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Vitamin D AND transcription factor

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432711/vdr-gene-methylation-as-a-molecular-adaption-to-light-exposure-historic-recent-and-genetic-influences
#1
Emma L Beckett, Patrice Jones, Martin Veysey, Konsta Duesing, Charlotte Martin, John Furst, Zoe Yates, Nina G Jablonski, George Chaplin, Mark Lucock
OBJECTIVES: The vitamin D receptor (VDR) is a member of the nuclear receptor family of transcription factors. We examined whether degree of VDR gene methylation acts as a molecular adaptation to light exposure. We explored this in the context of photoperiod at conception, recent UV irradiance at 305 nm, and gene-latitude effects. METHODS: Eighty subjects were examined for VDR gene-CpG island methylation density. VDR gene variants were also examined by PCR-RFLP. RESULTS: Photoperiod at conception was significantly positively related to VDR methylation density, explaining 17% of the variance in methylation (r(2)  = 0...
April 22, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427151/fine-tuning-of-vitamin-d-receptor-vdr-activity-by-post-transcriptional-and-post-translational-modifications
#2
REVIEW
Ondrej Zenata, Radim Vrzal
Vitamin D receptor (VDR) is a member of the nuclear receptor (NR) superfamily of ligand-activated transcription factors. Activated VDR is responsible for maintaining calcium and phosphate homeostasis, and is required for proper cellular growth, cell differentiation and apoptosis. The expression of both phases I and II drug-metabolizing enzymes is also regulated by VDR, therefore it is clinically important.Post-translational modifications of NRs have been known as an important mechanism modulating the activity of NRs and their ability to drive the expression of target genes...
February 25, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423536/jmjd3-suppresses-stem-cell-like-characteristics-in-breast-cancer-cells-by-downregulation-of-oct4-independently-of-its-demethylase-activity
#3
Jing Xun, Dekun Wang, Long Shen, Junbo Gong, Ruifang Gao, Lingfang Du, Antao Chang, Xiangrong Song, Rong Xiang, Xiaoyue Tan
Epigenetic regulator JMJD3 plays an important role in both tumor progression and somatic cell reprogramming. Here, we explored the effect of JMJD3 on the stem cell-like characteristics of breast cancer and its underlying mechanism involving stemness-related transcription factor Oct4. Our data revealed that, in breast cancer cells lines and an orthotopic xenograph mouse model of breast cancer, ectopic overexpression of JMJD3 suppressed stem cell-like characteristics of breast cancer cells, whereas knockdown of JMJD3 promoted these characteristics...
March 28, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407358/vitamin-d-related-genes-are-subjected-to-significant-de-novo-mutation-burdens-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#4
Jinchen Li, Lin Wang, Ping Yu, Leisheng Shi, Kun Zhang, Zhong Sheng Sun, Kun Xia
Vitamin D deficiency is a putative environmental risk factor for autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Besides, de novo mutations (DNMs) play essential roles in ASD. However, it remains unclear whether vitamin D-related genes (VDRGs) carry a strong DNM burden. For the 943 reported VDRGs, we analyzed publicly-available DNMs from 4,327 ASD probands and 3,191 controls. We identified 126 and 44 loss-of-function or deleterious missense mutations in the probands and the controls, respectively, representing a significantly higher DNM burden (p = 1...
April 13, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404939/d-tocotrienol-a-natural-form-of-vitamin-e-inhibits-pancreatic-cancer-stem-like-cells-and-prevents-pancreatic-cancer-metastasis
#5
Kazim Husain, Barbara A Centeno, Domenico Coppola, Jose Trevino, Said M Sebti, Mokenge P Malafa
The growth, metastasis, and chemotherapy resistance of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is characterized by the activation and growth of tumor-initiating cells in distant organs that have stem-like properties. Thus, inhibiting growth of these cells may prevent PDAC growth and metastases. We have demonstrated that δ-tocotrienol, a natural form of vitamin E (VEDT), is bioactive against cancer, delays progression, and prevents metastases in transgenic mouse models of PDAC. In this report, we provide the first evidence that VEDT selectively inhibits PDAC stem-like cells...
