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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936247/land-use-and-socioeconomic-change-medicinal-plant-selection-and-biodiversity-resilience-in-far-western-nepal
#1
Ripu M Kunwar, Kedar Baral, Prashant Paudel, Ram P Acharya, Khum B Thapa-Magar, Mary Cameron, Rainer W Bussmann
Indigenous plant use-systems have evolved under, and constantly adapted to human and non-human impacts. In the last decades however, increasing socioeconomic and cultural transformations, including land-use change, outmigration, globalized markets, the introduction of new species, and climate change have led to a decreasing availability of indigenous resources, and are ultimately leading to a reduction of local use-knowledge. Participant observations, discussions, walks-in-the-woods, semi-structured interviews and informal meetings were carried out in 12 villages of far western Nepal between 2011 and 2015 to assess how sociocultural changes have affected the sustenance of indigenous systems and local biodiversity, when compared to studies carried out in the previous decades...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935659/exploring-the-least-studied-australian-eucalypt-genera-corymbia-and-angophora-for-phytochemicals-with-anticancer-activity-against-pancreatic-malignancies
#2
Deep Jyoti Bhuyan, Quan V Vuong, Danielle R Bond, Anita C Chalmers, Ian A van Altena, Michael C Bowyer, Christopher J Scarlett
While the pharmacological and toxicological properties of eucalypts are well known in indigenous Australian medicinal practice, investigations of the bioactivity of eucalypt extracts against high mortality diseases such as pancreatic cancer in Western medicine have to date been limited, particularly amongst the genera Corymbia and Angophora. Four Angophora and Corymbia species were evaluated for their phytochemical profile and efficacy against both primary and secondary pancreatic cancer cell lines. The aqueous leaf extract of Angophora hispida exhibited statistically higher total phenolic content (107...
December 9, 2016: Chemistry & Biodiversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27934823/banana-peel-culture-as-an-indigenous-medium-for-easy-identification-of-late-sporulation-human-fungal-pathogens
#3
A J Kindo, A Tupaki-Sreepurna, M Yuvaraj
AIM: Fungi are increasing in incidence as human pathogens and newer and rarer species are continuously being encountered. Identifying these species from growth on regular culture media may be challenging due to the absence of typical features. An indigenous and cheap medium, similar to the natural substrate of these fungi, was standardised in our laboratory as an aid to species identification in a conventional laboratory setting. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ripe banana peel pieces, sterilised in an autoclave at 121°C temperature and 15 lbs pressure for 15 min promoted good growth of hyphae and pycnidia or acervuli in coelomycetes, flabelliform and medusoid fruiting bodies of basidiomycetes and fruit bodies such as cleistothecium in ascomycetes...
October 2016: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27934282/future-impacts-of-hydroelectric-power-development-on-methylmercury-exposures-of-canadian-indigenous-communities
#4
Ryan S D Calder, Amina T Schartup, Miling Li, Amelia P Valberg, Prentiss H Balcom, Elsie M Sunderland
Developing Canadian hydroelectric resources is a key component of North American plans for meeting future energy demands. Microbial production of the bioaccumulative neurotoxin methylmercury (MeHg) is stimulated in newly flooded soils by degradation of labile organic carbon and associated changes in geochemical conditions. We find all 22 Canadian hydroelectric facilities being considered for near-term development are located within 100 km of indigenous communities. For a facility in Labrador, Canada (Muskrat Falls) with planned completion in 2017, we probabilistically modeled peak MeHg enrichment relative to measured baseline conditions in the river to be impounded, downstream estuary, locally harvested fish, birds and seals, and three Inuit communities...
December 6, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27934240/modeling-the-endogenous-sunlight-inactivation-rates-of-laboratory-strain-and-wastewater-e-coli-and-enterococci-using-biological-weighting-functions
#5
Andrea I Silverman, Kara L Nelson
Models that predict sunlight inactivation rates of bacteria are valuable tools for predicting the fate of pathogens in recreational waters and designing natural wastewater treatment systems to meet disinfection goals. We developed biological weighting function (BWF)-based numerical models to estimate the endogenous sunlight inactivation rates of E. coli and enterococci. BWF-based models allow the prediction of inactivation rates under a range of environmental conditions that shift the magnitude or spectral distribution of sunlight irradiance (e...
