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Pseudoephedrine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193073/carbon-and-nitrogen-stable-isotope-analyses-of-ephedra-plant-and-ephedrine-samples-and-their-application-for-methamphetamine-profiling
#1
Cuimei Liu, Peipei Liu, Wei Jia, Yingfeng Fan
In this study, stable isotope ratio analysis was used to track the precursor information of methamphetamine. The δ13 C and δ15 N values of 30 nature ephedra plants, 12 synthetic ephedrine/pseudoephedrine (ephedrine), 14 natural ephedrine, and 987 seized methamphetamine samples were measured and compared. Due to different weather and earth conditions, the δ13 C and δ15 N values of ephedra plants grown in the east and the west of Inner Mongolia showed great difference. The δ15 N values of ephedra plants were consistent with related ephedrine extracted from them...
November 28, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127905/dissolution-studies-of-metamizole-sodium-and-pseudoephedrine-sulphate-dosage-forms-comparison-and-correlation-of-electronic-tongue-results-with-reference-studies
#2
Małgorzata Wesoły, Marcin Zabadaj, Krzysztof Cal, Patrycja Ciosek-Skibińska, Wojciech Wróblewski
This work reports a critical evaluation of the results of the release of active substances (APIs) from novel pharmaceutical formulations provided by an electronic tongue system (ET). Detailed dissolution studies of modified-release granules used in pharmacotherapy containing metamizole sodium and pseudoephedrine sulphate were carried out. The impact of the dissolution-modifying excipients (carmellose sodium and hypromellose) on the dissolution process as well as on the outcomes of the sensor array of ion-selective electrodes was investigated...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29059613/capillary-electrophoresis-separation-of-phenethylamine-enantiomers-using-amino-acid-based-ionic-liquids
#3
Joachim Wahl, Ulrike Holzgrabe
In recent years increasing interest was drawn towards ionic liquids in analytical separation science, such as capillary electrophoresis. Ionic liquids combining tetrabutylammonium cations with chiral amino acid based anions were prepared and investigated as capillary electrophoresis background electrolyte additives for the enantioseparation of ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, and methylephedrine isomers. For the optimization of buffer pH and ionic liquid concentration a design of experiments approach was performed...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994520/-establish-quality-evaluation-system-for-standard-ephedrae-herba-decoction
#4
Jia-Yu Tong, Jung Chao, Yun-Tao Dai, Zi-Quan Fan, Dan-Dan Wang, Xue-Mei Qin, Shi-Lin Chen
To establish the quality control methods for the standard decoction of Ephedrae Herba, and provide the reference for quality evaluation method of all Chinese herbal medicine decoction.Standard decoction of Ephedrae Herba was prepared, and UPLC-UV fingerprint was established to determine the total contents of ephedrine and pseudoephedrine. Then UPLC-QTOF/MS was used to confirm the major common peaks in the fingerprint to clarify the main chemical constituents in the decoction. In addition, the stability of the process was evaluated by calculating the parameters such as the extraction ratio, transfer rate of the index components and the pH values...
March 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873376/efficacy-and-safety-of-cathine-nor-pseudoephedrine-in-the-treatment-of-obesity-a-randomized-dose-finding-study
#5
Hans Hauner, Ljiljana Hastreiter, Dieter Werdier, Annette Chen-Stute, Jürgen Scholze, Matthias Blüher
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the efficacy and safety of increasing doses of cathine (nor-pseudoephedrine) as a weight-lowering agent in patients with obesity. METHODS: Overweight and obese patients (n = 241, mean BMI 34.6 ± 3.4 kg/m²) were randomly allocated to one of three doses of cathine (16 mg, 32 mg, 53.3 mg) or placebo in addition to a multimodal lifestyle intervention program in a multicenter, double-blind, controlled, dose-finding study for 24 weeks. Primary outcome was weight loss...
