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neonatal conjunctivitis

Ummara Butt, Amr ElShaer, Lori A S Snyder, Athina Chaidemenou, Raid G Alany
Fatty acids (FAs) are used by many organisms as defence mechanism against virulent bacteria. The high safety profile and broad spectrum of activity make them potential alternatives to currently used topical antibiotics for the treatment of eye infections in neonates. The current study utilised a Design of Experiment approach to optimise the quantification of five fatty acids namely; lauric acid, tridecanoic acid, myristoleic acid, palmitoleic acid and α-linolenic acid. The significance of the influence of the experimental parameters such as volume of catalyst, volume of n-hexane, incubation temperature, incubation time and the number of extraction steps on derivatisation was established by statistical screening with a factorial approach...
October 20, 2016: Drug Delivery and Translational Research
R Sahni, X Ameer, K Ohira-Kist, J-T Wung
OBJECTIVES: Inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) is effective in conjunction with tracheal intubation (TI) and mechanical ventilation (MV) for treating arterial pulmonary hypertension and hypoxemic respiratory failure (HRF) in near-term and term newborns. Non-invasive respiratory support with nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is increasingly used to avoid morbidity associated with TI and MV, yet the effectiveness of iNO delivery via nasal CPAP remains unknown. To evaluate the effectiveness of iNO delivered via the bubble nasal CPAP system in term and preterm newborns with HRF...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
Sung Hye Byun, So Young Lee, Seong Yeon Hong, Taeha Ryu, Baek Jin Kim, Jin Yong Jung
INTRODUCTION: In fetuses who are predicted to be at risk of catastrophic airway obstruction at delivery, the ex utero intrapartum treatment (EXIT) procedure is useful for securing the fetal airway while maintaining fetal oxygenation via placental circulation. Factors, including poor posture of the fetus and physician, narrow visual field, and issues of contamination in the aseptic surgical field, make fetal intubation during the EXIT procedure difficult. Herein, we report our experience of the usefulness of the GlideScope video laryngoscope (GVL) for intubation during the EXIT procedure...
September 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Vonor Kokou, Maneh Nidain, Nononsaa Batomguela Kassoula, Fiaty-Amenouvor Kwassi, Banla Meba, Balo Komi Patrice
INTRODUCTION: Describe the epidemiology of neonatal conjunctivitis in the Canton of Glidji in southern Togo. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study in 4 Satellite Health Care Units in the Canton of Glidji from 19 March to 13 May 2009 (8 weeks). All newborns were included in the study and neonatal conjunctivitis was defined by the presence in a newborn of at least two of the following signs: conjunctival hyperemia, eyelid swelling, chemosis, purulent discharges, lacrimation...
2016: Pan African Medical Journal
Kathene C Johnson-Henry, Thomas R Abrahamsson, Richard You Wu, Philip M Sherman
Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a devastating intestinal disease in preterm infants characterized by barrier disruption, intestinal microbial dysbiosis, and persistent inflammation of the colon, which results in high mortality rates. Current strategies used to manage this disease are not sufficient, although the use of human breast milk reduces the risk of NEC. Mother's milk is regarded as a fundamental nutritional source for neonates, but pasteurization of donor breast milk affects the composition of bioactive compounds...
September 2016: Advances in Nutrition
David A Crosby, Jan Miletin, Jana Semberova, Sean Daly
INTRODUCTION: A recent meta-analysis has suggested that routine measurement of the cervical length should be performed in conjunction with the anomaly scan to identify a group of women at increased risk of preterm delivery. We decided to investigate whether this recommendation is justifiable in a population where the risk of preterm birth is low. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We reviewed 12 years of obstetric data from the Coombe Women and Infants University Hospital. Relative risks of adverse outcomes from the randomized controlled trial were applied and we extrapolated the possible numbers of women requiring intervention...
September 13, 2016: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica
Nasser H Kashou, Irfaan A Dar, Kathryn A Hasenstab, Ramzi W Nahhas, Sudarshan R Jadcherla
Palmar and plantar grasp are the foremost primitive neonatal reflexes and functions. Persistence of these reflexes in infancy is a sign of evolving cerebral palsy. Our aims were to establish measurement feasibility in a clinical setting and to characterize changes in oxyhemoglobin (HbO) and deoxyhemoglobin (HbD) concentration in the bilateral frontoparietal cortex in unsedated neonates at the crib-side using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). We hypothesized that bilateral concentration changes will occur upon somatic central and peripheral somatic stimulation...
