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Ionic contrast

P Pardha-Saradhi, Nisha Shabnam, P Sharmila, Ashok K Ganguli, Hyunook Kim
Potential impacts of inevitable leaks of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) into environment on human beings need attention. Owing to the vitality of photosynthesis in maintaining life and ecosystem functioning, impacts of exogenously applied nanoparticulate and Ag+ on photosystem (PS)II function, which governs overall photosynthesis, in wheat and sunflower were evaluated. PSII efficiency and related Chl a fluorescence kinetics of these two plants remained unaffected by AgNPs. However, Ag+ caused a significant decline in the PSII activity and related fluorescence steps in wheat, but not in sunflower...
November 22, 2017: Chemosphere
Bingjie Xu, Bin Xu, Shiwei Shan, Gang Xue, Tianfeng Wang, Xiuwen Qiu, Changchao Zhan
The non-ionic water-soluble X-ray contrast agent iomeprol (IOM) enters the water supply through sewage treatment plants, which can cause considerable environmental harm. In this study, Pseudomonas sp. I-24 (I-24) was tested for its ability to remove IOM from water via co-metabolic pathways. The optimum removal rate of IOM by I-24 was 38.43% ± 3.70% when starch served as the source of external carbon, and its co-metabolism of IOM conformed to the first-order kinetics. The highest activity of intracellular enzyme (degrading enzyme) extracted from I-24 was 0...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A, Toxic/hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering
Fang Pan, Zongyi Li, Thomas Leyshon, Dominic Rouse, Ruiheng Li, Charles Smith, Mario Campana, John Robert Peter Webster, Steven M Bishop, Rojaramani Narwal, Christopher F van der Walle, Jim Warwicker, Jian Ren Lu
Spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) and neutron reflection (NR) data for the adsorption of a monoclonal antibody (mAb, termed COE-3, pI 8.44) at the bare SiO2/water interface are here compared to simulations based on DLVO theory. COE-3 adsorption was characterized by an initial rapid increase in the surface adsorbed amount (Γ) followed by a plateau. Only the initial rate of increase in Γ was strongly correlated to the bulk concentration (0.002-0.2 mg/ml), with Γ at plateau being about 2.2 mg/m2 (pH 5.5). Simulations captured COE-3 adsorption at equilibrium most accurately: the point at which the outgoing flux of molecules within the adsorbed plane matched the adsorption flux...
December 7, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Mihwa Park, Minjeong Kim, Jisun Park, Jinhyun Cho
Radiocontrast media-induced acute severe thrombocytopenia is a very rare complication and potentially life-threatening. Here, we report the case of a 63-year-old male patient with severe acute thrombocytopenia following first exposure to intravenous non-ionic contrast media without immediate allergic reactions. His platelet count dropped from 107000/μL to 2000/μL after six hours of radiocontrast infusion. After administration of corticosteroid and transfusion of platelet concentrates, the platelet count returned gradually to normal within 5 days...
January 2018: Yonsei Medical Journal
Zuzana Jandova, Zuzana Trosanova, Veronika Weissova, Chris Oostenbrink, Jozef Hritz
Mutations of cysteine are often introduced to e.g. avoid formation of non-physiological inter-molecular disulfide bridges in in-vitro experiments, or to maintain specificity in labeling experiments. Alanine or serine is typically preferred, which usually do not alter the overall protein stability, when the original cysteine was surface exposed. However, selecting the optimal mutation for cysteines in the hydrophobic core of the protein is more challenging. In this work, the stability of selected Cys mutants of 14-3-3 ζ was predicted by free-energy calculations and the obtained data were compared with experimentally determined stabilities...
December 1, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Debes Ray, Sugam Kumar, Vinod Kumar Aswal, Joachim Kohlbrecher
The evolution of the interaction between an anionic nanoparticle and a non-ionic surfactant and their resultant phase behavior in aqueous solution in the presence of electrolyte and ionic surfactants has been studied. The mixed system of anionic silica nanoparticles (Ludox LS30) with non-ionic surfactant decaethylene glycol monododecylether (C12E10) forms a highly stable clear phase over a wide concentration range of surfactant. Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) data show that the surfactant micelles adsorb on the surface of the nanoparticle, resulting in the micellar-decorated nanoparticle structures...
December 4, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Wudi Cao, Yanting Wang, Giacomo Saielli
We simulate the heating process of ionic liquids [CnMim][NO3] (n = 4, 6, 8, 10, 12), abbreviated as Cn, by means of molecular dynamics (MD) simulation starting from a manually constructed triclinic crystal structure composed of polar layers containing anions and cationic head groups and nonpolar regions in between containing cationic alkyl side chains. During the heating process starting from 200 K, each system undergoes first a solid-solid phase transition at a lower temperature, and then a melting phase transition at a higher temperature to an isotropic liquid state (C4, C6 and C8) or to a liquid crystal state (C10 and C12)...