2017: Obesity Facts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851653/investigation-on-temperature-induce-conformational-change-of-immobilized-%C3%AE-2-adrenergic-receptor
#6
Xiaokang Gao, Lingjian Yang, Qian Li, Yuxin An, Sha Liao, Haiyang Gao, Xinfeng Zhao, Liujiao Bian, Xiaohui Zheng
The β2 adrenergic receptor (β2-AR) is a prototypical family A G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) and an excellent model system for studying the mechanism of GPCR activation. Purified β2-AR was immobilized on macroporous silica gel to obtain liquid chromatographic stationary phase. The resulting phase was packed into a stainless steel column (4.6 × 50 mm, 7 μm) and used for on-line chromatographic system. When column oven temperature increased from 20.0 °C to 40.0 °C, uncomplete separate chromatographic peaks of ephedrine and pseudoephedrine as receptor conformational probe were gradually merged into one peak, meanwhile retention time and resolution of the probes were reduced correspondingly, which suggested that temperature could regulate protein conformation...
August 26, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842339/gangjihwan-a-polyherbal-composition-inhibits-fat-accumulation-through-the-modulation-of-lipogenic-transcription-factors-srebp1c-ppar%C3%AE-and-c-ebp%C3%AE
#7
Jaewoong Jang, Yoonju Jung, Seyeon Chae, Soo Hyun Cho, Michung Yoon, Heejung Yang, Soon Shik Shin, Yoosik Yoon
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Gangjihwan (DF) which is composed of Ephedra intermedia, Lithospermum erythrorhizon, and Rheum palmatum has been used for the treatment of obesity in traditional medical clinics in Korea. AIM OF THE STUDY: This study was conducted to standardize DF and elucidate its mechanism of action for inhibiting fat accumulation in adipocytes and adipose tissues. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The herbal ingredients of DF were extracted in water, 30% ethanol or 70% ethanol and freeze-dried followed by HPLC analyses...
August 24, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761581/extended-release-guaifenesin-pseudoephedrine-hydrochloride-for-symptom-relief-in-support-of-a-wait-and-see-approach-for-the-treatment-of-acute-upper-respiratory-tract-infections-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-study
#8
Edward J Septimus, Helmut H Albrecht, Gail Solomon, Tim Shea, Eric P Guenin
BACKGROUND: Despite the well-known fact that antibiotics (AB) are not effective against viruses, many patients ask for - and all too often doctors provide - AB for treating URTIs. Over-prescribing of AB is one of the key causes for the development of bacterial resistance, which the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) calls "one of the world's most pressing public health problems". In addition to the CDC initiated "Get Smart About Antibiotics" campaign, focused on educating doctors the public about the importance of appropriate AB use, other programs tackling this problem include the development of new treatment paradigms...
2017: Current Therapeutic Research, Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717105/ephedrine-induced-mitophagy-via-oxidative-stress-in-human-hepatic-stellate-cells
#9
Ah Young Lee, Yoonjeong Jang, Seong-Ho Hong, Seung-Hee Chang, Sungjin Park, Sanghwa Kim, Kyung-Sun Kang, Ji-Eun Kim, Myung-Haing Cho
The herb Ephedra sinica (also known as Chinese ephedra or Ma Huang), used in traditional Chinese medicine, contains alkaloids identical to ephedrine and pseudoephedrine as its principal active constituents. Recent studies have reported that ephedrine has various side effects in the cardiovascular and nervous systems. In addition, herbal Ephedra, a plant containing many pharmacologically active alkaloids, principally ephedrine, has been reported to cause acute hepatitis. Many studies reported clinical cases, however, the cellular mechanism of liver toxicity by ephedrine remains unknown...
