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Helmut H Albrecht, Peter V Dicpinigaitis, Eric P Guenin
Guaifenesin, a mucoactive drug, acts by loosening mucus in the airways and making coughs more productive. It is used for relief of wet cough and chest congestion due to the common cold, and remains the only legally marketed expectorant in the US (per OTC Monograph). An ingredient in numerous over-the-counter (OTC) cough/cold medications, guaifenesin has a secondary indication for use in stable chronic bronchitis (professional indication). Clinical pharmacology and patient studies support the clinical utility of guaifenesin in respiratory conditions where mucus hypersecretion is prevalent: acute upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs), stable chronic bronchitis, and possibly rhinosinusitis...
2017: Multidisciplinary Respiratory Medicine
Klaus Hopster, Stephan Neudeck, Liza Wittenberg-Voges, Sabine Br Kästner
OBJECTIVE: To compare alteration in intestinal blood flow in anaesthetized horses with changes in oral mucosa blood flow. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective, randomized clinical study. ANIMALS: Eight warmblood horses. METHODS: After induction with guaifenesin and ketamine, anaesthesia was maintained with isoflurane at 1.5 vol% in oxygen. The tissue blood flow was measured using laser Doppler flowmetry at the jejunum, colon, rectal mucosa, oesophageal mucosa and the oral mucosa...
January 2018: Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia
Fawzy A El Yazbi, Ekram M Hassan, Essam F Khamis, Marwa A A Ragab, Mohamed M A Hamdy
Ketorolac tromethamine (KTC) with phenylephrine hydrochloride (PHE) binary mixture (mixture 1) and their ternary mixture with chlorpheniramine maleate (CPM) (mixture 2) were analyzed using a validated HPLC-DAD method. The developed method was suitable for the in vitro as well as quantitative analysis of the targeted mixtures in rabbit aqueous humor. The analysis in dosage form (eye drops) was a stability indicating one at which drugs were separated from possible degradation products arising from different stress conditions (in vitro analysis)...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Motoki Aoki, Ai Wakuno, Asuka Kushiro, Naomi Mae, Masashi Kakizaki, Shun-Ichi Nagata, Minoru Ohta
Anesthetic and cardiorespiratory effects of total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA) technique using propofol-guaifenesin-medetomidine (PGM) and alfaxalone-guaifenesin-medetomidine (AGM) were preliminarily evaluated in Thoroughbred horses undergoing castration. Twelve male Thoroughbred horses were assigned randomly into two groups. After premedication with intravenous (IV) administrations of medetomidine (5.0 μg/kg) and butorphanol (0.02 mg/kg), anesthesia was induced with guaifenesin (10 mg/kg IV), followed by either propofol (2...
October 23, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
Ai Wakuno, Tatsuya Maeda, Kazumichi Kodaira, Takuya Kikuchi, Minoru Ohta
A three-year old Thoroughbred racehorse was anesthetized with sevoflurane and oxygen inhalation anesthesia combined with constant rate infusion (CRI) of alfaxalone-medetomidine for internal fixation of a third metacarpal bone fracture. After premedication with intravenous (IV) injections of medetomidine (6.0 µg/kg IV), butorphanol (25 µg/kg IV), and midazolam (20 µg/kg IV), anesthesia was induced with 5% guaifenesin (500 ml/head IV) followed immediately by alfaxalone (1.0 mg/kg IV). Anesthesia was maintained with sevoflurane and CRIs of alfaxalone (1...
2017: Journal of Equine Science
Edward J Septimus, Helmut H Albrecht, Gail Solomon, Tim Shea, Eric P Guenin
BACKGROUND: Despite the well-known fact that antibiotics (AB) are not effective against viruses, many patients ask for - and all too often doctors provide - AB for treating URTIs. Over-prescribing of AB is one of the key causes for the development of bacterial resistance, which the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) calls "one of the world's most pressing public health problems". In addition to the CDC initiated "Get Smart About Antibiotics" campaign, focused on educating doctors the public about the importance of appropriate AB use, other programs tackling this problem include the development of new treatment paradigms...
