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ages 40-60

Khosrow Jadidi, Saman Mohazzab-Torabi, Shiva Pirhadi, Mostafa Naderi, Abbasali Yekta, Sara Sardari, Mehdi Khabazkhoob
PURPOSE: This study compares the corneal biomechanical properties, as measured with Corvis ST, in three groups of cases with delayed-onset mustard gas keratopathy (DMGK), chronic corneal scarring (CCS), and those with normal corneas. METHODS: Forty-five eyes were enrolled in the DMGK, CCS, and normal groups (15 eyes each). All patients were examined with the slitlamp and Corvis ST. Extracted corneal biomechanical parameters included first and second applanation time (AT1, AT2), first and second applanation length (AL1, AL2), first and second applanation velocity (AV1, AV2), deformation amplitude (DA), highest concavity time, peak distance, highest concavity radius (HCR), central corneal thickness, corrected intraocular pressure (IOP), and noncorrected IOP...
July 12, 2018: Eye & Contact Lens
Abdulrahman Alkhormi, Mohammed Y Memon, Ahmad Elhafi, Mishal Aljohani, Abdullah Aljahdali, Adil Khatimi, Amer Rizvi, Khaled Shaban, Ghulam Yazdani, Mohammed Alnasser
Background/Aim: No prior experience with video capsule endoscopy (VCE) has been published from Saudi Arabia. In this study, we aim to report the first Saudi experience with VCE. Patients and Methods: A prospective study was conducted between March 2013 and September 2017 at King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Eligible patients underwent VCE and their data (age, sex, indication for VCE, type of obscure gastrointestinal bleeding [OGIB: overt vs occult], VCE findings, and complications) were recorded...
July 6, 2018: Saudi Journal of Gastroenterology: Official Journal of the Saudi Gastroenterology Association
David G Bruce, Wendy A Davis, Timothy Me Davis
AIMS: To investigate whether tight glycaemic control achieved with metformin, insulin or sulphonylurea-based pharmacotherapy increases all-cause mortality in older people with type 2 diabetes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A prospective cohort study of individuals with known diabetes recruited between 2008 and 2011 and followed until 2016. The impact of baseline glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) on mortality hazards was investigated in participants aged ≥75 years. Proportional hazards models for time to death were constructed from the baseline clinical assessment then the variables of interest (HbA1c, treatment category and their interactions) were entered...
July 13, 2018: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
Ithamar Ganmore, Michal Schnaider Beeri
The association between type 2 diabetes and cognitive dysfunction is well established. Prevention of the development of type 2 diabetes and its complications, as well as cognitive dysfunction and dementia, are leading goals in these fields. Deciphering the causality direction of the interplay between type 2 diabetes and cognitive dysfunction, and understanding the timeline of disease progression, are crucial for developing efficient prevention strategies. The prevailing perception is that type 2 diabetes leads to cognitive dysfunction and dementia...
July 12, 2018: Diabetologia
Benjamin Otte, Maria A Woodward, Joshua R Ehrlich, Brian C Stagg
Importance: Medicare benefits do not include coverage for eyeglasses except after cataract surgery. Understanding the implications of a change to this policy would require knowing the number of Medicare beneficiaries who use eyeglasses, but no recent estimates are available. Objective: To estimate the number of older adults with Medicare who use eyeglasses. Design, Setting, Participants: This cross-sectional study used data from the 2015 US National Health and Aging Trends Study...
July 12, 2018: JAMA Ophthalmology
Young-Seok Kim, Yun-Sook Jung, Bo-Kyoung Kim, Eun-Kyong Kim
Background: Association between periodontitis and of head and neck carcinoma was suggested. In the present study, we evaluated the oral health status of patients with head and neck carcinoma and analyzed the relationship between cancer characteristics and oral health. Methods: Oral health of 40 patients with head and neck carcinoma was examined. Decayed teeth, missing teeth, plaque index, gingival index, and probing depth were measured. Cancer type and site were recorded based on the patients' medical records...
June 2018: Journal of Cancer Prevention
Kevin J Felice, Charles H Whitaker, Qian Wu, Daniel T Larose, Guo Shen, Allan L Metzger, Randall W Barton
Sporadic inclusion body myositis (IBM) is the most common acquired myopathy affecting patients over age 50. The discovery of an autoantibody directed against a 43-44 kD protein (anti-cytosolic-5'-nucleotidase 1A or anti-cN1A) has provided support for the hypothesis of an immune-mediated pathogenesis. Previous studies have reported variable test sensitivity and specificity, and inconsistent results on the predictive value. In our cohort of 40 patients with clinico-pathologically or clinically defined IBM, we found the sensitivity of the anti-cN1A antibody test to be 50%...