2017: Journal of Toxicological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706557/comparative-pharmacokinetics-and-bioavailability-of-three-ephedrines-in-rat-after-oral-administration-of-unprocessed-and-honey-fried-ephedra-extract-by-response-surface-experimental-design
#10
Yezhe Cheng, Yu Zhang, Hang Xing, Kun Qian, Longshan Zhao, Xiaohui Chen
Ephedra have been used as a common traditional Chinese medicine for thousands of years. However, the perspiration effect of the unprocessed ephedra was too strong. Clinical trials have shown that processing methods play a critical role in moderating the perspiration property of ephedra according to the needs. A LC-MS/MS method was developed and validated to compare the pharmacokinetic properties of the three ephedrines after oral administration of unprocessed and honey-fried ephedra extract. The contents of honey, frying temperature, and frying time were set at 20%, 116°C, and 7 min by the Box-Behnken response surface method, respectively...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28703347/non-pigmenting-fixed-drug-eruption-with-mixed-features-of-acute-generalized-exanthematous-pustulosis-induced-by-pseudoephedrine-a-case-report
#11
Risa Fukuda, Takeshi Ouchi, Ikuko Hirai, Takeru Funakoshi, Aki Honda, Keiji Tanese, Akiko Tanikawa, Masayuki Amagai, Hayato Takahashi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2017: Contact Dermatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692860/-1-h-and-31-p-benchtop-nmr-of-liquids-and-solids-used-in-and-or-produced-during-the-manufacture-of-methamphetamine-by-the-hi-reduction-of-pseudoephedrine-ephedrine
#12
Ben Bogun, Sarah Moore
In this study, the use of benchtop NMR spectroscopy in the analysis of solids and liquids used and/or produced during the HI reduction of pseudoephedrine was evaluated. The study focused on identifying organic precursors and phosphorus containing compounds used in and/or produced during the manufacturing process. Samples taken from clandestine laboratories, where this synthesis process was suspected of occurring, were also analysed and evaluated. Benchtop NMR was able to distinguish between ephedrine, pseudoephedrine and methamphetamine as the free base and hydrochloride salt...
September 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602867/effect-of-gangjihwan-on-hepatic-steatosis-and-inflammation-in-high-fat-diet-fed-mice
#13
Jong Seong Roh, Haerim Lee, Jonghoon Lim, Jeongjun Kim, Heejung Yang, Yooshik Yoon, Soon Shik Shin, Michung Yoon
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Gangjihwan (DF), a polyherbal drug composed of Ephedra intermedia Schrenk et C. A. Mayer (Ephedraceae), Lithospermum erythrorhizon Siebold et Zuccarini (Borraginaceae), and Rheum palmatum L. (Polygonaceae), is used to treat obesity in local Korean clinics. The constituents of DF have traditionally been reported to exert anti-obesity and anti-nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) effects. Thus, we investigated the effects of DF on obesity and NAFLD and the underlying mechanisms...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580580/illicit-drug-delivery-via-administration-of-human-blood
#14
Laura M Labay, Charles A Catanese
The physiological, psychological, and social consequences associated with illicit drug use are well documented. In addition to the effects directly related to the drug(s), the delivery mechanism can precipitate other serious health conditions. A case is reported where an individual stopped by law enforcement was discovered to be in possession of a vial containing a red-colored fluid, which the person stated was blood and contained fentanyl. Analysis by headspace GC, ELISA, and LC-TOF/MS screening in with mass spectral confirmation revealed the presence of several substances, including ethanol, methamphetamine, amphetamine, MDA, 6-monoacetylmorphine, codeine, morphine, alprazolam, delta-9 THC, ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, and norpseudoephedrine; serology testing verified the fluid was consistent with human blood...
June 5, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574526/clinical-inquiry-do-oral-decongestants-have-a-clinically-significant-effect-on-bp-in-patients-with-hypertension
#15
Joyce C Hollander-Rodriguez, Holly L Montjoy, Brynn Smedra, J P Prouty
It is unclear. Pseudoephedrine causes an average increase of 1.2 mm Hg in systolic blood pressure (BP) in patients with controlled hypertension. However, the studies are not adequately powered to provide evidence about whether this rise in systolic BP is linked to patient-oriented outcomes (strength of recommendation: C, multiple randomized controlled trials supporting disease-oriented evidence). Significant variations in BP are defined differently among studies. In addition, we do not have data on chronic use of oral decongestants; the longest time on medication in these trials was 4 weeks...
