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Vitamin D AND transcription factor

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893751/25-hydroxy-and-1%C3%AE-25-dihydroxycholecalciferol-have-greater-potencies-than-25-hydroxy-and-1%C3%AE-25-dihydroxyergocalciferol-in-modulating-cultured-human-and-mouse-osteoblast-activities
#1
Allahdad Zarei, Philippa A Hulley, Afsie Sabokbar, M Kassim Javaid, Alireza Morovat
Despite differences in the phamacokinetics of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25(OH)D3) and 25-hydroxyergocalciferol (25(OH)D2) in man, the effects of these and their 1α-hydroxylated forms (1,25(OH)2D3 and 1,25(OH)2D2) on cellular activity of vitamin D-responsive cells have hardly been compared. We studied differences in the effects of these metabolites on cell number, gene transcription, protein expression and mineralisation of cultured human bone marrow-derived stromal cells (hBMSC) and rapidly mineralising mouse 2T3 osteoblasts...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860527/roles-of-ppar-transcription-factors-in-the-energetic-metabolic-switch-occurring-during-adult-neurogenesis
#2
E Di Giacomo, E Benedetti, L Cristiano, A Antonosante, M d'Angelo, A Fidoamore, D Barone, S Moreno, R Ippoliti, M P Cerù, A Giordano, A Cimini
PPARs are a class of ligand-activated transcription factors belonging to the superfamily of receptors for steroid and thyroid hormones, retinoids and vitamin D that control the expression of a large number of genes involved in lipid and carbohydrate metabolism and in the regulation of cell proliferation, differentiation and death. The role of PPARs in the CNS has been primarily associated with lipid and glucose metabolism; however, these receptors are also implicated in neural cell differentiation and death, as well as neuronal maturation...
November 18, 2016: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785371/vitamin-d-receptor-expression-in-human-bone-tissue-and-dose-dependent-activation-in-resorbing-osteoclasts
#3
Allahdad Zarei, Alireza Morovat, Kassim Javaid, Cameron P Brown
The effects of vitamin D on osteoblast mineralization are well documented. Reports of the effects of vitamin D on osteoclasts, however, are conflicting, showing both inhibition and stimulation. Finding that resorbing osteoclasts in human bone express vitamin D receptor (VDR), we examined their response to different concentrations of 25-hydroxy vitamin D3 [25(OH)D3] (100 or 500 nmol·L(-1)) and 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3] (0.1 or 0.5 nmol·L(-1)) metabolites in cell cultures. Specifically, CD14+ monocytes were cultured in charcoal-stripped serum in the presence of receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL) and macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF)...
2016: Bone Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784213/interplay-of-immunity-and-vitamin-d-interactions-and-implications-with-current-ibd-therapy
#4
Joe Abdo, Vikrant Rai, Devendra K Agrawal
Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) are classified under inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) which has been linked to a multifaceted etiology involving both environmental and genetic factors that intersect with the vitamin D pathway. Dysfunctions in innate immune defense mechanisms in the epithelial compartment of the intestine play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of IBD. Symptoms of IBD are caused by excessive immune responses to luminal bacteria, and vitamin D has been shown to play a role in intestinal defense by aiding in the suppression of microbial invasion into the epithelium...
October 26, 2016: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27748139/nuclear-erk5-inhibits-progression-of-leukemic-monocytes-to-macrophages-by-regulating-the-transcription-factor-pu-1-and-heat-shock-protein-hsp70
#5
Ruifang Zheng, George P Studzinski
Differentiation therapy can supplement the therapy of APL, but other subtypes of AML are treated principally with cytotoxic agents, with few lasting remissions. While the induction of monocyte followed by macrophage differentiation by vitamin D derivatives (VDDs) is dramatic in cultured AML cells of all subtypes, attempts to translate this to the clinic have not been effective. Thus, better understanding of the mechanisms underlying VDD-induced differentiation may improve this approach. The key events in this form of differentiation include increased expression of CD11b, and the transcription factor PU...