February 28, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393228/microarray%C3%A2-based-screening-of-differentially-expressed-genes-in-glucocorticoid%C3%A2-induced-avascular-necrosis
#6
Gangyong Huang, Yibing Wei, Guanglei Zhao, Jun Xia, Siqun Wang, Jianguo Wu, Feiyan Chen, Jie Chen, Jingshen Shi
The underlying mechanisms of glucocorticoid (GC)‑induced avascular necrosis of the femoral head (ANFH) have yet to be fully understood, in particular the mechanisms associated with the change of gene expression pattern. The present study aimed to identify key genes with a differential expression pattern in GC‑induced ANFH. E‑MEXP‑2751 microarray data were downloaded from the ArrayExpress database. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified in 5 femoral head samples of steroid‑induced ANFH rats compared with 5 placebo‑treated rat samples...
April 5, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380670/improved-regeneration-and-de-novo-bone-formation-in-a-diabetic-zebrafish-model-treated-with-paricalcitol-and-cinacalcet
#7
Filipe R Carvalho, Ana R Fernandes, M Leonor Cancela, Paulo J Gavaia
Bone changes related to diabetes have been well stablished, but few strategies have been developed to prevent this growing health problem. In our work we propose to investigate the effects of calcitriol as well as of a vitamin D analog (paricalcitol) and a calcimimetic (cinacalcet), in fin regeneration and de novo mineralization in a zebrafish model of diabetes. Following exposure of diabetic transgenic Tg(ins:nfsb-mCherry) zebrafish to calcitriol, paricalcitol and cinacalcet, caudal fins were amputated to assess their effects on tissue regeneration...
April 5, 2017: Wound Repair and Regeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28372324/apolipoprotein-e-isoforms-differentially-regulate-alzheimer-s-disease-and-amyloid-%C3%AE-induced-inflammatory-response-in-vivo-and-in-vitro
#8
Evan Dorey, Michelle Bamji-Mirza, Dema Najem, Yan Li, Hong Liu, Debbie Callaghan, Douglas Walker, Lih-Fen Lue, Danica Stanimirovic, Wandong Zhang
Neuroinflammation plays a critical role in neuronal dysfunction and death of Alzheimer's disease (AD). ApoE4 is a major risk factor of AD, while ApoE2 is neuroprotective. Little is known about the roles of ApoE isoforms in the neuroinflammation seen in AD. Their roles and mechanisms in Aβ-induced/neuroinflammation were investigated in this study using in vivo and in vitro models. Rat astrocytes were treated with lipid-poor recombinant hApoE or/and Aβ42. Mouse astrocyte lines-expressing lipidated hApoE were treated with Aβ42 or/and vitamin D receptor (VDR) agonist, 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3...
March 29, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336823/-regulatory-mechanism-of-calcium-metabolism
#9
Keiichi Ozono
It is often difficult for terrestrial animals to take enough calcium. To maintain serum or extracellular calcium levels is very important for muscle and nerve function. Two major regulators to increase the serum calcium levels are parathyroid hormone(PTH)and vitamin D. PTH binds to the G protein coupling receptor, PTH1R, and increases intracellular cAMP levels. Impirement in the PTH signalling causes many diseases such as pseudohypoparathyroidism and acrodysostosis with hormone resistance. Vitamin D is activated to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D[1,25(OH)2D]by two steps of hydroxylation which occurs in the Liver and Kidney...
2017: Clinical Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335003/identification-of-genetic-variants-affecting-vitamin-d-receptor-binding-and-associations-with-autoimmune-disease
#10
Giuseppe Gallone, Wilfried Haerty, Giulio Disanto, Sreeram V Ramagopalan, Chris P Ponting, Antonio J Berlanga-Taylor
Large numbers of statistically significant associations between sentinel SNPs and case-control status have been replicated by genome-wide association studies. Nevertheless, few underlying molecular mechanisms of complex disease are currently known. We investigated whether variation in binding of a transcription factor, the vitamin D receptor (VDR) whose activating ligand vitamin D has been proposed as a modifiable factor in multiple disorders, could explain any of these associations. VDR modifies gene expression by binding DNA as a heterodimer with the Retinoid X receptor (RXR)...