June 18, 2018: Neuromuscular Disorders: NMD
Shigeo Maruyama, Kazuo Yashima, Yuichiro Ikebuchi, Shintaro Sawada, Hajime Isomoto
Clinical features of 60 patients with ischemic colitis diagnosed at our hospital were analyzed. Ischemic colitis developed in 58 patients (97%) shortly after the evening meal, and in 52 patients (87%), it occurred while the patients were asleep from night to daybreak. The supine position while sleeping resulted in a decrease in the blood flow to the colonic wall and an increase in the intraluminal pressure due to a delay in excretion of the contents of the gut. In addition, increased peristalsis and intraluminal pressure after the evening meal triggered ischemic colitis...
2018: Nihon Shokakibyo Gakkai Zasshi, the Japanese Journal of Gastro-enterology
Maria Vieira de Lima Saintrain, Thâmara Manoela Marinho Bezerra, Flaviano da Silva Santos, Suzanne Vieira Saintrain, Lucianna Leite Pequeno, Raimunda Magalhães da Silva, Anya Pimentel Gomes Fernandes Vieira-Meyer
ABSTRACTBackground:The study aims to assess the relationship between oral discomfort and subjective well-being (SWB) in older people. METHODS: A quantitative cross-sectional study was conducted in four Reference Centers for Social Welfare in Fortaleza, Northeastern Brazil. A census was held and individual interviews were carried out with all the older people (n = 246) enrolled in the centers. A questionnaire addressing sociodemographic data (age, gender, marital status, income, and education) and oral discomfort (dry mouth, difficulty in chewing and swallowing food, problems with the taste of food, burning mouth sensation, pain for no apparent reason, and mouth swelling) and the 62-item SWB scale were used...
July 12, 2018: International Psychogeriatrics
Nathaniel A Erskine, Molly E Waring, David D McManus, Darleen Lessard, Catarina I Kiefe, Robert J Goldberg
BACKGROUND: Barriers to healthcare are common in the USA and may result in worse outcomes among hospital survivors of an acute coronary syndrome (ACS). OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationship between barriers to healthcare and 2-year mortality after hospital discharge for an ACS. DESIGN: Longitudinal study. SETTING: Survivors of an ACS hospitalization were recruited from 6 medical centers in central Massachusetts and Georgia in 2011-2013...
July 11, 2018: Journal of General Internal Medicine
Paul E Hilliard, Jennifer Waljee, Stephanie Moser, Lynn Metz, Michael Mathis, Jenna Goesling, David Cron, Daniel J Clauw, Michael Englesbe, Goncalo Abecasis, Chad M Brummett
Importance: Patterns of preoperative opioid use are not well characterized across different surgical services, and studies in this patient population have lacked important self-reported data of pain and affect. Objectives: To assess the prevalence of preoperative opioid use and the characteristics of these patients in a broadly representative surgical cohort. Design, Setting, and Participants: Cross-sectional, observational study of patients undergoing surgery at a tertiary care academic medical center...
July 11, 2018: JAMA Surgery
Andrea R McWhorter, Kapil K Chousalkar
Salmonella remains one of the most common causes of bacterial foodborne gastrointestinal disease in humans. Raw eggs or food items containing undercooked eggs are frequently identified as the source of Salmonella. Salmonella Typhimurium contamination of table eggs most commonly occurs when they are laid in a contaminated environment. Several control strategies, including vaccination, are widely used to mitigate the total Salmonella load. It is unclear, however, whether live attenuated Salmonella vaccines are efficacious over the life span of a layer hen...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Carrie L Williams, Michael E Jones, Anthony J Swerdlow, Beverley J Botting, Melanie C Davies, Ian Jacobs, Kathryn J Bunch, Michael F G Murphy, Alastair G Sutcliffe
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the risks of ovarian, breast, and corpus uteri cancer in women who have had assisted reproduction. DESIGN: Large, population based, data linkage cohort study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: All women who had assisted reproduction in Great Britain, 1991-2010, as recorded by the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority (HFEA). INTERVENTIONS: HFEA fertility records for cohort members were linked to national cancer registrations...
