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Salmonella and wnt

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27723418/gene-expression-profile-of-endothelial-cells-during-perturbation-of-the-gut-vascular-barrier
#1
Ilaria Spadoni, Alessandro Pietrelli, Graziano Pesole, Maria Rescigno
It has been widely demonstrated that tolerance against gut microbiota is compartmentalized to mucosal sites where microbes mostly reside. How the commensal bacteria are excluded from the entrance into the blood stream via intestinal capillaries that are located beneath the gut epithelium was not clear. We recently described the existence of a new anatomical structure, the 'gut vascular barrier' (GVB), both in murine and human intestines that plays a fundamental role in avoiding indiscriminate trafficking of bacteria from the gut into the blood circulation...
October 10, 2016: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26820624/development-of-functional-microfold-m-cells-from-intestinal-stem-cells-in-primary-human-enteroids
#2
Joshua D Rouch, Andrew Scott, Nan Ye Lei, R Sergio Solorzano-Vargas, Jiafang Wang, Elaine M Hanson, Masae Kobayashi, Michael Lewis, Matthias G Stelzner, James C Y Dunn, Lars Eckmann, Martín G Martín
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Intestinal microfold (M) cells are specialized epithelial cells that act as gatekeepers of luminal antigens in the intestinal tract. They play a critical role in the intestinal mucosal immune response through transport of viruses, bacteria and other particles and antigens across the epithelium to immune cells within Peyer's patch regions and other mucosal sites. Recent studies in mice have demonstrated that M cells are generated from Lgr5+ intestinal stem cells (ISCs), and that infection with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium increases M cell formation...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26664962/a-role-for-the-non-canonical-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-and-tgf-%C3%AE-signaling-pathways-in-the-induction-of-tolerance-during-the-establishment-of-a-salmonella-enterica-serovar-enteritidis-persistent-cecal-infection-in-chickens
#3
Michael H Kogut, Ryan J Arsenault
Non-typhoidal Salmonella enterica induce an early pro-inflammatory response in chickens. However, the response is short-lived, asymptomatic of disease, resulting in a persistent colonization of the ceca, and fecal shedding of bacteria. The underlying mechanisms that control this persistent infection of chickens by Salmonella are unknown. Recently, we found an expansion of the Treg population and subsequent increased in vitro immunosuppressive functions of the CD4(+)CD25(+) cells isolated from the ceca of the Salmonella-infected chickens by day 4 post-infection that increased steadily throughout the course of the 14 days of infection, whereas the number of CD4(+)CD25(+) cells in the non-infected controls remained steady throughout the study...
2015: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26564856/a-gut-vascular-barrier-controls-the-systemic-dissemination-of-bacteria
#4
Ilaria Spadoni, Elena Zagato, Alice Bertocchi, Roberta Paolinelli, Edina Hot, Antonio Di Sabatino, Flavio Caprioli, Luca Bottiglieri, Amanda Oldani, Giuseppe Viale, Giuseppe Penna, Elisabetta Dejana, Maria Rescigno
In healthy individuals, the intestinal microbiota cannot access the liver, spleen, or other peripheral tissues. Some pathogenic bacteria can reach these sites, however, and can induce a systemic immune response. How such compartmentalization is achieved is unknown. We identify a gut-vascular barrier (GVB) in mice and humans that controls the translocation of antigens into the blood stream and prohibits entry of the microbiota. Salmonella typhimurium can penetrate the GVB in a manner dependent on its pathogenicity island (Spi) 2-encoded type III secretion system and on decreased β-catenin-dependent signaling in gut endothelial cells...
November 13, 2015: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23159054/salmonella-transforms-follicle-associated-epithelial-cells-into-m-cells-to-promote-intestinal-invasion
#5
Amin Tahoun, Simmi Mahajan, Edith Paxton, Georg Malterer, David S Donaldson, Dai Wang, Alwyn Tan, Trudi L Gillespie, Marie O'Shea, Andrew J Roe, Darren J Shaw, David L Gally, Andreas Lengeling, Neil A Mabbott, Jürgen Haas, Arvind Mahajan
Salmonella Typhimurium specifically targets antigen-sampling microfold (M) cells to translocate across the gut epithelium. Although M cells represent a small proportion of the specialized follicular-associated epithelium (FAE) overlying mucosa-associated lymphoid tissues, their density increases during Salmonella infection, but the underlying molecular mechanism remains unclear. Using in vitro and in vivo infection models, we demonstrate that the S. Typhimurium type III effector protein SopB induces an epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of FAE enterocytes into M cells...
