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Xiao Huang, Megan A Rippy, Andrew S Mehring, Brandon K Winfrey, Sunny C Jiang, Stanley B Grant
Constructed stormwater wetlands provide a host of ecosystem services, including potentially pathogen removal. We present results from a multi-wetland study that integrates across weather, chemical, microbiological and engineering design variables in order to identify patterns of microbial contaminant removal from inlet to outlet within wetlands and key drivers of those patterns. One or more microbial contaminants were detected at the inlet of each stormwater wetland (Escherichia coli and Enterococcus > Bacteroides HF183 > adenovirus)...
March 12, 2018: Water Research
Chang Liu, Xueqin Ran, Jiafu Wang, Sheng Li, Jianfeng Liu
Genomic structural variation (SV) is noticed for the contribution to genetic diversity and phenotypic changes. Guizhou indigenous pig (GZP) has been raised for hundreds of years with many special characteristics. The present paper aimed to uncover the influence of SV on gene polymorphism and the genetic mechanisms of phenotypic traits for GZP. Eighteen GZPs were chosen for resequencing by Illumina sequencing platform. The confident SVs of GZP were called out by both programs of pindel and softSV simultaneously and compared with the SVs deduced from the genomic data of European pig (EUP) and the native pig outside of Guizhou, China (NPOG)...
2018: PloS One
Jing Li, Shuwen Xue, Chunqiu He, Huixia Qi, Fulin Chen, Yanling Ma
Pseudomonas aeruginosa DN1 strain and Bacillus subtilis QHQ110 strain were chosen as rhamnolipid and lipopeptide producer respectively, to evaluate the efficiency of exogenous inoculants on enhancing oil recovery (EOR) and to explore the relationship between injected bacteria and indigenous bacterial community dynamics in long-term filed pilot of Hujianshan low permeability water-flooded reservoir for 26 months. Core-flooding tests showed that the oil displacement efficiency increased by 18.46% with addition of exogenous consortia...
March 20, 2018: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
Vikas C Ghattargi, Yogesh S Nimonkar, Shaunak A Burse, Dimple Davray, Shreyas V Kumbhare, Sudarshan A Shetty, Meghana A Gaikwad, Mangesh V Suryavanshi, Swapnil P Doijad, Bhimashankar Utage, Om Prakash Sharma, Yogesh S Shouche, Bharati S Meti, Shrikant P Pawar
The human gut microbiome plays a crucial role in human health and efforts need to be done for cultivation and characterisation of bacteria with potential health benefits. Here, we isolated a bacterium from a healthy Indian adult faeces and investigated its potential as probiotic. The cultured bacterial strain 17OM39 was identified as Enterococcus faecium by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The strain 17OM39 exhibited tolerance to acidic pH, showed antimicrobial activity and displayed strong cell surface traits such as hydrophobicity and autoaggregation capacity...
March 19, 2018: Functional & Integrative Genomics
Laura Eggertson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 19, 2018: CMAJ: Canadian Medical Association Journal, Journal de L'Association Medicale Canadienne
Douglas Baird, Andrew Fairbairn, Emma Jenkins, Louise Martin, Caroline Middleton, Jessica Pearson, Eleni Asouti, Yvonne Edwards, Ceren Kabukcu, Gökhan Mustafaoğlu, Nerissa Russell, Ofer Bar-Yosef, Geraldine Jacobsen, Xiaohong Wu, Ambroise Baker, Sarah Elliott
This paper explores the explanations for, and consequences of, the early appearance of food production outside the Fertile Crescent of Southwest Asia, where it originated in the 10th/9th millennia cal BC. We present evidence that cultivation appeared in Central Anatolia through adoption by indigenous foragers in the mid ninth millennium cal BC, but also demonstrate that uptake was not uniform, and that some communities chose to actively disregard cultivation. Adoption of cultivation was accompanied by experimentation with sheep/goat herding in a system of low-level food production that was integrated into foraging practices rather than used to replace them...
March 19, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Sarah Blunden, Chris Magee, Kelly Attard, Larissa Clarkson, Peter Caputi, Timothy Skinner
BACKGROUND: Sleep duration and sleep schedule variability have been related to negative health and well-being outcomes in children, but little is known about Australian Indigenous children. METHODS: Data for children aged 7-9 years came from the Australian Longitudinal Study of Indigenous Children and the National Assessment Program-Literacy and Numeracy (NAPLAN). Latent class analysis determined sleep classes taking into account sleep duration, bedtimes, waketimes, and variability in bedtimes from weekdays to weekends...