July 11, 2018: BMJ: British Medical Journal
Rohan Khera, Yuan Lu, Jiapeng Lu, Anshul Saxena, Khurram Nasir, Lixin Jiang, Harlan M Krumholz
OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of the 2017 American College of Cardiology (ACC)/American Heart Association (AHA) hypertension guidelines on the prevalence of hypertension and eligibility for initiation and intensification of treatment in nationally representative populations from the United States and China. DESIGN: Observational assessment of nationally representative data. SETTING: US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) for the most recent two cycles (2013-14, 2015-16) and China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS) (2011-12)...
July 11, 2018: BMJ: British Medical Journal
B Y G Zamina, I Tiembré, H Attoh-Touré, K E N'Guessan, S M Tetchi, B V J Benié
The main objective of this work is to analyze the factors associated with patients dropping out of postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) at the antirabies center of Abidjan (ARC). This descriptive, analytic cross-sectional study took place at the ARC of Abidjan from September 2014 through May 2015. Data were collected in two stages: first, all patients were interviewed at their first consultation. Exposed patients who failed to return were interviewed by telephone three days later. We recorded 441 subjects (59.3%) who had dropped out of their PEP...
May 1, 2018: Médecine et Santé Tropicales
Priyanka C Iyer, Ramona Dadu, Maria Gule-Monroe, Naifa L Busaidy, Renata Ferrarotto, Mouhammed Amir Habra, Mark Zafereo, Michelle D Williams, G Brandon Gunn, Horiana Grosu, Heath D Skinner, Erich M Sturgis, Neil Gross, Maria E Cabanillas
BACKGROUND: Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) is a rare but deadly form of thyroid cancer. Kinase inhibitors kinase inhibitors have shown clinical efficacy in the management of ATC, however, eventually these tumors acquire resistance to KI and patients succumb to their disease. Salvage therapy in this setting is limited. As ATC tumors diffusely express the programmed cell death protein ligand (PD-L1), anti- programmed cell death protein (PD-1) drugs such as pembrolizumab offer therapeutic potential...
July 11, 2018: Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer
Yeon Joo Kim, Su Ssan Kim, Si Yeol Song, Eun Kyung Choi
BACKGROUND: Combined stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for lung lesions and conventional radiotherapy (CRT) for nodal areas may be more effective than CRT alone in patients with locally advanced lung cancer. METHODS: This study included 21 patients with small primary lung tumors distant from the regional nodal areas. The SBRT dose was 40-60 Gy in 4 fractions. CRT doses were 66 Gy in 30 fractions for non-small cell lung cancer and 52.5 Gy in 25 fractions for small cell lung cancer...
July 11, 2018: Radiation Oncology
Celine I Mandara, Reginald A Kavishe, Samuel Gesase, Janneth Mghamba, Esther Ngadaya, Peter Mmbuji, Sigsbert Mkude, Renata Mandike, Ritha Njau, Ally Mohamed, Martha M Lemnge, Marian Warsame, Deus S Ishengoma
BACKGROUND: Artemether-lumefantrine (AL) is the recommended first-line artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) for the treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria in most of the malaria-endemic countries, including Tanzania. Recently, dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DP) has been recommended as the alternative anti-malarial to ensure effective case management in Tanzania. This study assessed the parasite clearance rate and efficacy of AL and DP among patients aged 6 months to 10 years with uncomplicated falciparum malaria in two sites with different malaria transmission intensity...
July 11, 2018: Malaria Journal
S Y Chen, T Wang, X H Hou, Y Qian, H D Zhang, Q L Lu, Y B Liang, L J He, W P Jia
Objective: To investigate the prevalence and risk factors of diabetes and prediabetes in Jingyuan County in Ningxia. Methods: A cross-sectional survey including 10 639 participants (18-88 years of age) with a multistage sampling was conducted in Jingyuan County between January, 2014 and April, 2015. Questionnaires, physical examinations, and laboratory tests were included in the survey. Results: Among all the subjects, 10 491 participants (men: 4 826, women: 5 665) with complete data were included in the analysis...
July 1, 2018: Zhonghua Nei Ke za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Internal Medicine]
Y Q Lin, Y Q Chen, C W Duan, L Zhu, L Yang, Y M Liu
Objective: This study aims at the review result of Guangzhou occupational health examination from 2012-2016 to analyze the distribution of crowd and to discover the occupational health hazard factors and key Protection object by finding the situation of the goal of occupational hazard factor diseases through review examination. Methods: By using retrospective study method, to choose those people who have accepted occupational health review examination handled by the review examination group of Guangzhou Occupational Prevention and Treatment Hospital from 2012 to 2016...
April 20, 2018: Chinese Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases
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