December 4, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Rui Niu, Zhihui Qin, Feng Ji, Meng Xu, Xinlu Tian, Junjie Li, Fanglian Yao
The lack of sufficient mechanical properties restricts the application of polysaccharide-based hydrogels in the field of biomedicine, especially load-bearing tissue repair. Nowadays, double network (DN) hydrogels have aroused great interest through special cooperation between two contrasting networks. Inspired by this idea, here, we devised a new strategy to prepare a pectin-Fe3+/polyacrylamide hybrid DN hydrogel using a simple two-step method. The introduction of Fe3+ ions into a pectin network to produce strong reversible ionic complexation, results in excellent toughness...
December 4, 2017: Soft Matter
Haseeb Valli, Shiraz Ahmad, Anita Y Jiang, Robert Smyth, Kamalan Jeevaratnam, Hugh R Matthews, Christopher L-H Huang
INTRODUCTION: Recent studies reported that energetically deficient murine Pgc-1β-/- hearts replicate age-dependent atrial arrhythmic phenotypes associated with their corresponding clinical conditions, implicating action potential (AP) conduction slowing consequent upon reduced AP upstroke rates. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We tested a hypothesis implicating Na+ current alterations as a mechanism underlying these electrophysiological phenotypes. We applied loose patch-clamp techniques to intact young and aged, WT and Pgc-1β-/-, atrial cardiomyocyte preparations preserving their in vivo extracellular and intracellular conditions...
November 29, 2017: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
Enrique H S Toloza, Ehsan Negahbani, Flavio Frohlich
Transcranial current stimulation (tCS) modulates brain dynamics using weak electric fields. Given the pathological changes in brain network oscillations in neurological and psychiatric illnesses, using alternating electric field waveforms that engage rhythmic activity has been proposed as a targeted, network-level treatment approach. Previous studies have investigated the effects of electric fields at the neuronal level. However, the biophysical basis of the cellular response to electric fields has remained limited...
November 29, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
(no author information available yet)
A photoactive gel has been fabricated on the surface of polyethylene membranes for enhancing the fouling resistance during olive mill wastewater treatment. Light and pH responsive materials have been introduced in the membrane surface through the build up of a layer-by-layer pattern, which is formed by photocatalytic nanoparticles and ionic polyelectrolytes. The best working conditions to contrast foulants adsorption have been explored and identified. Repulsive interfacial forces and assisted transfer of foulants to catalytic sites have been envisaged as crucial factors for contrasting the decline of the flux during microfiltration...
November 25, 2017: Membranes
Isaac Owusu-Agyeman, Junjie Shen, Andrea Iris Schäfer
Real water pH and ionic strength vary greatly, which influences the performance of membrane processes such as nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO). Systematic variation of pH (3-12) and ionic strength (2-10g/L as total dissolved solids (TDS)) was undertaken with a real Tanzanian water to investigate how water quality affects retention mechanisms of fluoride (F) and natural organic matter (NOM). An autonomous solar powered NF/RO system driven by a solar array simulator was supplied with constant power from a generator...
November 23, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
L Kertess, F Wittkamp, C Sommer, J Esselborn, O Rüdiger, E J Reijerse, E Hofmann, W Lubitz, M Winkler, T Happe, U-P Apfel
[FeFe]-Hydrogenases efficiently catalyze the uptake and evolution of H2 due to the presence of an inorganic [6Fe-6S]-cofactor (H-cluster). This cofactor is comprised of a [4Fe-4S] cluster coupled to a unique [2Fe] cluster where the catalytic turnover of H2/H+ takes place. We herein report on the synthesis of a selenium substituted [2Fe] cluster [Fe2{μ(SeCH2)2NH}(CO)4(CN)2]2- (ADSe) and its successful in vitro integration into the native protein scaffold of [FeFe]-hydrogenases HydA1 from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and CpI from Clostridium pasteurianum yielding fully active enzymes (HydA1-ADSe and CpI-ADSe)...
November 27, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Giulia Magi Meconi, Nicholas Ballard, José M Asua, Ronen Zangi
Although surfactants are known to play a vital role in polymerization reactions carried out in dispersed media, many aspects of their use are poorly understood, perhaps none more so than the vastly different action of ionic and nonionic surfactants in emulsion polymerization. In this work, we combine experimental measurements of emulsion polymerization of styrene with atomistic molecular dynamics simulations to better understand the behavior of surfactants at monomer/polymer-water interfaces. In a batch emulsion polymerization of styrene, the nonionic surfactant Disponil AFX 1080 leads to two nucleation periods, in contrast to the behavior observed for the ionic surfactant SDS...
