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Ang 2 AND thirst

Jeffrey P Coble, Justin L Grobe, Alan Kim Johnson, Curt D Sigmund
It is critical for cells to maintain a homeostatic balance of water and electrolytes because disturbances can disrupt cellular function, which can lead to profound effects on the physiology of an organism. Dehydration can be classified as either intra- or extracellular, and different mechanisms have developed to restore homeostasis in response to each. Whereas the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is important for restoring homeostasis after dehydration, the pathways mediating the responses to intra- and extracellular dehydration may differ...
February 15, 2015: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
Denovan P Begg, Andrew J Sinclair, Richard S Weisinger
During heat waves many elderly individuals die as a consequence of dehydration. This is partially due to deficits in mechanisms controlling thirst. Reduced thirst following dipsogenic stimuli is well documented in aged humans and rodents. Low in vivo long-chain omega-3 fatty acid levels, as can occur in aging, have been shown to alter body fluid and sodium homeostasis. Therefore, the effect of dietary omega-3 fatty acid supplementation on drinking responses in aged rats was examined. Omega-3 fatty acids reversed thirst deficits in aged rats following dehydration and hypertonic stimuli; angiotensin (ANG) II induced drinking was unaffected in aged rats...
October 2012: Neurobiology of Aging
Florence Wong, Pere Gines, Hugh Watson, Yves Horsmans, Paolo Angeli, Paul Gow, Pascal Minini, Mauro Bernardi
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Cirrhotic patients with recurrent ascites frequently require paracentesis despite diuretic therapy. Vasopressin receptor antagonists, by increasing free water clearance, may reduce the recurrence of ascites. To investigate the effects of the addition of a vasopressin V(2) receptor antagonist, satavaptan, to 100mg spironolactone on ascites recurrence after a large volume paracentesis in patients with liver cirrhosis irrespective of the presence of hyponatraemia. METHODS: One hundred and fifty one cirrhotic patients with recurrent ascites with or without hyponatraemia, and normal to mildly abnormal renal function were randomised in a double-blind study to receive either 5mg (n=39), 12...
August 2010: Journal of Hepatology
Sho Maejima, Norifumi Konno, Kouhei Matsuda, Minoru Uchiyama
Angiotensin II (Ang II) stimulates oral water intake by causing thirst in all terrestrial vertebrates except anurans. Anuran amphibians do not drink orally but absorb water osmotically through ventral skin. In this study, we examined the role of Ang II on the regulation of water-absorption behavior in the Japanese tree frog (Hyla japonica). In fully hydrated frogs, intracerebroventricular (ICV) and intralymphatic sac (ILS) injection of Ang II significantly extended the residence time of water in a dose-dependent manner...
August 2010: Hormones and Behavior
Srinivas Sriramula, Masudul Haque, Dewan S A Majid, Joseph Francis
Hypertension is considered a low-grade inflammatory condition induced by various proinflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha. Recent studies have implicated an involvement of TNF-alpha in the development of salt-sensitive hypertension induced by angiotensin II (Ang II). To understand further the relationship between TNF-alpha and Ang II, we examined the responses to Ang II in TNF-alpha knockout (TNF-alpha(-/-)) mice in the present study. A continuous infusion of Ang II (1 microg/kg per minute) for 2 weeks was given to both TNF-alpha(-/-) and wild-type (WT) mice with implanted osmotic minipumps...
May 2008: Hypertension
Janet D Klein, Brian P Murrell, Suzanne Tucker, Young-Hee Kim, Jeff M Sands
The kidney responds to high levels of ANG II, as may occur during malignant hypertension, by increasing sodium and water excretion. To study whether kidney medullary transporters contribute to this response, rats were made hypertensive using ANG II. Within 3 days of being given ANG II, systolic blood pressure (BP) was increased (200 mmHg), vs control (130 mmHg), and remained high through day 14. Kidney inner medullary (IM) tip and base and outer medulla were analyzed for transporter protein abundance. There were significant decreases in UT-A1 urea transporter, aquaporin-2 (AQP2) water channel, and NKCC2/BSC1 Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-) cotransporter...
November 2006: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
Melissa A Cadnapaphornchai, Boris Rogachev, Sandra N Summer, Yung-Chang Chen, Lajos Gera, John M Stewart, Robert W Schrier
Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition (ACEI) with captopril has been shown to increase water intake and urine output in rats, but the mechanism is unknown. ACEI impairs the conversion of ANG I to ANG II, a dipsogenic hormone, and impairs the degradation of bradykinin. The goal of this study was to examine the role of bradykinin in the polydipsia and polyuria associated with ACEI. Male Sprague-Dawley rats received captopril (CPT; 20 in ground chow for 48 h. Water intake, food intake, and urine output were monitored and compared with control rats (CTL), rats receiving captopril treatment with limited water intake (CPT-LIM), and rats receiving captopril treatment with ad libitum water intake plus 24-h treatment with the bradykinin antagonist B-9430 (CPT-BK1)...