October 17, 2016: Leukemia & Lymphoma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27715403/vitamin-d-decreases-stat-phosphorylation-and-inflammatory-cytokine-output-in-t-lgl-leukemia
#6
Kristine C Olson, Paige M Kulling, Thomas L Olson, Su-Fern Tan, Rebecca J Rainbow, David J Feith, Thomas P Loughran
Large granular lymphocyte leukemia (LGLL) is a rare incurable chronic disease typically characterized by clonal expansion of CD3+ cytotoxic T-cells. Two signal transducer and activator of transcription factors, STAT1 and STAT3, are constitutively active in T-LGLL. Disruption of this activation induces apoptosis in T-LGLL cells. Therefore, considerable efforts are focused on developing treatments that inhibit STAT activation. Calcitriol, the active form of vitamin D, has been shown to decrease STAT1 and STAT3 phosphorylation in cancer cell lines and autoimmune disease mouse models...
October 7, 2016: Cancer Biology & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27711190/the-role-of-vitamin-d-in-the-transcriptional-program-of-human-pregnancy
#7
Amal Al-Garawi, Vincent J Carey, Divya Chhabra, Hooman Mirzakhani, Jarrett Morrow, Jessica Lasky-Su, Weiliang Qiu, Nancy Laranjo, Augusto A Litonjua, Scott T Weiss
BACKGROUND: Patterns of gene expression of human pregnancy are poorly understood. In a trial of vitamin D supplementation in pregnant women, peripheral blood transcriptomes were measured longitudinally on 30 women and used to characterize gene co-expression networks. OBJECTIVE: Studies suggest that increased maternal Vitamin D levels may reduce the risk of asthma in early life, yet the underlying mechanisms have not been examined. In this study, we used a network-based approach to examine changes in gene expression profiles during the course of normal pregnancy and evaluated their association with maternal Vitamin D levels...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27703587/an-updated-mini-review-of-vitamin-d-and-obesity-adipogenesis-and-inflammation-state
#8
Zujaja-Tul-Noor Hamid Mehmood, Dimitrios Papandreou
Vitamin D related research continues to expand and theorise regarding its involvement in obesity, as both hypovitaminosis D and obesity strike in pandemic proportions. Vitamin D plays an important role in immune system through Vitamin D Receptors (VDR), which are transcription factors located abundantly in the body. Due to this characteristic, it is potentially linked to obesity, which is a state of inflammation involving the release of cytokines from adipose tissue, and exerting stress on other organs in a state of positive energy balance...
September 15, 2016: Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27692350/-epigenetics-implication-in-autism-spectrum-disorders-a-review
#9
M Hamza, S Halayem, R Mrad, S Bourgou, F Charfi, A Belhadj
BACKGROUND: The etiology of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) is complex and multifactorial, and the roles of genetic and environmental factors in its emergence have been well documented. Current research tends to indicate that these two factors act in a synergistic manner. The processes underlying this interaction are still poorly known, but epigenetic modifications could be the mediator in the gene/environment interface. The epigenetic mechanisms have been implicated in susceptibility to stress and also in the pathogenesis of psychiatric disorders including depression and schizophrenia...
September 27, 2016: L'Encéphale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27679579/calcium-sensing-receptor-gene-regulation-of-expression
#10
REVIEW
Geoffrey N Hendy, Lucie Canaff
The human calcium-sensing receptor gene (CASR) has 8 exons, and localizes to chromosome 3q. Exons 1A and 1B encode alternative 5'-untranslated regions (UTRs) that splice to exon 2 encoding the AUG initiation codon. Exons 2-7 encode the CaSR protein of 1078 amino acids. Promoter P1 has TATA and CCAAT boxes upstream of exon 1A, and promoter P2 has Sp1/3 motifs at the start site of exon 1B. Exon 1A transcripts from the P1 promoter are reduced in parathyroid tumors and colon carcinomas. Studies of colon carcinomas and neuroblastomas have emphasized the importance of epigenetic changes-promoter methylation of the GC-rich P2 promoter, histone acetylation-as well as involvement of microRNAs in bringing about CASR gene silencing and reduced CaSR expression...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27667570/osteoblast-differentiation-at-a-glance
#11
Arkady Rutkovskiy, Kåre-Olav Stensløkken, Ingvar Jarle Vaage
Ossification is a tightly regulated process, performed by specialized cells called osteoblasts. Dysregulation of this process may cause inadequate or excessive mineralization of bones or ectopic calcification, all of which have grave consequences for human health. Understanding osteoblast biology may help to treat diseases such as osteogenesis imperfecta, calcific heart valve disease, osteoporosis, and many others. Osteoblasts are bone-building cells of mesenchymal origin; they differentiate from mesenchymal progenitors, either directly or via an osteochondroprogenitor...