November 15, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933090/the-worldwide-spread-of-the-tiger-mosquito-as-revealed-by-mitogenome-haplogroup-diversity
#6
Vincenza Battaglia, Paolo Gabrieli, Stefania Brandini, Marco R Capodiferro, Pio A Javier, Xiao-Guang Chen, Alessandro Achilli, Ornella Semino, Ludvik M Gomulski, Anna R Malacrida, Giuliano Gasperi, Antonio Torroni, Anna Olivieri
In the last 40 years, the Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus, indigenous to East Asia, has colonized every continent except Antarctica. Its spread is a major public health concern, given that this species is a competent vector for numerous arboviruses, including those causing dengue, chikungunya, West Nile, and the recently emerged Zika fever. To acquire more information on the ancestral source(s) of adventive populations and the overall diffusion process from its native range, we analyzed the mitogenome variation of 27 individuals from representative populations of Asia, the Americas, and Europe...
2016: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931891/a-systematic-review-of-anxiety-prevalence-in-adults-within-primary-care-and-community-settings-in-malaysia
#7
Chin Hoong Wong, Zia U Bakt Sultan Shah, Cheong Lieng Teng, Tzi Quen Lin, Zainab Abdul Majeed, Chun Wai Chan
BACKGROUND: Anxiety disorders are common mental health disorders with significant impact on the individual as well as burden on the country as a whole. METHODS: A systematic review of databases, reference lists, internet sources, and input from content experts revealed 42 studies that documented the prevalence of anxiety symptoms or disorders. 12 of these studies specifically evaluated anxiety disorders. RESULTS: 4 studies looked at the prevalence of anxiety disorders in the general population, whilst the remainder focused on selected population groups: university students (4 studies); substance abuse (3 studies); and victims of abuse (1 study)...
December 2016: Asian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931177/cholinesterase-inhibitory-anti-amyloidogenic-and-neuroprotective-effect-of-the-medicinal-plant-grewia-tiliaefolia-an-in-vitro-and-in-silico-study
#8
Dicson Sheeja Malar, Rajamohamed Beema Shafreen, Shunmugiah Karutha Pandian, Kasi Pandima Devi
CONTEXT: Grewia tiliaefolia Vahl. (Tiliaceae) is a sub-tropical plant used as an indigenous medicine in India. However, its efficacy has not been evaluated against Alzheimer's disease. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study is to evaluate cholinesterase inhibitory, anti-aggregation and neuroprotective activity of G. tiliaefolia. MATERIALS AND METHOD: Grewia tiliaefolia leaves were collected from Eastern Ghats region, India, and subjected to successive extraction (petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol and water)...
December 2017: Pharmaceutical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931076/sampling-methodology-and-site-selection-in-the-national-eye-health-survey-nehs-an-australian-population-based-prevalence-study
#9
Joshua Foreman, Stuart Keel, Ross Dunn, Peter van Wijngaarden, Hugh R Taylor, Mohamed Dirani
BACKGROUND: To present the sampling methodology and selected testing sites of the National Eye Health Survey (NEHS); a cross-sectional population-based survey that aimed to determine the prevalence of vision impairment and blindness in Australia. DESIGN: Indigenous Australians aged 40 years and older and non-Indigenous Australians aged 50 years and older residing in all levels of geographic remoteness in Australia. METHODS: Using multi-stage, random-cluster sampling, 30 geographic areas were selected to provide a sample of 3000 non-Indigenous Australians and 1400 Indigenous Australians...
