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Claus G Roehrborn, Martin M Miner, Richard Sadovsky
In this review, we focus on current trends in the management of male lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), defined here as LUTS, namely, storage, voiding, and post-micturition symptoms presumed secondary to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), and discuss possible novel approaches toward better care. According to results of a PubMed database search covering the last 10 years and using keywords pertaining to male LUTS, this condition continues to be globally undiagnosed or diagnosed late, partly because of men's hesitation to seek help for perceived embarrassing problems or problems considered a normal part of aging...
June 22, 2018: Postgraduate Medicine
Karen Head, Kornkiat Snidvongs, Simon Glew, Glenis Scadding, Anne Gm Schilder, Carl Philpott, Claire Hopkins
BACKGROUND: Allergic rhinitis is a common condition affecting both adults and children. Patients experience symptoms of nasal obstruction, rhinorrhoea, sneezing and nasal itching, which may affect their quality of life.Nasal irrigation with saline (salty water), also known as nasal douching, washing or lavage, is a procedure that rinses the nasal cavity with isotonic or hypertonic saline solutions. It can be performed with low positive pressure from a spray, pump or squirt bottle, with a nebuliser or with gravity-based pressure in which the person instils saline into one nostril and allows it to drain out of the other...
June 22, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Ramesh Sharma Poudel, Shakti Shrestha, Santosh Thapa, Bhupendra Kumar Poudel, Muniraj Chhetri
Background: Appropriate labeling of marketed medicines is necessary to fulfill the regulatory provisions and ensure patient medication safety. This study aimed to assess the primary labeling of medicines manufactured and marketed by Nepalese pharmaceutical industries. Methods: We assessed the primary labeling of all medicines available at the pharmacy of Chitwan Medical College Teaching Hospital (CMCTH), Chitwan, Nepal, between November 2017 to December 2017. Medicines were assessed as required by Drug Standard Regulation, 2043 (1986 AD) of Nepal...
2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice
João Mauricio Castaldelli-Maia, Silvia S Martins, Natalie Walker
BACKGROUND: There is just one study comparing the effectiveness of cytisine and nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) for smoking cessation. In the Russian Federation, both products are widely available as over-the-counter medications. Data on the real-world use of these medications among the general population would be informative. METHODS: Cross-sectional study using data from a nationally representative household survey of adults aged ≥ 15 years from the Russian Federation (part of the Global Tobacco Surveillance System Data)...
June 18, 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
Diane D McConnell, Joe W McGreevy, Macy N Williams, N Scott Litofsky
Background: Cancer patients often take over-the-counter anti-oxidants as primary treatment or in combination with chemotherapy. Data about such use in glioblastoma is limited. Methods: Cultured U87-MG cells, a primary glioblastoma cell line (MU1454), U87-MG derived stem-like cells (scU87), and MU1454 derived stem-like cell lines (scMU1454) were pre-treated with one of three anti-oxidants—Vitamin D₃, Melatonin, and alpha-lipoic acid (LA)—for 72 h, followed by a 72 h treatment with temozolomide (TMZ)...
June 20, 2018: Medicines (Basel, Switzerland)
Timon Geib, André LeBlanc, Tze Chieh Shiao, René Roy, Elaine M Leslie, Constantine J Karvellas, Lekha Sleno
RATIONALE: Acetaminophen (APAP) is a well-known analgesic, deemed a very safe over-the-counter medication. However, it is also the main cause of acute liver failure (ALF) in the Western world, via the formation of its reactive metabolite, N-acetyl p-benzoquinone imine (NAPQI), and its covalent attachment to liver proteins. The aim of this study was to develop a sensitive and robust quantitative assay to monitor APAP-protein binding to human serum albumin (HSA) in patient samples. METHODS: A combination of isotope dilution, peptic digestion and solid-phase extraction coupled to liquid chromatography-multiple reaction monitoring (LC-MRM) was employed...
June 19, 2018: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
Alia Moore, Sarah Ryan, Carol Stamm
Federal regulations governing access to levonorgestrel (LNG) emergency contraception (EC) have evolved since its introduction in the 1990s. LNG EC was initially available by prescription only, but is now available over-the-counter to consumers of all ages. Nonetheless, consumers seeking EC in their communities may face ongoing barriers to access including low stock and inaccurate information provided by pharmacy staff. We conducted a review of LNG EC secret shopper studies to describe changes in EC access and barriers over time...