September 26, 2016: Medical Science Monitor Basic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27660122/fatty-liver-and-chronic-kidney-disease-novel-mechanistic-insights-and-therapeutic-opportunities
#12
REVIEW
Giovanni Musso, Maurizio Cassader, Solomon Cohney, Franco De Michieli, Silvia Pinach, Francesca Saba, Roberto Gambino
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a risk factor for end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). ESRD or CVD develop in a substantial proportion of patients with CKD receiving standard-of-care therapy, and mortality in CKD remains unchanged. These data suggest that key pathogenetic mechanisms underlying CKD progression go unaffected by current treatments. Growing evidence suggests that nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and CKD share common pathogenetic mechanisms and potential therapeutic targets...
October 2016: Diabetes Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27633343/entinostat-up-regulates-the-camp-gene-encoding-ll-37-via-activation-of-stat3-and-hif-1%C3%AE-transcription-factors
#13
Erica Miraglia, Frank Nylén, Katarina Johansson, Elias Arnér, Marcus Cebula, Susan Farmand, Håkan Ottosson, Roger Strömberg, Gudmundur H Gudmundsson, Birgitta Agerberth, Peter Bergman
Bacterial resistance against classical antibiotics is a growing problem and the development of new antibiotics is limited. Thus, novel alternatives to antibiotics are warranted. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are effector molecules of innate immunity that can be induced by several compounds, including vitamin D and phenyl-butyrate (PBA). Utilizing a luciferase based assay, we recently discovered that the histone deacetylase inhibitor Entinostat is a potent inducer of the CAMP gene encoding the human cathelicidin LL-37...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27588392/two-stage-induced-differentiation-of-oct4-nanog-stem-like-cells-in-lung-adenocarcinoma
#14
Rong Li, Jinsu Huang, Meili Ma, Yuqing Lou, Yanwei Zhang, Lixia Wu, David W Chang, Picheng Zhao, Qianggang Dong, Xifeng Wu, Baohui Han
Stem-like cells in solid tumors are purported to contribute to cancer development and poor treatment outcome. The abilities to self-renew, differentiate, and resist anticancer therapies are hallmarks of these rare cells, and steering them into lineage commitment may be one strategy to curb cancer development or progression. Vitamin D is a prohormone that can alter cell growth and differentiation and may induce the differentiation cancer stem-like cells. In this study, octamer-binding transcription factor 4 (OCT4)-positive/Nanog homeobox (Nanog)- positive lung adenocarcinoma stem-like cells (LACSCs) were enriched from spheroid cultured SPC-A1 cells and differentiated by a two-stage induction (TSI) method, which involved knockdown of hypoxia-inducible factor 1-alpha (HIF1α) expression (first stage) followed by sequential induction with 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3, VD3) and suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) treatment (second stage)...
August 31, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27569350/vitamin-d-dependent-chromatin-association-of-ctcf-in-human-monocytes
#15
Antonio Neme, Sabine Seuter, Carsten Carlberg
CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF) is a transcription factor being involved in 3D chromatin organization and displays a highly conserved genome-wide binding pattern. In this study, we report the cistrome of CTCF in THP-1 human monocytes and confirm that from the 40,078 CTCF binding sites nearly 85% are identical with those found in K562 monocytes. Quadruplicate chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-seq) demonstrated that at 2130 loci the association strenght of CTCF with genomic DNA was significantly (p<0...