December 8, 2016: Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930729/strain-level-discrimination-of-shiga-toxin-producing-escherichia-coli-in-spinach-using-metagenomic-sequencing
#10
Susan R Leonard, Mark K Mammel, David W Lacher, Christopher A Elkins
Consumption of fresh bagged spinach contaminated with Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) has led to severe illness and death; however current culture-based methods to detect foodborne STEC are time consuming. Since not all STEC strains are considered pathogenic to humans, it is crucial to incorporate virulence characterization of STEC in the detection method. In this study, we assess the comprehensiveness of utilizing a shotgun metagenomics approach for detection and strain-level identification by spiking spinach with a variety of genomically disparate STEC strains at a low contamination level of 0...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928553/proliferation-of-the-biocontrol-agent-fusarium-oxysporum-f-sp-strigae-and-its-impact-on-indigenous-rhizosphere-fungal-communities-in-maize-under-different-agro-ecologies
#11
Judith Zimmermann, Mary K Musyoki, Georg Cadisch, Frank Rasche
Our objectives were to (1) monitor the proliferation of the biocontrol agent (BCA) Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. strigae strain "Foxy-2", an effective soil-borne BCA against the parasitic weed Striga hermonthica, in the rhizosphere of maize under different agro-ecologies, and (2) investigate its impact on indigenous rhizosphere fungal community abundance and composition. Field experiments were conducted in Busia and Homa Bay districts in western Kenya during two cropping seasons to account for effects of soil type, climate, growth stage and seasonality...
June 2016: Rhizosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927243/traditional-mapuche-ecological-knowledge-in-patagonia-argentina-fishes-and-other-living-beings-inhabiting-continental-waters-as-a-reflection-of-processes-of-change
#12
Juana Aigo, Ana Ladio
BACKGROUND: Understanding how people interpret environmental change and develop practices in response to such change is essential to comprehend human resource use. In the cosmology of the American indigenous peoples, as among the Mapuche people, freshwater systems are considered a living entity, where animals have an enormous role to play in the universe of meaning. However, human adaptive responses to freshwater system dynamics are scarcely examined. In this work a survey is carried out in three Mapuche communities of Argentine Patagonia to assess their traditional knowledge of the fishes and other non-human living beings that inhabit lakes and rivers...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927160/correction-trends-in-cancer-incidence-and-survival-for-indigenous-and-non-indigenous-people-in-the-northern-territory
#13
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 12, 2016: Medical Journal of Australia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925609/a-comparison-of-virological-suppression-and-rebound-between-indigenous-and-non-indigenous-persons-initiating-combination-antiretroviral-therapy-in-a-multisite-cohort-of-individuals-living-with-hiv-in-canada
#14
Anita C Benoit, Jaime Younger, Kerrigan Beaver, Randy Jackson, Mona Loutfy, Renée Masching, Tony Nobis, Earl Nowgesic, Doe O'Brien-Teengs, Wanda Whitebird, Art Zoccole, Mark Hull, Denise Jaworsky, Anita Rachlis, Sean Rourke, Ann N Burchell, Curtis Cooper, Robert Hogg, Marina B Klein, Nima Machouf, Julio Montaner, Chris Tsoukas, Janet Raboud, Building Bridges
BACKGROUND: This study compared time to virologic suppression and rebound between Indigenous and non-Indigenous individuals living with HIV in Canada initiating combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). METHODS: Data were from the Canadian Observational Cohort collaboration; 8 studies of treatment-naïve persons with HIV initiating cART after 1/1/2000. Fine and Gray models were used to estimate the effect of ethnicity on 1) time to virologic suppression (two consecutive viral loads (VLs) <50 copies/mL at least three months apart) after adjusting for the competing risk of death and 2) time until virologic rebound (two consecutive VLs >200 copies/mL at least three months apart) following suppression...
December 7, 2016: Antiviral Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925125/-the-aran%C3%A3-s-in-mid-jequitinhonha-socioeconomic-demographic-and-sanitary-aspects-of-a-landless-indigenous-population
#15
Laís Santos de Magalhães Cardoso, Ana Carolina Lanza Queiroz, João Luiz Pena, George Luiz Lins Machado-Coelho, Léo Heller
The lack of epidemiological and environmental data on Brazilian indigenous populations is a challenge for the elaboration of public policy. This lack of data is more acute for "landless" indigenous groups. From this perspective, it was considered relevant to describe the Aranã, a landless indigenous group living in Minas Gerais, focusing on the demographic, socioeconomic and sanitary dimensions. A household survey was conducted. The data collected were analyzed and compared with those from other national ethnic groups...