2017: Current Therapeutic Research, Clinical and Experimental
Jody L Green, George Sam Wang, Kate M Reynolds, William Banner, G Randall Bond, Ralph E Kauffman, Robert B Palmer, Ian M Paul, Richard C Dart
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The safety of cough and cold medication (CCM) use in children has been questioned. We describe the safety profile of CCMs in children <12 years of age from a multisystem surveillance program. METHODS: Cases with adverse events (AEs) after ingestion of at least 1 index CCM ingredient (brompheniramine, chlorpheniramine, dextromethorphan, diphenhydramine, doxylamine, guaifenesin, phenylephrine, and pseudoephedrine) in children <12 years of age were collected from 5 data sources...
June 2017: Pediatrics
Tanya Duke-Novakovski, Barbara Ambros, Cindy Feng, Anthony P Carr
OBJECTIVE: To determine the accuracy of high-definition oscillometry (HDO) for arterial pressure measurement during injectable or inhalation anesthesia in horses. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective, clinical study. ANIMALS: Twenty-four horses anesthetized for procedures requiring lateral recumbency. METHODS: Horses were premedicated with xylazine, and anesthesia induced with diazepam-ketamine. Anesthesia was maintained with xylazine-ketamine-guaifenesin combination [TripleDrip (TD; n = 12) or isoflurane (ISO; n = 12)]...
January 11, 2017: Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia
Agron Collaku, Yong Yue, Kenneth Reed
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Guaifenesin, an over-the-counter (OTC) expectorant, has exhibited muscle relaxant effects preclinically and clinically. This proof-of-principle study explored whether OTC doses of guaifenesin can provide relief from acute upper back, neck, or shoulder muscle spasm and pain. METHODS: This multicenter, placebo-controlled, repeat-dose, parallel study randomly assigned adults experiencing acute pain and muscle spasm in their upper back, neck, or shoulder to guaifenesin 600 or 1200 mg or matched placebo twice daily (BID) in a 2:2:1:1 ratio for 7 days...
2017: Journal of Pain Research
Hirotaka Tokushige, Masashi Kakizaki, Hirotaka Ode, Atsushi Okano, Jun Okada, Taisuke Kuroda, Ai Wakuno, Minoru Ohta
To evaluate the bispectral index (BIS) as an indicator of anesthetic depth in Thoroughbred horses, BIS values were measured at multiple stages of sevoflurane anesthesia in five horses anesthetized with guaifenesin and thiopental following premedication with xylazine. There was no significant difference between the BIS values recorded at end-tidal sevoflurane concentrations of 2.8% (median 60 ranging from 47 to 68) and 3.5% (median 71 ranging from 49 to 82) in anesthetized horses. These BIS values during anesthesia were significantly lower (P<0...
2016: Journal of Equine Science
Samah A Mohammed, Maya S Eissa, Hytham M Ahmed
Fast and sensitive HPLC method was developed, optimized and validated for quantification of linezolid (LNZ) in human plasma using guaifenesin as an internal standard (IS). Analyte and IS were extracted from plasma by simple protein precipitation extraction technique using methanol as the precipitating solvent. The pretreated samples were injected in a mobile phase formed of acetonitrile:water:methanol (20:70:10v/v/v) in an isocratic mode at a flow rate of 1.5mL/min with UV detection at 251nm. Separation was done using Aglient ODS C18...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Shuhua Deng, Wencan Huang, Xiaojia Ni, Ming Zhang, Haoyang Lu, Zhanzhang Wang, Jinqing Hu, Xiuqing Zhu, Chang Qiu, Dewei Shang, Yuefeng Zhang, Linghui Xiong, Yuguan Wen
1. A new oral liquid formulation combining guaifenesin, pseudoephedrine and hydrocodone is effective in improving the symptoms of common cold. The pharmacokinetic properties of the individual components were evaluated in a randomized, open-label, four-period study in 12 healthy Chinese volunteers following single and multiple doses. The data were compared with data for the individual ingredients in Antuss®. 2. In the single-dose period, exposure levels (AUC and Cmax ) for guaifenesin, pseudoephedrine and hydrocodone increased directly as the dose of the oral liquid formulation increased from 5 to 15 mL...
