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Pseudoephedrine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602867/effect-of-gangjihwan-on-hepatic-steatosis-and-inflammation-in-high-fat-diet-fed-mice
#1
Jong Seong Roh, Haerim Lee, Jonghoon Lim, Jeongjun Kim, Heejung Yang, Yooshik Yoon, Soon Shik Shin, Michung Yoon
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Gangjihwan (DF), a polyherbal drug composed of Ephedra intermedia Schrenk et C. A. Mayer (Ephedraceae), Lithospermum erythrorhizon Siebold et Zuccarini (Borraginaceae), and Rheum palmatum L. (Polygonaceae), is used to treat obesity in local Korean clinics. The constituents of DF have traditionally been reported to exert anti-obesity and anti-nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) effects. Thus, we investigated the effects of DF on obesity and NAFLD and the underlying mechanisms...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580580/illicit-drug-delivery-via-administration-of-human-blood
#2
Laura M Labay, Charles A Catanese
The physiological, psychological, and social consequences associated with illicit drug use are well documented. In addition to the effects directly related to the drug(s), the delivery mechanism can precipitate other serious health conditions. A case is reported where an individual stopped by law enforcement was discovered to be in possession of a vial containing a red-colored fluid, which the person stated was blood and contained fentanyl. Analysis by headspace GC, ELISA, and LC-TOF/MS screening in with mass spectral confirmation revealed the presence of several substances, including ethanol, methamphetamine, amphetamine, MDA, 6-monoacetylmorphine, codeine, morphine, alprazolam, delta-9 THC, ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, and norpseudoephedrine; serology testing verified the fluid was consistent with human blood...
June 5, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574526/clinical-inquiry-do-oral-decongestants-have-a-clinically-significant-effect-on-bp-in-patients-with-hypertension
#3
Joyce C Hollander-Rodriguez, Holly L Montjoy, Brynn Smedra, J P Prouty
It is unclear. Pseudoephedrine causes an average increase of 1.2 mm Hg in systolic blood pressure (BP) in patients with controlled hypertension. However, the studies are not adequately powered to provide evidence about whether this rise in systolic BP is linked to patient-oriented outcomes (strength of recommendation: C, multiple randomized controlled trials supporting disease-oriented evidence). Significant variations in BP are defined differently among studies. In addition, we do not have data on chronic use of oral decongestants; the longest time on medication in these trials was 4 weeks...
June 2017: Journal of Family Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28562262/safety-profile-of-cough-and-cold-medication-use-in-pediatrics
#4
Jody L Green, George Sam Wang, Kate M Reynolds, William Banner, G Randall Bond, Ralph E Kauffman, Robert B Palmer, Ian M Paul, Richard C Dart
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The safety of cough and cold medication (CCM) use in children has been questioned. We describe the safety profile of CCMs in children <12 years of age from a multisystem surveillance program. METHODS: Cases with adverse events (AEs) after ingestion of at least 1 index CCM ingredient (brompheniramine, chlorpheniramine, dextromethorphan, diphenhydramine, doxylamine, guaifenesin, phenylephrine, and pseudoephedrine) in children <12 years of age were collected from 5 data sources...
May 4, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512368/-analysis-of-the-phenomenon-of-over-the-counter-drug-abuse-and-not-controlled-herbs-trade-by-polish-adolescents-part-i
#5
REVIEW
Daria Suchecka, Jolanta Kucharska-Mazur, Katarzyna Groszewska, Monika Mak, Jerzy Samochowiec, Agnieszka Samochowiec
The phenomenon of stupefying by the use of available over-the-counter drugs (OTC) among adolescents is an essential problem in both Poland and throughout the world. Popular analgesics, cold medicine and antihistamines contain psychedelic substances, such as dextromethorphan (DXM), pseudoephedrine/ephedrine, codeine (methylmorphine), dimenhydrinate, paracetamol (acetaminophren) and others. Cases of fatal addiction to dextromethorphan, one of the active substances contained in medicines, e.g., the common cold, have been reported...