January 2017: Neurophotonics
María Belén Acevedo, Ana Fabiola Macchione, Florencia Anunziata, Olga Beatriz Haymal, Juan Carlos Molina
Different studies have focused on the deleterious consequences of binge-like or chronic exposure to ethanol during the brain growth spurt period (third human gestational trimester) that in the rat corresponds to postnatal days (PDs) 3-10. The present study analyzed behavioral and physiological disruptions caused by relatively brief binge-like exposures (PDs 3, 5, and 7) with an ethanol dose lower (3.0 g/kg) than those frequently employed to examine teratological effects during this stage in development. At PD 9, pups were exposed to ethanol doses ranging between ...
August 19, 2016: Developmental Psychobiology
Orly Lavee, Giselle Kidson-Gerber
Inherited bleeding disorders have the potential to cause bleeding complications during pregnancy, childbirth and the postpartum period as well as effect fetal outcomes. There is an evolving understanding of the need for specialised and individualised care for affected women during these times. The aim for each patient is to estimate the risk to mother, fetus and neonate; to implement measures to minimise these risks; and to anticipate complications and develop contingencies for these scenarios. This includes accurate diagnosis, preconceptual care, prenatal diagnostic options, antenatal care, delivery and postpartum care as well as care of an affected neonate...
June 2016: Obstetric Medicine
Spyridon N Karras, Hana Fakhoury, Giovanna Muscogiuri, William B Grant, Johannes M van den Ouweland, Anna Maria Colao, Kalliopi Kotsa
Low maternal vitamin D levels during pregnancy have been associated with a plethora of adverse neonatal outcomes, including small for gestational age and preterm births, detrimental effect on offspring bone and teeth development, and risk of infectious diseases. Although most observational studies indicate a significant linear relationship between maternal 25-hydroxyvitamin D and the above outcomes, some randomized controlled trials to date are inconclusive, mostly due to differences in study design and supplementation regimen...
August 2016: Therapeutic Advances in Musculoskeletal Disease
Bulent Yazici, Nesimi Orucov, Gunay Ibrahimzade
Pseudomonas aeruginosa conjunctivitis, although rare in healthy infants, may cause serious ocular and systemic complications. A 30-day-old, otherwise healthy male infant was referred with the diagnosis of right orbital abscess. The patient had been diagnosed as having Pseudomonas conjunctivitis 9 days previously at the referring center. Despite antibiotic treatment, his ocular findings had worsened and marked proptosis had developed. Other examination findings were ptosis, restriction of eye movements, periorbital erythema, and chemosis...
July 21, 2016: Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
Ioannis N Mammas, Demetrios A Spandidos
Hippocrates (Island of Kos, 460 B.C.-Larissa, 370 B.C.) is the founder of the most famous Medical School of the classical antiquity. In acknowledgement of his pioneering contribution to the new scientific field of Paediatric Virology, this article provides a systematic analysis of the Hippocratic Corpus, with particular focus on viral infections predominating in neonates and children. A mumps epidemic, affecting the island of Thasos in the 5th century B.C., is described in detail. 'Herpes', a medical term derived from the ancient Greek word 'ἕρπειν', meaning 'to creep' or 'crawl', is used to describe the spreading of cutaneous lesions in both childhood and adulthood...
August 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Håvard T Garberg, Marianne U Huun, Javier Escobar, Jose Martinez-Orgado, Else-Marit Løberg, Rønnaug Solberg, Ola Didrik Saugstad
BACKGROUND: Cannabidiol (CBD), a non-psychoactive cannabinoid, has shown neuroprotective actions after neonatal hypoxia-ischemia (HI) in animals. We wanted to further explore the effects of CBD, alone and in conjunction with hypothermia, in a piglet model of global HI. METHODS: Fifty-five anesthetized newborn piglets were randomized to either controls (n=7) or HI (n=48) by ventilation with 8% O2 until MABP reached 20 mmHg and/or BE reached -20 mmol/l. After resuscitation piglets were randomized to either: vehicle (VEH), CBD 1mg/kg, VEH+hypothermia (H) or CBD 1mg/kg+H (each n=12)...