October 2017: Xenobiotica; the Fate of Foreign Compounds in Biological Systems
Xiaojian Lin, Rujin Gong, Jiaxu Li, Ping Li, Jianguo Yu, Alirio E Rodrigues
The separation of aminoglutethimide enantiomers by the continuous multicolumn chromatographic processes were investigated experimentally and theoretically, where the columns were packed with cellulose tris 3,5-dimethylphenyl-carbamate stationary phase (brand name Chiralcel OD) and mobile phase was a mixture of n-hexane and ethanol with monoethanolamine additive. The continuous enantioseparation processes included a synchronous shifting process (SMB) and an asynchronous shifting process (VARICOL), which allowed reducing the column number (here from six-column SMB to five-column VARICOL process)...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. A
A M Kolbach-Mandel, N S Mandel, S R Cohen, J G Kleinman, F Ahmed, I C Mandel, J A Wesson
Drug-related kidney stones are a diagnostic problem, since they contain a large matrix (protein) fraction and are frequently incorrectly identified as matrix stones. A urine proteomics study patient produced a guaifenesin stone during her participation, allowing us to both correctly diagnose her disease and identify proteins critical to this drug stone-forming process. The patient provided three random midday urine samples for proteomics studies; one of which contained stone-like sediment with two distinct fractions...
April 2017: Urolithiasis
Ali Mohamed Yehia, Hebatallah Mohamed Essam
A generally applicable high-performance liquid chromatographic method for the qualitative and quantitative determination of pharmaceutical preparations containing phenylephrine hydrochloride, paracetamol, ephedrine hydrochloride, guaifenesin, doxylamine succinate, and dextromethorphan hydrobromide is developed. Optimization of chromatographic conditions was performed for the gradient elution using different buffer pH values, flow rates and two C18 stationary phases. The method was developed using a Kinetex® C18 column as a core-shell stationary phase with a gradient profile using buffer pH 5...
September 2016: Journal of Separation Science
Arham Shabbir, Sadia Shamsi, Muhammad Shahzad, Hajra Ikram Butt, Khurram Aamir, Javed Iqbal
OBJECTIVES: Guaifenesin possesses expectorant, muscle relaxant, and anticonvulsive properties. To the best of our knowledge, the promising data regarding the developmental toxicity of guaifenesin are scarce. The current study investigates the developmental toxic effects of guaifenesin in detail using female rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-five dams were divided into five groups. Group 1 served as a control, while Group-2, -3, -4, and -5 were administered with 250, 350, 500, and 600 (mg/kg b...
May 2016: Indian Journal of Pharmacology
Isla Arcaro, Berit L Fischer, Kara M Lascola, Stuart C Clark-Price
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of intravenous (IV) administration of terbutaline on PaO2, PaCO2, pH, heart rate (HR) and arterial pressures in healthy, laterally recumbent horses breathing ambient air under total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA). STUDY DESIGN: Prospective experimental study. ANIMALS: Eight healthy adult horses were enrolled. Six horses, four mares and two geldings weighing 433-624 kg, completed the study. METHODS: Horses were sedated with xylazine (1...
January 2017: Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia
Ali M Yehia, Heba M Mohamed
Green chemistry and sustainability is now entirely encompassed across the majority of pharmaceutical companies and research labs. Researchers' attention is careworn toward implementing the green analytical chemistry principles for more eco-friendly analytical methodologies. Solvents play a dominant role in determining the greenness of the analytical procedure. Using safer solvents, the greenness profile of the methodology could be increased remarkably. In this context, a green chromatographic method has been developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of phenylephrine, paracetamol, and guaifenesin in their ternary pharmaceutical mixture...
June 2016: Journal of Separation Science
Rowland Furcha, Joëlle Monnet
OBJECTIVE: The primary objective was to assess the warming sensation caused by flavor 316282 in a cold and cough product in the target population. METHODS: A single-cohort, single-treatment arm, open-label study. Subjects received one 30-mL dose of syrup containing flavor 316282, paracetamol, phenylephrine hydrochloride, and guaifenesin and recorded onset and disappearance of any warming sensation in the mouth/throat. Subjects' assessment of strength and appeal of the sensation, taste, texture, and acceptability of the product as a cold and cough remedy was investigated using questionnaires...
2014: SAGE Open Medicine
H K Knych, S D Stanley, D Benson, R M Arthur
Guaifenesin is an expectorant commonly used in performance horses to aid in the clearance of mucus from the airways. Guaifenesin is also a centrally acting skeletal muscle relaxant and as such is a prohibited drug with withdrawal necessary prior to competition. To the authors' knowledge, there are no reports in the literature describing single or multiple oral administrations of guaifenesin in the horse to determine a regulatory threshold and related withdrawal time. Therefore, the objective of the current study was to describe the pharmacokinetics of guaifenesin following oral administration in order to provide data upon which appropriate regulatory recommendations can be established...
August 2016: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
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