December 2016: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925115/accidents-involving-brazilian-indigenous-treated-at-urgent-and-emergency-services-of-the-unified-health-system
#16
Edinilsa Ramos de Souza, Kathie Njaine, Márcio Dênis Medeiros Mascarenhas, Maria Conceição de Oliveira
Abstract We analyzed the accidents with Brazilian indigenous treated at urgent and emergency services of the Unified Health System (SUS). Data were obtained from the 2014 Viva Survey, which included 86 services from 24 capitals and the Federal District. The demographic profile of the indigenous, the event and the attendance were characterized. Most of the attended people were male in the 20-39 years age group. Falls and traffic accidents were the main reasons for attendance. Alcohol use was informed by 5.6% of the attended people, a figure that increases to 19...
December 2016: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925005/seed-desiccation-tolerance-and-cryopreservation-of-philippine-calamansi-x-citrofortunella-microcarpa-bunge-wijnands
#17
O L Damasco, L C Refuerzo
BACKGROUND: The traditional on farm conservation of Calamansi [x Citrofortunella microcarpa (Bunge) Wijnands], an important indigenous Citrus species in the Philippines, is now being threatened by shifting agricultural crop production, climate change, and increasing biotic and abiotic stresses. OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to characterize the desiccation and cryopreservation tolerance of seeds as the basis for complementary long term ex situ conservation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Intact seeds were desiccated in an airtight container filled with activated silica gel for 0-96 h...
July 2016: Cryo Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924596/methods-to-study-antagonistic-activities-among-oral-bacteria
#18
Fengxia Qi, Jens Kreth
Most bacteria in nature exist in multispecies communities known as biofilms. In the natural habitat where resources (nutrient, space, etc.) are usually limited, individual species must compete or collaborate with other neighboring species in order to perpetuate in the multispecies community. The human oral cavity is colonized by >700 microbial species known as the indigenous microbiota. This indigenous flora normally maintains an ecological balance through antagonistic as well as mutualistic interspecies interactions...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924414/management-and-control-of-gastrointestinal-nematodes-in-communal-goat-farms-in-zimbabwe
#19
P I Zvinorova, T E Halimani, F C Muchadeyi, S Katsande, J Gusha, K Dzama
Goats are an important source of livelihood especially in smallholder communities. Infections with gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) remain the most prevalent parasitic diseases affecting small ruminants. The study was conducted to assess management, the level of knowledge and control of gastrointestinal nematodes. Surveys were conducted in Chipinge, Shurugwi, Binga, Tsholotsho and Matobo districts, representing the five natural/agro-ecological regions (NR) in Zimbabwe. Data was collected in 135 households using a pre-tested semi-structured questionnaire...
December 6, 2016: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923905/%C3%AE-lapachone-inhibits-lung-metastasis-of-colorectal-cancer-by-inducing-apoptosis-of-ct26-cells
#20
Ji-Ye Kee, Yo-Han Han, Jinbong Park, Dae-Seung Kim, Jeong-Geon Mun, Kwang Seok Ahn, Hyun-Jung Kim, Jae-Young Um, Seung-Heon Hong
BACKGROUND: β-Lapachone is a quinone-containing compound found in red lapacho (Tabebuia impetiginosa, syn. T avellanedae) trees. Lapacho has been used in traditional medicine by several South and Central American indigenous people to treat various types of cancer. The purpose of this study was to investigate the antimetastatic properties of β-lapachone and the underlying mechanisms using colon cancer cells. METHODS: This research used metastatic murine colon cancer cell lines, colon 26 (CT26) and colon 38 (MC38)...
December 5, 2016: Integrative Cancer Therapies
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