March 9, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330721/changes-in-the-human-transcriptome-upon-vitamin-d-supplementation
#11
Yvonne Pasing, Christopher Graham Fenton, Rolf Jorde, Ruth Hracky Paulssen
Vitamin D is hydroxylated in the liver and kidneys to its active form, which can bind to the vitamin D receptor (VDR). The VDR is present in a wide variety of different cells types and tissues and acts as a transcription factor. Although activation of the VDR is estimated to regulate expression of up to 5% of the human genome, our study is the first analysing gene expression after supplementation in more than 10 subjects. Subjects of a randomized controlled trial (RCT) received either vitamin D3 (n47) in a weekly dose of 20,000 IU or placebo (n 47) for a period of three to five years...
March 19, 2017: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325259/vitamin-d-analogues-potential-use-in-cancer-treatment
#12
REVIEW
Michael J Duffy, Alyson Murray, Naoise C Synnott, Norma O'Donovan, John Crown
The vitamin D receptor (VDR) is a member of the thyroid-steroid family of nuclear transcription factors. Following binding of the active form of vitamin D, i.e., 1,25(OH)2D3 (also known as calcitriol) and interaction with co-activators and co-repressors, VDR regulates the expression of several different genes. Although relatively little work has been carried out on VDR in human cancers, several epidemiological studies suggest that low circulating levels of vitamin D are associated with both an increased risk of developing specific cancer types and poor outcome in patients with specific diagnosed cancers...
April 2017: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315703/molecular-endocrinology-of-vitamin-d-on-the-epigenome-level
#13
REVIEW
Carsten Carlberg
The molecular endocrinology of vitamin D is based on the facts that i) its metabolite 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) is the high affinity ligand of the nuclear receptor vitamin D receptor (VDR) and ii) the transcription factor VDR is the unique target of 1,25(OH)2D3 in the nucleus. Short-term alterations of the epigenome are primarily changes in the post-translational modification status of nucleosome-forming histone proteins, the consequences of which are i) a local increase or decrease in chromatin accessibility and ii) the activation or repression of gene transcription...
March 16, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300755/vitamin-d-impacts-the-expression-of-runx2-target-genes-and-modulates-inflammation-oxidative-stress-and-membrane-vesicle-biogenesis-gene-networks-in-143b-osteosarcoma-cells
#14
Rama Garimella, Priyanka Tadikonda, Ossama Tawfik, Sumedha Gunewardena, Peter Rowe, Peter Van Veldhuizen
Osteosarcoma (OS) is an aggressive malignancy of bone affecting children, adolescents and young adults. Understanding vitamin D metabolism and vitamin D regulated genes in OS is an important aspect of vitamin D/cancer paradigm, and in evaluating vitamin D as adjuvant therapy for human OS. Vitamin D treatment of 143B OS cells induced significant and novel changes in the expression of genes that regulate: (a) inflammation and immunity; (b) formation of reactive oxygen species, metabolism of cyclic nucleotides, sterols, vitamins and mineral (calcium), quantity of gap junctions and skeletogenesis; (c) bone mineral density; and (d) cell viability of skeletal cells, aggregation of bone cancer cells and exocytosis of secretory vesicles...
March 16, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262768/chronic-alcohol-consumption-decreases-brown-adipose-tissue-mass-and-disrupts-thermoregulation-a-possible-role-for-altered-retinoid-signaling
#15
William S Blaner, Madeleine A Gao, Hongfeng Jiang, Timothy R A Dalmer, Xueyuan J Hu, Henry N Ginsberg, Robin D Clugston
Retinoic acid, an active metabolite of dietary vitamin A, acts as a ligand for nuclear receptor transcription factors with more than 500 known target genes. It is becoming increasingly clear that alcohol has a significant impact on cellular retinoic acid metabolism, with resultant effects on its function. Here, we test the hypothesis that chronic alcohol consumption impairs retinoic acid signaling in brown adipose tissue (BAT), leading to impaired BAT function and thermoregulation. All studies were conducted in age-matched, male mice consuming alcohol-containing liquid diets...
