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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457141/extrahepatic-toxicity-of-acetaminophen-critical-evaluation-of-the-evidence-and-proposed-mechanisms
#1
Stefanie Kennon-McGill, Mitchell R McGill
Research on acetaminophen (APAP) toxicity over the last several decades has focused on the pathophysiology of liver injury, but increasing attention is being paid to other known and possible adverse effects. It has been known for decades that APAP causes acute kidney injury, but confusion exists regarding prevalence, and the mechanisms have not been well investigated. More recently, a number of experimental, clinical and epidemiological studies have reported evidence for pulmonary, endocrine, neurological and neurodevelopmental toxicity, but the quality of evidence from those studies varies...
January 15, 2018: Journal of Clinical and Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451468/health-care-resource-use-and-costs-pre-and-post-treatment-initiation-with-linaclotide-retrospective-analyses-of-a-u-s-insured-population
#2
Douglas Ca Taylor, Jessica L Abel, Tim Bancroft, Paul Buzinec, Alyssa Goolsby Hunter, Robyn T Carson, Carolyn Martin
As expected, pharmacy costs increased with the introduction of this new treatment in a market dominated by over-the-counter and generic treatments. On the other hand, outpatient GI-related and irritable bowel disease health care resource use and costs substantially decreased among commercial and Medicare patients following linaclotide treatment initiation.
February 2018: Managed Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449296/gp-and-parent-dissonance-about-the-assessment-and-treatment-of-childhood-eczema-in-primary-care-a-qualitative-study
#3
Kingsley Powell, Emma Le Roux, Jonathan Banks, Matthew J Ridd
OBJECTIVES: To compare parents' and clinicians' perspectives on the assessment and treatment of children with eczema in primary care. DESIGN: Qualitative interview study with purposive and snowball sampling and thematic analysis. SETTING: 14 general practices in the UK. PARTICIPANTS: 11 parents of children with eczema and 15 general practitioners (GPs) took part in semistructured individual interviews. RESULTS: We identified several areas of dissonance between parents and GPs...
February 15, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435794/emergency-contraceptive-pills-ecp-knowledge-attitudes-and-practices-among-women-working-in-the-entertainment-industry-and-men-in-the-trucking-industry-bhutan
#4
Deki Pem, Tshewang Nidup, Ugyen Wangdi, Dorji Pelzom, Ali Mirzazadeh, Willi McFarland
Emergency contraceptive pills (ECP) were recently made available over the counter in Bhutan. We evaluated knowledge, attitudes, and practices concerning ECP in 2 populations at risk for HIV and STI (sexually transmitted infections): entertainment women (drayang) and male truck drivers and helpers (truckers). Of 179 drayang and 437 truckers intercepted at venues, 73.7 and 21.1%, respectively, had heard of ECP; 47.0% of drayang had used them. Their concerns about ECP use included harm to the body, impact on future pregnancy, side effects, and HIV/STI risk...
February 12, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435278/enhanced-analgesic-effects-of-nefopam-in-combination-with-acetaminophen-in-rodents
#5
Qian Li, Quankun Zhuang, Yaru Gu, Cailing Dai, Xiaoxiao Gao, Xiaomin Wang, Huimin Wen, Xin Li, Yuyang Zhang
Nefopam, an analgesic drug, effectively elicits antinociception in the majority of noxious and thermal models in rodents. Acetaminophen is among the most commonly used analgesic and antipyretic drugs worldwide, either on prescription or over the counter. The present study aimed to investigate the analgesic activity of nefopam combined with acetaminophen, which was expected to maximize the potency of analgesia and decrease the dose of nefopam required. Three series of experiments, namely acetic acid-induced writhing tests in mice, hot plate tests in mice and tail flick tests in rats, were used to evaluate the analgesic effect...
February 2018: Biomedical Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431977/hemorrhoids-diagnosis-and-treatment-options
#6
Timothy Mott, Kelly Latimer, Chad Edwards
Many Americans between 45 and 65 years of age experience hemorrhoids. Hemorrhoidal size, thrombosis, and location (i.e., proximal or distal to the dentate line) determine the extent of pain or discomfort. The history and physical examination must assess for risk factors and clinical signs indicating more concerning disease processes. Internal hemorrhoids are traditionally graded from I to IV based on the extent of prolapse. Other factors such as degree of discomfort, bleeding, comorbidities, and patient preference should help determine the order in which treatments are pursued...
February 1, 2018: American Family Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431371/palpitations-evaluation-in-the-primary-care-setting
#7
Randell K Wexler, Adam Pleister, Subha V Raman
Palpitations are a common problem in the ambulatory primary care setting, and cardiac causes are the most concerning etiology. Psychiatric illness, adverse effects of prescription and over-the-counter medications, and substance use should also be considered. Distinguishing cardiac from noncardiac causes is important because of the risk of sudden death in those with an underlying cardiac etiology. A thorough history and physical examination, followed by targeted diagnostic testing, can distinguish cardiac conditions from other causes of palpitations...