June 19, 2018: Women & Health
Anna Marie Jilla, Carole E Johnson, Jeffrey L Danhauer
Recently, President Trump signed into law the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Reauthorization Act of 2017, which included the Over-the-Counter Hearing Aid Act designed to provide greater public accessibility to and affordability of amplification for individuals with self-identified mild and moderate hearing loss through the provision of over-the-counter (OTC) hearing aids (HAs) with a direct-to-consumer (DTC) delivery model. American Speech-Language-Hearing Association and American Academy of Audiology Position Statements on OTC HAs state that these devices should only be used for adults with mild hearing losses...
May 2018: Seminars in Hearing
Anna Marie Jilla, Carole E Johnson, Jeffrey L Danhauer
Limited accessibility to and affordability of hearing health care (HHC) and hearing aids (HAs) are two reasons why people do not seek treatment for their hearing losses. This article is the first in a series of two and discusses affordability issues (i.e., billing models, cost-effectiveness, insurance coverage, and reimbursement) related to and provides a historical context for the Over-the-Counter Hearing Aid Act of 2017. This piece of legislation supports development of a new class of over-the-counter HAs that represents a disruptive technology that may transform the HHC industry by reducing costs specific to the device...
May 2018: Seminars in Hearing
Harsha R Mittakanti, Christopher S Elliott
Male enhancement and erectile dysfunction supplements are typically non-Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved and readily available for purchase by anyone. Longstanding priapism is a significant potential side effect. A 25-year-old man presented with a 48-h priapism after taking Rhino 7 Platinum 3000. He required bilateral corpo-glanular shunting to alleviate his priapism. On initial 2-week follow-up, he had significant fibrosis of the corporal bodies bilaterally and had been unable to achieve an erection...
June 19, 2018: International Journal of Impotence Research
R C Hamdy, A Kinser, K Dickerson, T Kendall-Wilson, A Depelteau, R Copeland, K Whalen
Insomnia is a common problem in older people, especially in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) whose circadian rhythm is often compromised. Insomnia exerts such a toll on caregivers that it is frequently the primary reason for seeking to institutionalize their loved ones. Three different types of insomnia are recognized: sleep-onset or initial insomnia, sleep maintenance or middle insomnia, and early morning awakening or late insomnia. Nocturnal hypoglycemia, as a cause of middle insomnia, is the main focus of this case study...
January 2018: Gerontology & Geriatric Medicine
Georgia Kritikos, Nicole Weidner, James L Atkinson, Julie Bayle, Ingrid van Hoek, Adronie Verbrugghe
OBJECTIVE To quantify vitamin D3 (VitD3 ) concentrations in commercial dog foods and compare those concentrations with Association of American Feed Control Officials (AAFCO) recommendations and manufacturer-reported concentrations. DESIGN Cross-sectional study. SAMPLE 82 commercial dog foods. PROCEDURES Samples of commercially available dog foods were obtained from owners of healthy dogs in the Guelph, ON, Canada, area and owners of dogs that were patients at the Ontario Veterinary College Health Sciences Centre's Mona Campbell Centre for Animal Cancer...
June 15, 2018: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
Paul-Emmanuel Devez, Olivier Epaulard
An estimated 28,000 French people infected with HIV remain undiagnosed, leading to HIV transmission and late-stage HIV infections. An over-the-counter HIV self-test has been available since September 2015. We thus aimed to explore people's perceptions of and intentions to use the test. An anonymous online questionnaire, targeting the general population and men who have sex with men (MSM) was distributed between November 2015 and January 2016. It explored at-risk sexual behavior, perceptions of the HIV self-test, and past and intended future use...