May 16, 2017: Medycyna Pracy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508503/expanding-analytical-options-in-sports-drug-testing-mass-spectrometric-detection-of-prohibited-substances-in-exhaled-breath
#6
Mario Thevis, Oliver Krug, Hans Geyer, Wilhelm Schänzer
RATIONALE: Continuously refining and advancing the strategies and methods employed in sports drug testing is critical for efficient doping controls. Besides improving and expanding the spectrum of target analytes, alternative test matrices have warranted in-depth evaluation as they commonly allow for minimal-/non-invasive and non-intrusive sample collection. In this study, the potential of exhaled breath (EB) as doping control specimen was assessed. METHODS: EB collection devices employing a non-woven electret-based air filter unit were used to generate test specimens, simulating a potential future application in doping controls...
May 16, 2017: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444836/ephedra-alkaloid-contents-of-chinese-herbal-formulae-sold-in-taiwan
#7
Chih-Wei Chang, Szu-Yun Hu, Guan-Qian Huang, Mei-Chich Hsu
Consumption of Ephedra alkaloids has been prohibited in-competition by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA). In Taiwan, colds are often treated with Chinese herbal formulae containing Herba Ephedrae. We screened the products sold in Taiwan and preliminarily assessed their relationships with WADA threshold violations. Fifty-six concentrated powder products, including 19 Chinese herbal formulae that contained Herba Ephedrae, were collected. The content of Ephedra alkaloids, namely ephedrine (E), methylephedrine (ME), norpseudoephedrine (NPE; cathine), pseudoephedrine (PE), and norephedrine (NE; phenylpropanolamine), was determined using a validated high-performance liquid chromatography method...
April 25, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386582/preliminary-phytochemical-screening-quantitative-analysis-of-alkaloids-and-antioxidant-activity-of-crude-plant-extracts-from-ephedra-intermedia-indigenous-to-balochistan
#8
Rahman Gul, Syed Umer Jan, Syed Faridullah, Samiullah Sherani, Nusrat Jahan
The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant activity, screening the phytogenic chemical compounds, and to assess the alkaloids present in the E. intermedia to prove its uses in Pakistani folk medicines for the treatment of asthma and bronchitis. Antioxidant activity was analyzed by using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl-hydrate assay. Standard methods were used for the identification of cardiac glycosides, phenolic compounds, flavonoids, anthraquinones, and alkaloids. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used for quantitative purpose of ephedrine alkaloids in E...
2017: TheScientificWorldJournal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380686/efficacy-of-treatment-with-pseudoephedrine-in-men-with-retrograde-ejaculation
#9
O Shoshany, N Abhyankar, J Elyaguov, C Niederberger
The use of pseudoephedrine, an alpha agonist, for the treatment of retrograde ejaculation is well-known, however, there is no clear consensus from the literature regarding its efficacy and treatment protocol. We evaluated the efficacy of pseudoephedrine treatment in patients with retrograde ejaculation, utilizing a yet undescribed short-period treatment protocol. Twenty men were medically treated with pseudoephedrine for retrograde ejaculation between January 2010 and May 2016 (12 with complete retrograde ejaculation and 8 with partial retrograde ejaculation)...
April 5, 2017: Andrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28352949/from-prescription-only-rx-to-over-the-counter-otc-status-in-germany-2006-2015-pharmacological-perspectives-on-regulatory-decisions
#10
Eva Barrenberg, Edeltraut Garbe
PURPOSE: Little is known about the extent of switches from prescription-only (Rx) to over-the-counter (OTC) status in Europe and about the pharmacological properties of the switched substances. The objectives of this study were to provide an overview of the substances that were switched from Rx to OTC status in Germany between 2006 and 2015 and to assess their pharmacological properties. METHODS: Session minutes of the German Expert Advisory Committee for Prescription-Only Issues, changes to the German Ordinance on Prescription-Only Medicines and the Summary of Product Characteristics of the switched substances were analysed...