December 15, 2017: American Family Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428578/treatment-practices-of-households-and-antibiotic-dispensing-in-medicine-outlets-in-developing-countries-the-case-of-ghana
#8
Mary-Anne Ahiabu, Pascal Magnussen, Ib Christian Bygbjerg, Britt Pinkowski Tersbøl
INTRODUCTION: Antibiotic resistance, associated with inappropriate drug use, is a global public health threat. The pharmaceutical sectors in developing countries are poorly regulated leading to antibiotic sales and use without a prescription. The study documents the treatment of acute illnesses in households and the antibiotic dispensing practices of medicine sales outlets in Eastern region, Ghana. METHOD: Twice-weekly illness recall visits were made to 12 households in three rural communities over eight consecutive weeks...
February 7, 2018: Research in Social & Administrative Pharmacy: RSAP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29421936/cardiorenal-safety-of-otc-analgesics
#9
William B White, Robert A Kloner, Dominick J Angiolillo, Michael H Davidson
Over-the-counter analgesics are used globally for the relief of acute pain. Although effective, these agents can be associated with adverse effects that may limit their use in some people. In the early 2000s, observations from clinical trials of prescription-strength and supratherapeutic doses of nonselective and cyclooxygenase-2-selective nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) raised safety concerns regarding the risk of cardiovascular adverse effects with the use of these medications. Subsequently, the US Food and Drug Administration mandated additional study of the cardiovascular safety of NSAIDs for a more comprehensive understanding of their risk...
March 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29417856/gastrointestinal-safety-and-tolerability-of-oral-non-aspirin-over-the-counter-analgesics
#10
Nicholas Moore, James M Scheiman
Over-the-counter (OTC) analgesics are routinely used worldwide for self-management of various painful conditions. Despite this, there has been little in-depth review of the safety of non-aspirin analgesics at OTC doses. This paper reviews the available literature on the gastrointestinal (GI) and hepatic safety of non-aspirin OTC analgesics, including nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs; ibuprofen, ketoprofen, diclofenac, and naproxen) and acetaminophen; safety in overdose is also reviewed. Each non-aspirin OTC analgesic has a distinct adverse event (AE) profile, with GI AE rates for OTC dosing in one study ranging from 37% for diclofenac to 7...
February 8, 2018: Postgraduate Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415587/an-evaluation-of-nutritional-and-vasoactive-stimulants-as-risk-factors-for-gastroschisis-a-pilot-study
#11
Jean R Goodman, Jennifer D Peck, Alessandra Landmann, Marvin Williams, Andrew Elimian
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to evaluate poor maternal nutrition, environmental exposures and vasoactive stimulants as potential risk factors for gastroschisis. METHODS: A case-control study was conducted among singleton pregnancies diagnosed in a tertiary teaching hospital in a 22-month period. Cases of gastroschisis were matched to controls at the time of diagnosis by race and maternal age. Demographics, periconceptual exposures, nutritional biomarkers, and illicit drug hair analysis were evaluated...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29413434/the-effect-of-n-acetylcysteine-on-alcohol-use-during-a-cannabis-cessation-trial
#12
Lindsay M Squeglia, Rachel L Tomko, Nathaniel L Baker, Erin A McClure, George A Book, Kevin M Gray
BACKGROUND: Individuals with alcohol use disorder (AUD) do not always respond to currently available treatments, and evaluation of new candidate pharmacotherapies is indicated. N-acetylcysteine (NAC), an over-the-counter supplement, has shown promise in treating a variety of substance use disorders, but little research has evaluated its merits as a treatment for AUD. This secondary analysis from the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network examined the effects of NAC versus placebo on alcohol use among participants with cannabis use disorder (CUD) enrolled in a 12-week, multi-site cannabis cessation trial...
February 1, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408962/ibuprofen-is-deleterious-for-the-development-of-first-trimester-human-fetal-ovary-ex-vivo
#13
S Leverrier-Penna, R T Mitchell, E Becker, L Lecante, M Ben Maamar, N Homer, V Lavoué, D M Kristensen, N Dejucq-Rainsford, B Jégou, S Mazaud-Guittot
STUDY QUESTION: Does ibuprofen use during the first trimester of pregnancy interfere with the development of the human fetal ovary? SUMMARY ANSWER: In human fetuses, ibuprofen exposure is deleterious for ovarian germ cells. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: In utero stages of ovarian development define the future reproductive capacity of a woman. In rodents, analgesics can impair the development of the fetal ovary leading to early onset of fertility failure...