June 10, 2018: AIDS Care
Katherine Corsi, Virginia Lemay, K Kelly Orr, Lisa Cohen
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to quantify the financial impact of a pharmacist-driven pilot medication therapy management (MTM) program within a visiting nurse service (VNS) and identify types of medication-related problems affecting the home health care population. METHODS: Patients were contacted to schedule a home visit with the primary investigator. At the appointment, a comprehensive medication review (CMR) was completed, and data collected included primary reason for VNS care, comorbid diagnoses, number of prescription and nonprescription medications at time of visit, and type of pharmacist-identified medication therapy intervention(s)...
June 7, 2018: Journal of the American Pharmacists Association: JAPhA
Emmanuel Choffor-Nchinda, Leonel Christophe Atanga, Jobert Richie Nansseu, François Djomou
INTRODUCTION: Amoxicillin is the first-line antibiotic recommended by most scientific societies for the treatment of uncomplicated acute otitis media (AOM) in children and adults. In low-income and middle-income countries however, absence of setting-specific recommendations and antibiotic resistance, promoted by higher population density and over-the-counter antibiotic availability, could hamper the effectiveness of amoxicillin. We aim to provide updated information to enable evidence-based decisions for first-line therapy of uncomplicated AOM in our setting...
June 8, 2018: BMJ Open
Junko Yamaguchi, Kosaku Kinoshita, Akihiro Noda, Makoto Furukawa, Atsushi Sakurai
Acetaminophen is absorbed rapidly after oral intake, and serum concentration peaks within 4 hours. The Rumack-Matthew (RM) nomogram is widely used to identify the potential risk of liver dysfunction. However, the RM nomogram was intended for use only when a single agent was ingested. We report the case of a patient with overdose ingestion of an over-the-counter combination cold medication that contained acetaminophen, where the patient's serum concentration increased over time. Over-the-counter combination cold medications are designed to relieve cold symptoms...
January 1, 2018: Journal of International Medical Research
Eva Barrenberg, Hildtraud Knopf, Edeltraut Garbe
In order to assess the effects of prescription-only (Rx) to over-the-counter (OTC) drug switches and related policies, it is imperative to distinguish self-medication from OTC drug use. The objective of this study was to estimate the OTC drug use in the adult population in Germany, to identify its predictors and to highlight methodological differences when compared to the study of a self-medication prevalence. Seven-day prevalence of OTC drug use was calculated on the basis of information provided by 7091 participants of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults (DEGS1) conducted between 2008 to 2011...
June 7, 2018: Pharmacy (Basel, Switzerland)
Ibrar Anjum, Wafa Sohail, Betul Hatipoglu, Robert Wilson
Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS) is a heterogeneous disorder of the autonomic nervous system that is defined by symptoms of orthostatic intolerance. According to the current criteria for adults, currently, POTS is defined as a heart rate increment of 30 beats/minute or more after 10 minutes of standing in the absence of orthostatic hypotension. There is a vast majority that remains misdiagnosed due to the heterogeneity of the disorder. Due to a lack of Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved therapy, alternative therapies and over the counter medications are used to alleviate the symptoms...
April 5, 2018: Curēus
Adam D Farmer, Caroline Bruckner Holt, Thomas J Downes, Eugenio Ruggeri, Sara Del Vecchio, Roberto De Giorgio
Opioids are potent analgesics used for the treatment of acute and chronic pain. Side-effects are common and among the most bothersome are those associated with opioid-induced bowel dysfunction, which includes opioid-induced constipation. In this Review, we provide a summary of the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management of opioid-induced constipation, which can be defined as a change in baseline bowel habit or defecatory patterns following initiation, alteration, or increase of opioid therapy. Opioid-induced constipation is a consequence of the action of opioids on their receptors in the gastrointestinal tract...
March 2018: Lancet. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Cynthia A Stuenkel
Vasomotor symptoms are the most common manifestation of the menopause transition and postmenopausal phases of reproductive life. They interfere not only in quality of life, but also contribute to sleep and mood disturbances that potentially compromise home and work effectiveness. Treatment options include hormone therapy (HT), nonhormonal prescription drugs, mind body and behavior therapies, and over-the-counter preparations. Evidence confirms that HT is the most effective option. The initial reticence to prescribe HT immediately following publication of the Women's Health Initiative has been replaced by clear guidelines for confidently identifying women for whom this therapy will be safe...
May 31, 2018: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology
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