March 28, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347584/acute-myocardial-infarction-from-coronary-vasospasm-precipitated-by-pseudoephedrine-and-metoprolol-use
#11
Elise M Meoli, Andrew M Goldsweig, Brian J Malm
Pseudoephedrine is a sympathomimetic α- and β-adrenergic receptor agonist that causes vasoconstriction and reduction in edema throughout the nasal passages. Coronary vasospasm associated with pseudoephedrine has been reported in the literature. We discuss the case of a patient with new-onset atrial fibrillation receiving metoprolol for rate control on a background of pseudoephedrine use for allergic rhinitis leading to acute myocardial infarction from multivessel coronary vasospasm. This case illustrates the importance of understanding the pharmacology of potential drug-drug interactions when managing patients with acute cardiovascular syndromes...
May 2017: Canadian Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341086/recurrent-priapism-gone-wrong-st-elevation-myocardial-infarction-and-cardiogenic-shock-after-penile-corporal-phenylephrine-irrigation
#12
S Tyler Constantine, Anand Gopalsami, Gregg Helland
BACKGROUND: Recurrent priapism secondary to sickle cell trait in an African-American male has been reported in the literature. A common treatment for these low-flow priapism cases is aspiration and injection of the corpus cavernosum with a sympathomimetic agent. We report a rare complication not described previously in the literature of ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and cardiogenic shock in a 29-year-old male with sickle cell trait undergoing a routine detumescence procedure...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28252264/vasopressor-support-in-managing-acute-spinal-cord-injury-a-knowledge-update
#13
John K Yue, Rachel Tsolinas, John F Burke, Hansen Deng, Pavan S Upadhyayula, Caitlin K Robinson, Young M Lee, Andrew K Chan, Ethan A Winkler, Sanjay S Dhall
INTRODUCTION: Managing neurogenic shock following acute traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) is challenging. Current guidelines target mean arterial pressure (MAP) above 85-90 mmHg to maintain cord perfusion and reduce ischemia/secondary injury. While early vasopressor utilization has been associated with improved outcomes, recent updates regarding indications of specific vasopressors for refinement of existing guidelines are needed. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: A comprehensive search was conducted using the National Library of Medicine PubMed database between 01/2010 and 01/2017 targeting vasopressor use in the setting of neurogenic/spinal shock and/or hypotension following acute SCI in adult patients...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154329/the-pharmacological-actions-of-ephedrine-alkaloids-free-ephreda-herb-extract-and-preparation-for-clinical-application
#14
REVIEW
Sumiko Hyuga
 Ephedra Herb is defined in the 17th edition of the Japanese Pharmacopoeia as the terrestrial stem of Ephedra sinica STAPF., Ephedra intermedia SCHRENK et C.A. MEYER, or Ephedra equisetina BUNGE (Ephedraceae) which contains more than 0.7% ephedrine alkaloids (ephedrine and pseudoephedrine). The primary effects and adverse effects of Ephedra Herb are traditionally believed to be mediated by ephedrine alkaloids. We recently reported that Ephedra Herb extract (EHE) exhibits antimetastatic and antitumor effects by suppressing the hepatocyte growth factor-c-Met signaling pathway through the inhibition of c-Met tyrosine kinase activity...
2017: Yakugaku Zasshi: Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139893/chemometrics-assisted-chromatographic-fingerprinting-an-illicit-methamphetamine-case-study
#15
Nafiseh Shekari, Maryam Vosough, Kourosh Tabar Heidar
The volatile chemical constituents in complex mixtures can be analyzed using gas chromatography with mass spectrometry. This analysis allows the tentative identification of diverse impurities of an illicit methamphetamine sample. The acquired two-dimensional data of liquid-liquid extraction was resolved by multivariate curve resolution alternating curve resolution to elucidate the embedded peaks effectively. This is the first report on the application of a curve resolution approach for chromatogram fingerprinting to identify particularly the embedded impurities of a drug of abuse...