February 2, 2018: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408209/the-effects-of-the-botantical-estrogen-isoliquiritigenin-on-delayed-spatial-alternation
#14
Payel Kundu, Steven Neese, Suren Bandara, Supida Monaikul, William G Helferich, Daniel R Doerge, Ikhlas A Khan, Susan Schantz
Age-related declines in cognitive function can impair working memory, reduce speed of processing, and alter attentional resources. In particular, menopausal women may show an acceleration in the rate of cognitive decline as well as an increased vulnerability to brain diseases as estrogens may play a neuroprotective and neurotrophic role in the brain. To treat menopausal symptoms, many women turn to botanical estrogens that are promoted as a safe and natural alternative to traditional hormone replacement therapy...
February 2, 2018: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29407201/repeated-dose-28-day-oral-toxicity-study-of-a-botanical-composition-composed-of-morus-alba-and-acacia-catechu-in-rats
#15
Mesfin Yimam, Ping Jiao, Mei Hong, Lidia Brownell, Hyun-Jin Kim, Young-Chul Lee, Qi Jia
Patients with osteoarthritis experience debilitating pain and loss of joint function that requires chronic treatment. While nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have been effective for temporary symptomatic relief, their long term usage has been limited by their associated side-effects. UP1306, a standardized novel composition from the extracts of root barks of Morus alba and the heartwoods of Acacia catechu, has been used in over the counter joint care dietary supplements as a safer alternative. These two medicinal plants have long track records of safe human consumption...
January 30, 2018: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29405851/effect-of-warning-placement-on-the-information-processing-of-college-students-reading-an-otc-drug-facts-panel
#16
Archita H Bhansali, Darshan S Sangani, Shivani K Mhatre, Sujit S Sansgiry
OBJECTIVE: To compare three over-the-counter (OTC) Drug Facts panel versions for information processing optimization among college students. PARTICIPANTS: University of Houston students (N = 210) participated in a cross-sectional survey from January to May 2010. METHODS: A current FDA label was compared to two experimental labels developed using the theory of CHREST to test information processing by re-positioning the warning information within the Drug Facts panel...
February 6, 2018: Journal of American College Health: J of ACH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29402478/probiotic-use-in-equine-gastrointestinal-disease
#17
REVIEW
Angelika Schoster
Probiotics are commonly used in human and veterinary medicine due to their postulated positive effects on overall and specifically gastrointestinal health. Although some beneficial effects have been shown in several human diseases, a general beneficial effect of probiotics is currently not supported. In horses, well-designed studies to date are few, results are conflicting, and the effects of probiotics are questionable. Adverse effects are rare; however, intestinal adverse effects (diarrhea) have been reported in foals...
February 2, 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29398904/a-single-vectored-thermal-pulsation-treatment-for-meibomian-gland-dysfunction-increases-mean-comfortable-contact-lens-wearing-time-by-approximately-4-hours-per-day
#18
Caroline A Blackie, Christy A Coleman, Kelly K Nichols, Lyndon Jones, Peter Q Chen, Ron Melton, David L Kading, Leslie E O'Dell, Sruthi Srinivasan
Purpose: To evaluate the effect of a single vectored thermal pulsation (VTP) treatment in contact lens wearers with meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) and dry eye symptoms. Methods: The prospective, nonsignificant risk, open-label, randomized, multi-center clinical trial included 55 soft contact lens (SCL) wearers with MGD and evaporative dry eye. Subjects were randomized to the single VTP treatment group or an untreated control. The controls received a crossover VTP treatment at 3 months (crossover treatment group)...
2018: Clinical Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29396284/green-tea-extract-affects-porcine-ovarian-cell-apoptosis
#19
Shubhadeep Roychoudhury, Marek Halenar, Katarina Michalcova, Sangeeta Nath, Miroslava Kacaniova, Adriana Kolesarova
Green tea is a commonly used beverage and green tea extract is a common dietary herbal supplement manufactured into different over-the-counter products. The aim of this in vitro study was to examine the steroid hormone secretion (progesterone and 17-β estradiol), proliferation and apoptosis of porcine ovarian granulosa cells after addition of green tea extract. Granulosa cells were incubated with green tea extract at five doses (0.1, 1, 10, 100 and 200 μg/ml) and the release of hormones by granulosa cells was assessed by EIA after 24 h exposure...
January 30, 2018: Reproductive Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29395780/interest-in-over-the-counter-access-to-a-progestin-only-pill-among-women-in-the-united-states
#20
Kate Grindlay, Daniel Grossman
BACKGROUND: A progestin-only pill may be the first pill formulation to become available over the counter in the United States; however, no research on over-the-counter (OTC) pill interest has focused on progestin-only pills or a representative sample of teens. The objective of this study was to assess U.S. women and teens' interest in OTC progestin-only pill use. METHODS: In October 2015, we conducted a nationally representative, cross-sectional, online survey with 2,026 sexually active adult women aged 18 to 44 not currently desiring pregnancy, and 513 female teens aged 15 to 17...
December 26, 2017: Women's Health Issues: Official Publication of the Jacobs Institute of Women's Health
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