March 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250190/activation-of-nrf2-antioxidant-signaling-by-1-25-dihydroxycholecalciferol-prevents-leptin-induced-oxidative-stress-and-inflammation-in-human-endothelial-cells
#16
Thaisa M Teixeira, Danielly C da Costa, Angela C Resende, Christophe O Soulage, Flavia F Bezerra, Julio B Daleprane
Background: Obesity is associated with hyperleptinemia and endothelial dysfunction. Hyperleptinemia has been reported to induce both oxidative stress and inflammation by increasing reactive oxygen species production.Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the effects of 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol [1,25(OH)2D3] against leptin-induced oxidative stress and inflammation in human endothelial cells.Methods: Small interfering RNA (siRNA) were used to knock down the expression of vitamin D receptor (VDR) in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs)...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249598/the-prognostic-utility-of-the-transcription-factor-srf-in-docetaxel-resistant-prostate-cancer-in-vitro-discovery-and-in-vivo-validation
#17
D J Lundon, A Boland, M Prencipe, G Hurley, A O'Neill, E Kay, S T Aherne, P Doolan, S F Madden, M Clynes, C Morrissey, J M Fitzpatrick, R W Watson
BACKGROUND: Docetaxel based therapy is one of the first line chemotherapeutic agents for the treatment of metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer. However, one of the major obstacles in the treatment of these patients is docetaxel-resistance. Defining the mechanisms of resistance so as to inform subsequent treatment options and combinations represents a challenge for clinicians and scientists. Previous work by our group has shown complex changes in pro and anti-apoptotic proteins in the development of resistance to docetaxel...
March 1, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237485/effect-of-curcumin-on-expressions-of-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAbp65-tnf-%C3%AE-and-il-8-in-placental-tissue-of-premature-birth-of-infected-mice
#18
Yan-Zi Guo, Ping He, Ai-Min Feng
OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of curcumin on expressions of nuclear transcription factor-kappa Bp65 (NF-κBp65), TNF-α and IL-8 in placental tissue of premature birth of infected mice induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). METHODS: A total of 60 C57BL/6 mice pregnant with 15 d were collected and randomly divided into control group, model group, treatment group and preventative group. LPS was repeatedly injected in abdominal cavity to construct infected premature birth model, while mice of control group were given with 100 mg/kg of vitamin C through abdominal cavity injection and mice of treatment group and preventative group were given curcumin of 100 mg/kg through abdominal cavity injection after modeling operation and before 1 d of modeling operation, respectively...
February 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231019/pro-inflammatory-cytokines-impair-vitamin-d-induced-host-defense-in-cultured-airway-epithelial-cells
#19
Jasmijn A Schrumpf, Gimano D Amatngalim, Joris B Veldkamp, Renate M Verhoosel, Dennis K Ninaber, Soledad R Ordonez, Anne M van der Does, Henk P Haagsman, Pieter S Hiemstra
Vitamin D is a regulator of host defense against infections and induces expression of the antimicrobial peptide hCAP18/LL-37. Vitamin D deficiency is associated with chronic inflammatory lung diseases and respiratory infections. However, it is incompletely understood if and how (chronic) airway inflammation affects vitamin D metabolism and action. We hypothesized that long-term exposure of primary bronchial epithelial cells (PBEC) to pro-inflammatory cytokines alters their vitamin D metabolism, antibacterial activity and expression of hCAP18/LL-37...
February 23, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222403/muscular-effects-of-vitamin-d-in-young-athletes-and-non-athletes-and-in-the-elderly
#20
REVIEW
Nikolaos E Koundourakis, Pavlina D Avgoustinaki, Niki Malliaraki, Andrew N Margioris
Muscles are major targets of vitamin D. Exposure of skeletal muscles to vitamin D induces the expression of multiple myogenic transcription factors enhancing muscle cell proliferation and differentiation. At the same time vitamin D suppresses the expression of myostatin, a negative regulator of muscle mass. Moreover, vitamin D increases the number of type II or fast twitch muscle cells and in particular that of type IIA cells, while its deficiency causes type IIA cell atrophy. Furthermore, vitamin D supplementation in young males with low vitamin D levels increases the percentage of type IIA fibers in muscles, causing an increase in muscular high power output...
October 2016: Hormones: International Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
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