March 2017: Journal of Separation Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130905/characterization-of-complexes-between-phenethylamine-enantiomers-and-%C3%AE-cyclodextrin-derivatives-by-capillary-electrophoresis-determination-of-binding-constants-and-complex-mobilities
#16
Joachim Wahl, Takayuki Furuishi, Etsuo Yonemochi, Lorenz Meinel, Ulrike Holzgrabe
To optimize chiral separation conditions and to improve the knowledge of enantioseparation, it is important to know the binding constants K between analytes and cyclodextrins and the electrophoretic mobilities of the temporarily formed analyte-cyclodextrin-complexes. K values for complexes between eight phenethylamine enantiomers, namely ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, methylephedrine and norephedrine, and four different β-cyclodextrin derivatives were determined by affinity capillary electrophoresis. The binding constants were calculated from the electrophoretic mobility values of the phenethylamine enantiomers at increasing concentrations of cyclodextrins in running buffer...
April 2017: Electrophoresis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122105/acetylcysteine-in-the-treatment-of-subacute-sinusitis-a-double-blind-placebo-controlled-clinical-trial
#17
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Mehrzad Bahtouee, Gholamhosein Monavarsadegh, Mohammadjavad Ahmadipour, Mazyar Motieilangroodi, Niloofar Motamed, Jamshid Saberifard, Seyyedsajjad Eghbali, Hooman Adibi, Hesam Maneshi, Hasan Malekizadeh
Sinusitis is a common disease with harmful effects on the health and finances of patients and the economy of the community. It is easily treated in most of its acute stages but is associated with some management difficulties as it goes toward chronicity. Therefore, we tried to improve the treatment of subacute sinusitis by using acetylcysteine, which is a safe mucolytic and antioxidant agent. Thirty-nine adult patients with subacute sinusitis proved by computed tomography (CT) were enrolled in a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial...
January 2017: Ear, Nose, & Throat Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092986/the-treatment-of-primary-orthostatic-hypotension
#18
Genevieve M Hale, Jose Valdes, Michael Brenner
OBJECTIVE: To review the efficacy and safety of pharmacological and nonpharmacological strategies used to treat primary orthostatic hypotension (OH). DATA SOURCES: A literature review using PubMed and MEDLINE databases searching hypotension, non-pharmacological therapy, midodrine, droxidopa, pyridostigmine, fludrocortisone, atomoxetine, pseudoephedrine, and octreotide was performed. STUDY SELECTION AND DATA EXTRACTION: Randomized or observational studies, cohorts, case series, or case reports written in English between January 1970 and November 2016 that assessed primary OH treatment in adult patients were evaluated...
May 2017: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049947/stabilization-of-ephedrine-alkaloid-content-in-ephedra-sinica-by-selective-breeding-and-stolon-propagation
#19
Hajime Hiyama, Aya Ozawa, Hiroaki Kumazawa, Osami Takeda
The Ephedra herb, which has been used in Kampo medicines, originates from terrestrial stems of Ephedra species. It is important to establish cultivation methods and cultivars to secure a stable supply of the Ephedra herb that would meet the quality standards for the ephedrine alkaloids content. In this study, we first grew Ephedra sinica plants derived from seeds in the field for 5 years. Then, for selective breeding of cultivars that could meet the quality standards for the ephedrine alkaloids content, we measured the content of total alkaloids (TAs), ephedrine (Eph), and pseudoephedrine (PEph) in individual plants derived from seedlings and grown for 4 years in the field...
2017: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992166/identification-of-isomeric-ephedrines-by-cold-ion-uv-spectroscopy-toward-practical-implementation
#20
Vladimir Kopysov, Alexander Makarov, Oleg V Boyarkin
Ephedrine and pseudoephedrine are stimulant drugs whose use is prohibited in athletic competition by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) at very different threshold doping violation concentrations. We use a recently developed universal approach that integrates UV photofragmentation spectroscopy of cold ions with Orbitrap mass spectrometry (MS) for highly selective and highly sensitive identification of these diastereomers. Both species can be selectively detected at a solution concentration of a few tens of ng/mL, which is almost 3 orders of magnitude lower than the threshold concentration required by WADA...
January 3, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
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