pacemaker and follower neurons, all of which express the same complement of ionic currents...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530549/a-genetic-basis-for-molecular-asymmetry-at-vertebrate-electrical-synapses
#15
Adam C Miller, Alex C Whitebirch, Arish N Shah, Kurt C Marsden, Michael Granato, John O'Brien, Cecilia B Moens
Neural network function is based upon the patterns and types of connections made between neurons. Neuronal synapses are adhesions specialized for communication and they come in two types, chemical and electrical. Communication at chemical synapses occurs via neurotransmitter release whereas electrical synapses utilize gap junctions for direct ionic and metabolic coupling. Electrical synapses are often viewed as symmetrical structures, with the same components making both sides of the gap junction. By contrast, we show that a broad set of electrical synapses in zebrafish, Danio rerio, require two gap-junction-forming Connexins for formation and function...
May 22, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527471/the-electron-shuffle-cerium-influences-samarium-4f-orbital-occupancy-in-heteronuclear-ce-sm-oxide-clusters
#16
Jared O Kafader, Josey E Topolski, Vicmarie Marrero-Colon, Srinivasan S Iyengar, Caroline Chick Jarrold
The anion photoelectron (PE) spectra along with supporting results of density functional theory (DFT) calculations on SmO(-), SmCeOy(-), and Sm2Oy(-) (y = 1, 2) are reported and compared to previous results on CeO(-) [M. Ray et al., J. Chem. Phys. 142, 064305 (2015)] and Ce2Oy(-) (y = 1, 2) [J. O. Kafader et al., J. Chem. Phys. 145, 154306 (2016)]. Similar to the results on CexOy(-) clusters, the PE spectra of SmO(-), SmCeOy(-), and Sm2Oy(-) (y = 1, 2) all exhibit electronic transitions to the neutral ground state at approximately 1 eV e(-)BE...
May 21, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524602/elucidating-the-role-of-dissolution-in-ceo2-nanoparticle-plant-uptake-by-smart-radiolabeling
#17
Stefan Schymura, Thomas Fricke, Heike Hildebrand, Karsten Franke
The identification of major uptake pathways in plants is an important factor when evaluating the fate of manufactured nanoparticles in the environment and the associated risks. Using different radiolabeling techniques we were able to show a predominantly particulate uptake for CeO2 nanoparticles in contrast to a possible uptake in the form of ionic cerium.
May 19, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514893/cytocompatible-polyion-complex-gel-of-poly-pro-hyp-gly-for-simultaneous-rat-bone-marrow-stromal-cell-encapsulation
#18
Farah Nurlidar, Mime Kobayashi, Kayo Terada, Tsuyoshi Ando, Masao Tanihara
Polyion complex (PIC) gel of poly(Pro-Hyp-Gly) was successfully fabricated by simply mixing polyanion and polycation derivatives of poly(Pro-Hyp-Gly), a collagen-like polypeptide. The polyanion, succinylated poly(Pro-Hyp-Gly), and the polycation, arginylated poly(Pro-Hyp-Gly), contain carboxy (pKa = 5.2) and guanidinium (pKa = 12.4) groups, respectively. Mixing the polyanion and the polycation at physiological pH (pH = 7.4) resulted in PIC gel. The hydrogel formation was optimum at an equimolar ratio of carboxy to guanidinium groups, suggesting that ionic interaction is the main determinant for the hydrogel formation...
May 28, 2017: Journal of Biomaterials Science. Polymer Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504289/an-ionic-coordination-hybrid-hydrogel-for-bioseparation
#19
Zhen Liu, Zhijun Xia, Liuyin Fan, Hua Xiao, Chengxi Cao
An ionic coordination hybrid hydrogel is formed with ionic and covalent crosslinked networks via one-step copolymation. It is demonstrated that the hybrid crosslinker gel is used as a separation matrix for bioseparation, showing high separation efficiency, in contrast to traditional polyacrylamide gels. The hydrogel might serve as a novel matrix for bioseparation.
May 30, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496044/comparison-of-nephrotoxicity-between-two-gadolinium-contrasts-gadodiamide-and-gadopentetate-in-patients-with-mildly-diminished-renal-failure
#20
Shokichi Naito, Hiromi Tazaki, Tomoko Okamoto, Kazuhiro Takeuchi, Shinichi Kan, Yasuo Takeuchi, Kouju Kamata
Although gadolinium (Gd)-based contrast media have been found to be nephrotoxic, their nephrotoxicity, and the dependence of nephrotoxicity on chelate types, have not been assessed in patients with normal or mildly diminished renal failure. This prospective, randomized study compared the nephrotoxicity of low doses of the nonionic Gd-based contrast medium gadodiamide (Omniscan®) and the ionic Gd-based contrast medium gadopentetate (Magnevist®) in patients with serum creatinine < 1.6 mg/dL. Patients aged 20 to 80 years, weighing 45 to 70 kg and with normal or < 1...
2017: Journal of Toxicological Sciences
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