May 2004: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
Luiz Antonio de Arruda Camargo, Wilson Abrão Saad, Paulo Sérgio Cerri
In this study, we investigated the influence of d(CH(2))(5)-Tyr (Me)-AVP (AAVP) an antagonist of V(1) receptors of arginine(8)-vasopressin (AVP) and the effects of losartan and CGP42112A (selective ligands of the AT(1) and AT(2) angiotensin receptors, respectively) injections into the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) on the thirst effects of AVP stimulation of the lateral septal area (LSA). AVP injection into the LSA increased the water intake in a dose-dependent manner. AAVP injected into the PVN produced a dose-dependent reduction of the drinking responses elicited by LSA administration of AVP...
September 30, 2003: Brain Research Bulletin
E Szczepańska-Sadowska, P Paczwa, J Dobruch
In short term experiments angiotensin II (Ang II) is a potent stimulant of thirst, however it is not known whether prolonged activation of the renin-angiotensin system is associated with chronic alteration of water or food intake. Renin transgenic rats TGRmRen(2)27 (TGR) exhibit significant elevation of AngII in the brain regions involved in regulation of body fluid balance. The purpose of the present study was to find out whether TGR rats manifest also different water (WI) and food (FI) intake and renal excretory functions in comparison to their parent Sprague Dawley (SD) strain...
March 2003: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
Sean D Stocker, Carrie A Smith, Celeste M Kimbrough, Edward M Stricker, Alan F Sved
Increased dietary salt intake was used as a nonpharmacological tool to blunt hypotension-induced increases in plasma renin activity (PRA) in order to evaluate the contribution of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) to hypotension-induced thirst. Rats were maintained on 8% NaCl (high) or 1% NaCl (standard) diet for at least 2 wk, and then arterial hypotension was produced by administration of the arteriolar vasodilator diazoxide. Despite marked reductions in PRA, rats maintained on the high-salt diet drank similar amounts of water, displayed similar latencies to drink, and had similar degrees of hypotension compared with rats maintained on the standard diet...
June 2003: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
Nina S Stachenfeld, David L Keefe
To determine estrogen effects on osmotic regulation of arginine vasopressin (AVP) and body fluids, we suppressed endogenous estrogen and progesterone using the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) analog leuprolide acetate (GnRHa). Subjects were assigned to one of two groups: 1) GnRHa alone, then GnRHa + estrogen (E, n = 9, 25 +/- 1 yr); 2) GnRHa alone, then GnRHa + estrogen with progesterone (E/P, n = 6, 26 +/- 3). During GnRHa alone and with hormone treatment, we compared AVP and body fluid regulatory responses to 3% NaCl infusion (HSI, 120 min, 0...
October 2002: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
Sean D Stocker, Edward M Stricker, Alan F Sved
The present study sought to determine whether arterial baroreceptor afferents mediate the inhibitory effect of an acute increase in arterial blood pressure (AP) on thirst stimulated by systemically administered ANG II or by hyperosmolality. Approximately 2 wk after sinoaortic denervation, one of four doses of ANG II (10, 40, 100, or 250 ng. kg(-1) x min(-1)) was infused intravenously in control and complete sinoaortic-denervated (SAD) rats. Complete SAD rats ingested more water than control rats when infused with 40, 100, or 250 ng x kg(-1) x min(-1) ANG II...
June 2002: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
Chagriya Kitiyakara, William J Welch, Joseph G Verbalis, Christopher S Wilcox
Central angiotensin II (ANG II) regulates thirst. Because thromboxane A2-prostaglandin H2 (TP) receptors are expressed in the brain and mediate some of the effects of ANG II in the vasculature, we investigated the hypothesis that TP receptors mediate the drinking response to intracerebroventricular (icv) injections of ANG II. Pretreatment with the specific TP-receptor antagonist ifetroban (Ifet) decreased water intake with 50 ng/kg icv ANG II (ANG II + Veh, 7.2 +/- 0.7 ml vs. ANG II + Ifet, 2.8 +/- 0.8 ml; n = 5 rats; P < 0...