April 2018: Sleep Health
Filipe Dantas-Torres, Yury Yzabella da Silva, Débora Elienai de Oliveira Miranda, Kamila Gaudêncio da Silva Sales, Luciana Aguiar Figueredo, Domenico Otranto
BACKGROUND: Ehrlichia canis is a tick-borne bacterium that causes severe, life-threatening disease in dogs, being more prevalent in tropical and subtropical countries. Randomized studies conducted in Brazil indicate that the prevalence of E. canis infection in dogs ranges from 0.7% to over 50.0%. In a study conducted in northern Brazil, the prevalence was higher in dogs from urban areas, as compared to dogs from rural areas. In the present study, we investigated the exposure to Ehrlichia spp...
March 20, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Barend L Penzhorn, Edward C Netherlands, Courtney A Cook, Nico J Smit, Ilse Vorster, Robert F Harrison-White, Marinda C Oosthuizen
BACKGROUND: Domestic dogs are not native to sub-Saharan Africa, which may account for their susceptibility to Babesia rossi, of which endemic black-backed jackals (Canis mesomelas) are natural reservoirs. There is virtually no information on the occurrence of potentially pathogenic haemogregarines (e.g. Hepatozoon canis) or even rickettsial bacteria (e.g. Ehrlichia spp. and Anaplasma spp.) in indigenous canids in sub-Saharan Africa. Such organisms could pose a risk to domestic dogs, as well as to populations of endangered indigenous canid species...
March 20, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
R Aharonov-Nadborny, L Tsechansky, M Raviv, E R Graber
Olive mill wastewater (OMWW) is an acidic, saline, and organic matter-rich aqueous byproduct of olive oil production that is usually disposed of by spreading on agricultural soils. This study tested whether spreading OMWW can release indigenous soil metals (Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn) through pH, redox, and DOM complexation-related mechanisms, using three agricultural soils having different textures and chemical properties, and controlled pH and redox conditions (pH5.6 or 8.4; ORP from -200 to +250mV). Comparison treatments included a solution having the same salt content and composition as OMWW but lacking OM, and deionized water (DW)...
March 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
T Tiwari, L Jamieson, J Broughton, H P Lawrence, T S Batliner, R Arantes, J Albino
Indigenous populations around the world experience a disproportionate burden in terms of oral diseases and conditions. These inequalities are likely due to a complex web of social determinants that includes poverty, historical consequences of colonialism, social exclusion, government policies of assimilation, cultural annihilation, and racism in all its forms (societal, institutional). Despite documented oral health disparities, prevention interventions have been scarce in Indigenous communities. This review describes oral health interventions and their outcomes conducted for Indigenous populations of the United States, Canada, Brazil, Australia, and New Zealand...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Dental Research
Jude Ball, Dalice Sim, Richard Edwards
Introduction: Smoking among New Zealand (NZ) adolescents has declined since 2000, but ethnic disparities remain pronounced. To inform prevention efforts, we investigated exposure to and relative importance of known predictors of adolescent smoking and how these have changed over time, for Māori (NZ's indigenous population) and adolescents overall. Methods: We used repeat cross-sectional data, 2003 to 2015, from a national survey of 14- to 15-year-olds (N=20,443 to 31,696 per year)...
March 15, 2018: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
G K Sarfo, A Larbi, J A Hamidu, A Donkoh
The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of intermittent use of direct-fed microbial addition (DFM-"RE3®") on growth performance and health status of indigenous guinea fowls in northern Ghana. One-hundred and eighty day-old guinea keets were randomly assigned to 4 direct-fed microbial (DFM) treatments that included: control, daily, 3 consecutive days per wk (3CDW), and 7 days repeated every other wk (7DREOW) at 1.5 ml/L through water from day 1 to 56 days. Feed intake, body weight gain, and blood hematological and serum biochemical properties were recorded...