November 15, 2012: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22509369/axin1-prevents-salmonella-invasiveness-and-inflammatory-response-in-intestinal-epithelial-cells
#6
Yong-guo Zhang, Shaoping Wu, Yinglin Xia, Di Chen, Elaine O Petrof, Erika C Claud, Wei Hsu, Jun Sun
BACKGROUND: Axin1 and its homolog Axin2 are scaffold proteins essential for regulating Wnt signaling. Axin-dependent regulation of Wnt is important for various developmental processes and human diseases. However, the involvement of Axin1 and Axin2 in host defense and inflammation remains to be determined. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we report that Axin1, but not Axin2, plays an essential role in host-pathogen interaction mediated by the Wnt pathway. Pathogenic Salmonella colonization greatly reduces the level of Axin1 in intestinal epithelial cells...
2012: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22096503/role-of-spi-1-secreted-effectors-in-acute-bovine-response-to-salmonella-enterica-serovar-typhimurium-a-systems-biology-analysis-approach
#7
Sara D Lawhon, Sangeeta Khare, Carlos A Rossetti, Robin E Everts, Cristi L Galindo, Sarah A Luciano, Josely F Figueiredo, Jairo E S Nunes, Tamara Gull, George S Davidson, Kenneth L Drake, Harold R Garner, Harris A Lewin, Andreas J Bäumler, Leslie Garry Adams
Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) causes enterocolitis with diarrhea and polymorphonuclear cell (PMN) influx into the intestinal mucosa in humans and calves. The Salmonella Type III Secretion System (T3SS) encoded at Pathogenicity Island I translocates Salmonella effector proteins SipA, SopA, SopB, SopD, and SopE2 into epithelial cells and is required for induction of diarrhea. These effector proteins act together to induce intestinal fluid secretion and transcription of C-X-C chemokines, recruiting PMNs to the infection site...
2011: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21903761/wingless-homolog-wnt11-suppresses-bacterial-invasion-and-inflammation-in-intestinal-epithelial-cells
#8
Xingyin Liu, Shaoping Wu, Yinglin Xia, Xi Emma Li, Yuxuan Xia, Zhongren David Zhou, Jun Sun
Wnt11 plays an essential role in gastrointestinal epithelial proliferation, and previous investigations have focused on development and immune responses. However, the roles of how enteric bacteria regulate Wnt11 and how Wnt11 modulates the host response to pathogenic bacteria remain unexplored. This study investigated the effects of Salmonella infection on Wnt activation in intestinal epithelial cells. We found that Wnt11 mRNA and protein expression were elevated after Salmonella colonization. Wnt11 protein secretion in epithelial cells was also elevated after bacterial infection...
December 2011: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21862586/pathogen-specific-tlr2-protein-activation-programs-macrophages-to-induce-wnt-beta-catenin-signaling
#9
Kushagra Bansal, Jamma Trinath, Dipshikha Chakravortty, Shripad A Patil, Kithiganahalli Narayanaswamy Balaji
Innate immunity recognizes and resists various pathogens; however, the mechanisms regulating pathogen versus nonpathogen discrimination are still imprecisely understood. Here, we demonstrate that pathogen-specific activation of TLR2 upon infection with Mycobacterium bovis BCG, in comparison with other pathogenic microbes, including Salmonella typhimurium and Staphylococcus aureus, programs macrophages for robust up-regulation of signaling cohorts of Wnt-β-catenin signaling. Signaling perturbations or genetic approaches suggest that infection-mediated stimulation of Wnt-β-catenin is vital for activation of Notch1 signaling...
October 21, 2011: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21674728/wnt2-inhibits-enteric-bacterial-induced-inflammation-in-intestinal-epithelial-cells
#10
Xingyin Liu, Rong Lu, Shaoping Wu, Yong-Guo Zhang, Yinglin Xia, R Balfour Sartor, Jun Sun
BACKGROUND: Wnt signaling plays an essential role in gastrointestinal epithelial proliferation. Most investigations have focused on developmental and immune responses. Bacterial infection can be chronic and increases the risk of inflammatory bowel disease and colitis-associated cancer. However, we lack studies on how bacteria regulate Wnt proteins and how Wnts modulate the host responses to enteric bacteria. This study investigated the effects of Salmonella and Escherichia coli on Wnt2, one of the Wnt family members, in intestinal epithelia cells...
March 2012: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/20083111/salmonella-regulation-of-intestinal-stem-cells-through-the-wnt-beta-catenin-pathway
#11
Xingyin Liu, Rong Lu, Shaoping Wu, Jun Sun
Recent studies have revealed that bacteria target stem cells for long-term survival in a Drosophila model. However, in mammalian models, little is known about bacterial infection and intestinal stem cells. Our study aims at understanding bacterial regulation of the intestinal stem cell in a Salmonella colitis mouse model. We found that Salmonella activates the Wnt/beta-catenin signaling pathway that is known to regulate stem cells. We identified Salmonella protein AvrA that modulates Wnt signaling including upregulating Wnt expression, modifying beta-catenin, increasing total beta-catenin expression, and activating Wnt/beta-catenin transcriptional activity in the intestinal epithelial cells...
March 5, 2010: FEBS Letters
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