June 2017: Journal of Family Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28562262/safety-profile-of-cough-and-cold-medication-use-in-pediatrics
#16
Jody L Green, George Sam Wang, Kate M Reynolds, William Banner, G Randall Bond, Ralph E Kauffman, Robert B Palmer, Ian M Paul, Richard C Dart
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The safety of cough and cold medication (CCM) use in children has been questioned. We describe the safety profile of CCMs in children <12 years of age from a multisystem surveillance program. METHODS: Cases with adverse events (AEs) after ingestion of at least 1 index CCM ingredient (brompheniramine, chlorpheniramine, dextromethorphan, diphenhydramine, doxylamine, guaifenesin, phenylephrine, and pseudoephedrine) in children <12 years of age were collected from 5 data sources...
June 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512368/-analysis-of-the-phenomenon-of-over-the-counter-drug-abuse-and-not-controlled-herbs-trade-by-polish-adolescents-part-i
#17
REVIEW
Daria Suchecka, Jolanta Kucharska-Mazur, Katarzyna Groszewska, Monika Mak, Jerzy Samochowiec, Agnieszka Samochowiec
The phenomenon of stupefying by the use of available over-the-counter drugs (OTC) among adolescents is an essential problem in both Poland and throughout the world. Popular analgesics, cold medicine and antihistamines contain psychedelic substances, such as dextromethorphan (DXM), pseudoephedrine/ephedrine, codeine (methylmorphine), dimenhydrinate, paracetamol (acetaminophren) and others. Cases of fatal addiction to dextromethorphan, one of the active substances contained in medicines, e.g., the common cold, have been reported...
May 16, 2017: Medycyna Pracy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508503/expanding-analytical-options-in-sports-drug-testing-mass-spectrometric-detection-of-prohibited-substances-in-exhaled-breath
#18
Mario Thevis, Oliver Krug, Hans Geyer, Wilhelm Schänzer
RATIONALE: Continuously refining and advancing the strategies and methods employed in sports drug testing is critical for efficient doping controls. Besides improving and expanding the spectrum of target analytes, alternative test matrices have warranted in-depth evaluation as they commonly allow for minimal-/non-invasive and non-intrusive sample collection. In this study, the potential of exhaled breath (EB) as doping control specimen was assessed. METHODS: EB collection devices employing a non-woven electret-based air filter unit were used to generate test specimens, simulating a potential future application in doping controls...
August 15, 2017: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444836/ephedra-alkaloid-contents-of-chinese-herbal-formulae-sold-in-taiwan
#19
Chih-Wei Chang, Szu-Yun Hu, Guan-Qian Huang, Mei-Chich Hsu
Consumption of Ephedra alkaloids has been prohibited in-competition by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA). In Taiwan, colds are often treated with Chinese herbal formulae containing Herba Ephedrae. We screened the products sold in Taiwan and preliminarily assessed their relationships with WADA threshold violations. Fifty-six concentrated powder products, including 19 Chinese herbal formulae that contained Herba Ephedrae, were collected. The content of Ephedra alkaloids, namely ephedrine (E), methylephedrine (ME), norpseudoephedrine (NPE; cathine), pseudoephedrine (PE), and norephedrine (NE; phenylpropanolamine), was determined using a validated high-performance liquid chromatography method...
April 25, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386582/preliminary-phytochemical-screening-quantitative-analysis-of-alkaloids-and-antioxidant-activity-of-crude-plant-extracts-from-ephedra-intermedia-indigenous-to-balochistan
#20
Rahman Gul, Syed Umer Jan, Syed Faridullah, Samiullah Sherani, Nusrat Jahan
The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant activity, screening the phytogenic chemical compounds, and to assess the alkaloids present in the E. intermedia to prove its uses in Pakistani folk medicines for the treatment of asthma and bronchitis. Antioxidant activity was analyzed by using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl-hydrate assay. Standard methods were used for the identification of cardiac glycosides, phenolic compounds, flavonoids, anthraquinones, and alkaloids. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used for quantitative purpose of ephedrine alkaloids in E...
2017: TheScientificWorldJournal
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