March 2002: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
Laurival A De Luca, Zhice Xu, Guus H M Schoorlemmer, Robert L Thunhorst, Terry G Beltz, José V Menani, Alan Kim Johnson
Adult rats deprived of water for 24-30 h were allowed to rehydrate by ingesting only water for 1-2 h. Rats were then given access to both water and 1.8% NaCl. This procedure induced a sodium appetite defined by the operational criteria of a significant increase in 1.8% NaCl intake (3.8 +/- 0.8 ml/2 h; n = 6). Expression of Fos (as assessed by immunohistochemistry) was increased in the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis (OVLT), median preoptic nucleus (MnPO), subfornical organ (SFO), and supraoptic nucleus (SON) after water deprivation...
February 2002: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
K K Ang, D J McKitrick, P A Phillips, L F Arnolda
1. Drinking behaviour after water deprivation is one of the standard tests used to study thirst in humans and animals. Diurnal cycle and food availability are known to influence water intake, but have not been considered in previous studies of thirst after water deprivation. In the present study, we examined the effects of diurnal variation and food availability on water intake after 24 h water deprivation in rats. 2. All rats cycled through four treatments in varying order. These treatments were: (i) 24 h water deprivation with free access to food from 1900 h one day to 1900 h the next day, followed by free access to both food and water (Night-with-Food); (ii) 24 h water deprivation with free access to food from from 1900 h one day to 1900 h the next day, followed by free access to water but not food (Night-without-Food); (iii) 24 h water deprivation with free access to food from 0700 h one day to 0700 h the next day, followed by free access to both food and water (Day-with-Food); or (iv) 24 h water deprivation with free access to food from 0700 h one day to 0700 h the next day, followed by free access to water but not food (Day-without-Food)...
September 2001: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
L A Camargo, W A Saad
In this study we investigated the influence of alpha-adrenergic antagonists injections into the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus on the thirst and salt appetite, diuresis, natriuresis, and pressor effects of angiotensin II (ANG II) stimulation of medial septal area (MSA). ANG II injection into the MSA induced water and sodium intake, diuresis, natriuresis, and pressor responses. The previous injection of prazosin (an alpha(1)-adrenergic antagonist) into the PVN abolished, whereas previous administration of yohimbine (an alpha(2)-adrenergic antagonist) into the PVN increased the water and sodium intake, urinary, natriuretic, and pressor responses induced by ANG II injected into the MSA...
April 2001: Brain Research Bulletin
Z Xu, C Glenda, L Day, J Yao, M G Ross
The present study examined physiological and cellular responses to central application of ANG II in ovine fetuses and determined the fetal central ANG-mediated dipsogenic sites in utero. Chronically prepared near-term ovine fetuses (130 +/- 2 days) received injection of ANG II (1.5 microg/kg icv). Fetuses were monitored for 3.5 h for swallowing activity, after which animals were killed and fetal brains were perfused for subsequent Fos staining. Intracerebroventricular ANG II significantly increased fetal swallowing in near-term ovine fetuses (1...
June 2001: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
R S Weisinger, J R Blair-West, P Burns, D A Denton, B Purcell
Na and water intakes of Na-depleted sheep are influenced by changes in cerebral Na concentration. The effect of intracerebroventricular infusion of somatostatin or losartan, the ANG II type 1 receptor antagonist, on the Na appetite and thirst of Na-depleted sheep during infusions that decrease (intracerebroventricular hypertonic mannitol) or increase (intracerebroventricular or systemic hypertonic NaCl) cerebral Na concentration was investigated. Na intake was increased but water intake was unchanged during intracerebroventricular infusion of hypertonic mannitol...
March 2001: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
D Albrecht, T Nitschke, O Von Bohlen Und Halbach
The effects of iontophoretically ejected angiotensin II (Ang II) on the firing rate of neurons in the basolateral complex and the central and cortical amygdala were investigated in two strains of urethane anesthetized rats. In normotensive Sprague-Dawley rats, Ang II induced a significant increase in the discharge rate of responsive amygdaloid neurons. In contrast, in the hypertensive transgenic [TGR(mREN-2)27] rats with higher brain Ang II level, Ang II more often caused inhibitory effects on the amygdaloid firing rate in comparison with controls...
May 2000: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
R L Thunhorst, T G Beltz, A K Johnson
We examined the role of the subfornical organ (SFO) in stimulating thirst and salt appetite using two procedures that initiate water and sodium ingestion within 1-2 h of extracellular fluid depletion. The first procedure used injections of a diuretic (furosemide, 10 mg/kg sc) and a vasodilator (minoxidil, 1-3 mg/kg ia) to produce hypotension concurrently with hypovolemia. The resulting water and sodium intakes were inhibited by intravenous administration of ANG II receptor antagonist (sarthran, 8 micrograms ...
July 1999: American Journal of Physiology
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