July 21, 2016: Pediatric Research
Elena Naz Villalba, Enrique Gomez de la Fuente, Dolores Caro Gutierrez, Fernando Pinedo Moraleda, Julio Yanguela Rodilla, Diana Mazagatos Angulo, Jose Luis López Estebaranz
Autoinflammatory syndromes are a recently described group of conditions caused by mutations in multiple genes that code for proteins of the innate immune system. Cryopyrin-associated periodic syndromes are autoinflammatory diseases comprising three clinically overlapping disorders: familial cold urticaria syndrome, Muckle-Wells syndrome (MWS), and neonatal-onset multisystem inflammatory disease. MWS is characterized by a moderate phenotype with fever, rash, arthralgia, conjunctivitis, sensorineural deafness, and potentially life-threatening amyloidosis...
September 2016: Pediatric Dermatology
Haitao Wang, Sammen Huang, Kuipo Yan, Xiaoyan Fang, Ahmed Abussaud, Ana Martinez, Hong-Shuo Sun, Zhong-Ping Feng
BACKGROUND: Hypoxia-ischemia is an important cause of brain injury and neurological morbidity in the newborn infants. The activity of glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) is up-regulated following neonatal stroke. Tideglusib is a GSK-3β inhibitor which has neuroprotective effects against neurodegenerative diseases in clinical trials. However, the effect of tideglusib on hypoxic-ischemic (HI) brain injury in neonates is still unknown. METHODS: Postnatal day 7 (P7) mouse pups subjected to unilateral common carotid artery ligation followed by 1h of hypoxia or sham surgery was performed...
October 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Demin Cai, Haoyu Liu, Ruqian Zhao
Research efforts focusing on metabolic diseases have established a close conjunction between glucolipid abnormalities and nuclear receptors, a large superfamily of receptors including classic peroxisome proliferation-activated receptors (PPARs), liver X receptors (LXRs), farnesoid X receptors (FXRs) and glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) together with burgeoning retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptors (RORs) and REV-ERBs. Nuclear receptors are identified to control a series of physiological and pathological processes of glucose and lipid metabolism and also implicated to mediate the long-term effects of early environmental and nutritional experiences on the formation of adult chronic metabolic disorders in human and animals...
June 26, 2016: Current Protein & Peptide Science
S Firmin, N Bahi-Jaber, L Abdennebi-Najar
It is now accepted that the way our health evolves with aging is intimately linked to the quality of our early life. The present review highlights the emerging data of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease field on developmental disruption by toxicants and their subsequent effect on type 2 diabetes. We report adverse neonatal effects of several food contaminants during pregnancy and lactation, among them bisphenol A, chlorpyrifos, perfluorinated chemicals on pancreas integrity and functionality in later life...
June 13, 2016: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
T G Poder, D Pruneau, J Dorval, L Thibault, J-F Fisette, S K Bédard, A Jacques, P Beauregard
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Fluid warmers are routinely used to reduce the risk of hypothermia and cardiac complications associated with the infusion of cold blood products. However, warming blood products could generate haemolysis. This study was undertaken to compare the impact of temperature of blood warmers on the per cent haemolysis of packed red blood cells (RBCs) heated at different flow rates as well as non-flow conditions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Infusion warmers used were calibrated at 41·5°C ± 0·5°C and 37·5°C ± 0·5°C...
June 9, 2016: Vox Sanguinis
Sophie Shay, Alisha N West
Ankyloglossia superior (palatoglossal adhesion) is an extremely rare congenital condition with only 14 previously reported cases. When found in conjunction with other congenital abnormalities, such as cleft palate, gastrointestinal malformations, and limb malformations, this anomaly is considered part of ankyloglossia superior syndrome. We present a case of a newborn female found to have ankyloglossia superior syndrome. Surgical repair is also described. We review the available literature and discuss theories regarding the etiology of ankyloglossia superior syndrome...
July 2016: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
Ling-Qun Hu, Pamela Flood, Yunping Li, Weike Tao, Peishan Zhao, Yun Xia, May C Pian-Smith, Francis S Stellaccio, Jean-Pierre P Ouanes, Fengling Hu, Cynthia A Wong
The availability of labor analgesia is highly variable in the People's Republic of China. There are widespread misconceptions, by both parturients and health care providers, that labor epidural analgesia is harmful to mother and baby. Meanwhile, China has one of the highest cesarean delivery rates in the world, exceeding 50%. The goal of the nongovernmental No Pain Labor & Delivery (NPLD) is to facilitate sustainable increases in vaginal delivery rates by increasing access to safe neuraxial labor analgesia, thereby decreasing the cesarean delivery rate...
June 2016: Anesthesia and Analgesia
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