March 15, 2018: Poultry Science
John R Weinstein, Lisa M Thompson, Anaité Díaz Artiga, Joe P Bryan, William E Arriaga, Saad B Omer, John P McCracken
BACKGROUND: Preterm birth is the leading cause of death among children <5 years of age. Accurate determination of prematurity is necessary to provide appropriate neonatal care and guide preventive measures. To estimate the most accurate method to identify infants at risk for adverse outcomes, we assessed the validity of two widely available methods-last menstrual period (LMP) and the New Ballard (NB) neonatal assessment-against ultrasound in determining gestational age and preterm birth in highland Guatemala...
2018: PloS One
Cindy Hunt, Alicja Michalak, Elaine Johnston, Chrissy Lefkimmiatis, Leila Macumber, Tony Jocko, Donna Ouchterlony
OBJECTIVE: Hockey is a popular sport played by many First Nation youth. Concussion frequently goes unrecognized and unreported in youth hockey. Unintentional injuries among Indigenous youth occur at rates three to four times the national Canadian average. The study sought to examine knowledge, attitudes and sources of concussion information among First Nations people attending a provincial hockey tournament. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was undertaken. The survey by Mzazik et al...
March 19, 2018: Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences. le Journal Canadien des Sciences Neurologiques
Simon Little, Anna Stewart, Nicole Ryan
Restorative justice conferencing is a police diversionary strategy used extensively in Australian jurisdictions to channel young offenders away from formal court processing. Advocates view conferencing as culturally appropriate and a means to reduce the overrepresentation of Indigenous young people because it is rooted in Indigenous justice traditions. However, whether conferencing is effective at reducing recidivism by Indigenous young people compared with non-Indigenous young people remains unknown. We examine this using a longitudinal cohort of youth offenders from Australia...
March 1, 2018: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
Marc J Weigensberg, Cheryl Vigen, Paola Sequeira, Donna Spruijt-Metz, Magaly Juarez, Daniella Florindez, Joseph Provisor, Anne Peters, Elizabeth A Pyatak
Background: The transition of young adults with type 1 diabetes (T1D) from pediatric to adult care is challenging and frequently accompanied by worsening of diabetes-related health. To date, there are no reports which prospectively assess the effects of theory-based psycho-behavioral interventions during the transition period neither on glycemic control nor on psychosocial factors that contribute to poor glycemic control. Therefore, the overall aim of this study was to develop and pilot test an integrative group intervention based on the underlying principles of self-determination theory (SDT), in young adults with T1D...
2018: Global Advances in Health and Medicine: Improving Healthcare Outcomes Worldwide
Arun Karnwal, Aradhana Dohroo
Background : It is assumed that plant growth regulators produced by beneficial bacterial species could also influence plant growth. IAA is a major plant growth regulator responsible for stimulation of plant growth. There are several microorganisms which are naturally responsible for L- tryptophan metabolism. Methods : In total, 56 indigenous morphologically distinct isolates from rice roots were selected and subsequently characterized with biochemical tests, 16S rRNA sequencing and plant growth promoting activities...
2018: F1000Research
Afroz Rais, Muhammad Shakeel, Kamran Malik, Fauzia Yusuf Hafeez, Humaira Yasmin, Saqib Mumtaz, Muhammad Nadeem Hassan
Rice blast is a severe threat for agricultural production. Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria could be suitable biocontrol agents to reduce the disease incidence. In this study, Bacillus spp. KFP-5, KFP-7, KFP-17 significantly reduced disease severity by 40-52% with grain yield of 3.2-3.9 t ha-1 in two rice varieties i.e., basmati super and basmati 385. Bacillus spp. significantly colonized the rice rhizosphere with a cell population of 2.40E+06-5.6E+07CFU. Rice plants treated with antagonistic bacterial suspension followed by challenge inoculation with P...
March 2018: Microbiological Research
Xi-Hui Xu, Xiao-Mei Liu, Long Zhang, Yang Mu, Xu-Yuan Zhu, Jing-Ya Fang, Shun-Peng Li, Jian-Dong Jiang
Although bioaugmentation of pollutant-contaminated sites is a great concern, there are few reports on the relationships among indigenous microbial consortia, exogenous inocula, and pollutants in a bioaugmentation process. In this study, bioaugmentation with Pseudochrobactrum sp. BSQ1 and Massilia sp. BLM18, which can hydrolytically and reductively dehalogenate chlorothalonil (TPN), respectively, was studied for its ability to remove TPN from soil; the alteration of the soil microbial community during the bioaugmentation process was investigated...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
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