November 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27557896/alzheimer-related-protein-apl-1-modulates-lifespan-through-heterochronic-gene-regulation-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#16
Collin Y Ewald, Vanessa Marfil, Chris Li
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an age-associated disease. Mutations in the amyloid precursor protein (APP) may be causative or protective of AD. The presence of two functionally redundant APP-like genes (APLP1/2) has made it difficult to unravel the biological function of APP during aging. The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans contains a single APP family member, apl-1. Here, we assessed the function of APL-1 on C. elegans' lifespan and found tissue-specific effects on lifespan by overexpression of APL-1. Overexpression of APL-1 in neurons causes lifespan reduction, whereas overexpression of APL-1 in the hypodermis causes lifespan extension by repressing the function of the heterochronic transcription factor LIN-14 to preserve youthfulness...
August 24, 2016: Aging Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27500490/zeb1-drives-epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition-in-lung-cancer
#17
Jill E Larsen, Vaishnavi Nathan, Jihan K Osborne, Rebecca K Farrow, Dhruba Deb, James P Sullivan, Patrick D Dospoy, Alexander Augustyn, Suzie K Hight, Mitsuo Sato, Luc Girard, Carmen Behrens, Ignacio I Wistuba, Adi F Gazdar, Nicholas K Hayward, John D Minna
Increased expression of zinc finger E-box binding homeobox 1 (ZEB1) is associated with tumor grade and metastasis in lung cancer, likely due to its role as a transcription factor in epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Here, we modeled malignant transformation in human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs) and determined that EMT and ZEB1 expression are early, critical events in lung cancer pathogenesis. Specific oncogenic mutations in TP53 and KRAS were required for HBECs to engage EMT machinery in response to microenvironmental (serum/TGF-β) or oncogenetic (MYC) factors...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27462278/disruption-of-vitamin-d-and-calcium-signaling-in-keratinocytes-predisposes-to-skin-cancer
#18
REVIEW
Daniel D Bikle, Yan Jiang, Thai Nguyen, Yuko Oda, Chia-Ling Tu
1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D), the active metabolite of vitamin D, and calcium regulate epidermal differentiation. 1,25(OH)2D exerts its effects through the vitamin D receptor (VDR), a transcription factor in the nuclear hormone receptor family, whereas calcium acts through the calcium sensing receptor (Casr), a membrane bound member of the G protein coupled receptor family. We have developed mouse models in which the Vdr and Casr have been deleted in the epidermis ((epid) Vdr (-∕-) and (epid) Casr (-∕-))...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27460560/regulation-of-the-ccn-genes-by-vitamin-d-a-possible-adjuvant-therapy-in-the-treatment-of-cancer-and-fibrosis
#19
REVIEW
Richard T Piszczatowski, Nathan H Lents
The CCN family is composed of six cysteine-rich, modular, and conserved proteins whose functions span a variety of tissues and include cell proliferation, adhesion, angiogenesis, and wound healing. Roles for the CCN proteins throughout the entire body including the skin, kidney, brain, blood vessels, hematopoietic compartment and others, are continuously being elucidated. Likewise, an understanding of the regulation of this important gene family is constantly becoming clearer, through identification of transcription factors that directly activate, repress, or respond to upstream cell signaling pathways, as well as other forms of gene expression control...
October 2016: Cellular Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27456065/vitamin-d-deficiency-promotes-liver-tumor-growth-in-transforming-growth-factor-%C3%AE-smad3-deficient-mice-through-wnt-and-toll-like-receptor-7-pathway-modulation
#20
Jian Chen, Lior H Katz, Nina M Muñoz, Shoujun Gu, Ji-Hyun Shin, Wilma S Jogunoori, Mi-Hye Lee, Mitchell D Belkin, Sang-Bae Kim, Jon C White, Jaclyn Andricovich, Alexandros Tzatsos, Shulin Li, Sang Soo Kim, Kirti Shetty, Bibhuti Mishra, Asif Rashid, Ju-Seog Lee, Lopa Mishra
Disruption of the TGF-β pathway is associated with liver fibrosis and suppression of liver tumorigenesis, conditions associated with low Vitamin D (VD) levels. However, potential contributions of VD to liver tumor progression in the context of TGF-β signaling remain unexplored. Our analyses of VD deprivation (VDD) in in vivo models of liver tumor formation revealed striking three-fold increases in tumor burden in Smad3(+/-) mice, with a three-fold increase in TLR7 expression compared to controls. ChIP and transcriptional assays confirm Smad3 binding at two TLR7 promoter SBE sites...
2016: Scientific Reports
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