November 22, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Andrew M Breglio, Aaron E Rusheen, Eric D Shide, Katharine A Fernandez, Katie K Spielbauer, Katherine M McLachlin, Matthew D Hall, Lauren Amable, Lisa L Cunningham
Cisplatin chemotherapy causes permanent hearing loss in 40-80% of treated patients. It is unclear whether the cochlea has unique sensitivity to cisplatin or is exposed to higher levels of the drug. Here we use inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) to examine cisplatin pharmacokinetics in the cochleae of mice and humans. In most organs cisplatin is detected within one hour after injection, and is eliminated over the following days to weeks. In contrast, the cochlea retains cisplatin for months to years after treatment in both mice and humans...
November 21, 2017: Nature Communications
Jun Chul Park, Jun Hyong Ahn, In Bok Chang, Jae Keun Oh, Ji Hee Kim, Joon Ho Song
Contrast-induced encephalopathy after cerebral angiography is a rare complication and until now, only few cases have been reported. This paper reports on contras-induced encephalopathy mimicking meningoencephalitis after cerebral angiography by using iodixanol, an iso-osmolar non-ionic contrast agent. A 58-year-old woman underwent cerebral angiography for the evaluation of multiple intracranial aneurysms. A few hours later, she had persistent headache, vomiting, fever, and seizures. Brain computed tomography (CT) showed sulcal obliteration of right cerebral hemisphere and cerebrospinal fluid profile was unremarkable...
September 2017: Journal of Cerebrovascular and Endovascular Neurosurgery
Ram Krishna Hona, Ashfia Huq, Farshid Ramezanipour
The ability to control the electrical conductivity of solid-state oxides using structural parameters has been demonstrated. A correlation has been established between the electrical conductivity and structural order in a series of oxygen-deficient perovskites using X-ray and neutron diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and electrical conductivity studies at a wide temperature range, 25-800 °C. The crystal structure of CaSrFeCoO6-δ has been determined, and its stark contrast to Ca2FeCoO6-δ and Sr2FeCoO6-δ has been demonstrated...
November 17, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
Qi Li, Jiakuan Yang, Wei Fan, Dandan Zhou, Xiaoyu Wang, Leilei Zhang, Mingxin Huo, John C Crittenden
In this study, we compared the transport characteristics of Bacillus subtilis cells and their spores in saturated porous media. Both the bacteria cells and spores were readily transported under lower ionic strengths (IS) (1mM), featuring high mass recovery rates (>75%). The bacteria cells recovery rate declined to 58.05% when the IS increased to 100mM; but the spores recovery rate remained at 74.54%. Spores appear to be more mobile than bacterial cells over wide range of IS. Surface properties and breakthrough curves analysis of the two bio-particles (cells and spores) indicated that attachment, straining and blocking mechanisms contribute differently to deposition processes...
November 11, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Rajan Maurya, Sudhanshu Naithani, Dibyendu Bandyopadhyay, Niharendu Choudhury, G Bhaskar Dutt
Fluorescence anisotropy measurements and molecular dynamics simulations (MD) have been performed to understand the specific interactions of two structurally similar nondipolar solutes, 2,5-dimethyl-1,4-dioxo-3,6-diphenylpyrrolo[3,4-c]pyrrole (DMDPP) and 1,4-dioxo-3,6-diphenylpyrrolo[3,4-c]pyrrole (DPP) with neat 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium dicyanamide ([BMIM][N(CN)2]) and also in the presence of glucose. It has been observed that the measured reorientation times of DMDPP in neat [BMIM][N(CN)2] follow the predictions of Stokes-Einstein-Debye hydrodynamic theory with slip boundary condition...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Phui Yee Tan, Tai Boon Tan, Hon Weng Chang, Beng Ti Tey, Eng-Seng Chan, Oi-Ming Lai, Badlishah Sham Baharin, Imededdine Nehdi, Chin Ping Tan
Considering the health benefits of tocotrienols, continuous works have been done on the encapsulation and delivery of these compounds. In this study, we encapsulated tocotrienols in chitosan-alginate microcapsules and evaluated their release profile. Generally, these tocotrienols microcapsules (TM) displayed high thermal stability. When subjected to pH adjustments (pH 1-9), we observed that the release of tocotrienols was the highest (33.78 ± 0.18%) under basic condition. The TM were also unstable against the effect of ionic strength, with a high release (70...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
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