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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029143/genome-wide-analysis-of-genetic-risk-factors-for-rheumatic-heart-disease-in-aboriginal-australians-provides-support-for-pathogenic-molecular-mimicry
#1
Lesley-Ann Gray, Heather A D'Antoine, Steven Y C Tong, Melita McKinnon, Dawn Bessarab, Ngaire Brown, Bo Reményi, Andrew Steer, Genevieve Syn, Jenefer M Blackwell, Michael Inouye, Jonathan R Carapetis
Background: Rheumatic heart disease (RHD) following Group A Streptococcus (GAS) infections is heritable and prevalent in Indigenous populations. Molecular mimicry between human and GAS proteins triggers pro-inflammatory cardiac valve-reactive T-cells. Methods: Genome-wide genetic analysis was undertaken in 1263 Aboriginal Australians (398 RHD cases; 865 controls). Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped using Illumina HumanCoreExome BeadChips. Direct typing and imputation was used to fine-map the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) region...
September 26, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027330/poor-nutrition-from-first-foods-a-cross-sectional-study-of-complementary-feeding-of-infants-and-young-children-in-six-remote-aboriginal-communities-across-northern-australia
#2
Dympna Leonard, Danielle Aquino, Nyssa Hadgraft, Fintan Thompson, Julia V Marley
AIM: To describe the first foods of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander infants and young children who were recruited to a nutrition promotion and anaemia prevention program conducted from 2010 to 2012, in six remote communities across northern Australia. METHODS: Food records (24-hour diet history, food variety checklist) were completed on recruitment by interview with a parent or carer. Cross-sectional analysis assessed the proportion of participants consuming recommended and not-recommended foods and drinks and meeting recommendations for meal frequency and dietary diversity...
October 13, 2017: Nutrition & Dietetics: the Journal of the Dietitians Association of Australia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025357/fatherhood-in-australian-aboriginal-and-torres-strait-islander-communities-an-examination-of-barriers-and-opportunities-to-strengthen-the-male-parenting-role
#3
Lyndon Reilly, Susan Rees
Traditional Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander societies value men's role as parents; however, the importance of promoting fatherhood as a key social determinant of men's well-being has not been fully appreciated in Western medicine. To strengthen the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander male parenting role, it is vital to examine current barriers and opportunities. The first author (a male Aboriginal health project officer) conducted yarning sessions in three remote Australian communities, two being Aboriginal, the other having a high Aboriginal population...
October 1, 2017: American Journal of Men's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021946/predictors-of-pneumococcal-carriage-and-the-effect-of-the-13-valent-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccination-in-the-western-australian-aboriginal-population
#4
Deirdre A Collins, Anke Hoskins, Thomas Snelling, Kalpani Senasinghe, Jacinta Bowman, Natalie A Stemberger, Amanda J Leach, Deborah Lehmann
BACKGROUND: The 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) was introduced to prevent invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in Western Australian (WA) Aboriginal people in 2001. PCV13 replaced PCV7 in July 2011, covering six additional pneumococcal serotypes; however, IPD rates remained high in Aboriginal people in WA. Upper respiratory tract pneumococcal carriage can precede IPD, and PCVs alter serotype distribution. METHODS: To assess the impact of PCV13 introduction, identify emerging serotypes, and assess risk factors for carriage, nasopharyngeal swabs and information on demographic characteristics, health, medication and living conditions from Aboriginal children and adults across WA from August 2008 to November 2014 were collected...
2017: Pneumonia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021079/blood-borne-virus-transmission-in-an-urban-culturally-diverse-neighbourhood-results-from-a-cross-sectional-bio-behavioural-survey-using-innovative-outreach-methods-in-a-hard-to-reach-population
#5
Elizabeth Peach, Shelley Cogger, Kat Byron, Penny Francis, Daniel O'Keefe, Peter Higgs, Mark Stoove, Kasey Elmore, Paul Dietze, Margaret Hellard
Background: Following a HIV outbreak among Aboriginal people in a culturally diverse inner-city suburb of Melbourne, a blood-borne virus (BBV) screening program was conducted to inform public health interventions to prevent transmission and facilitate timely diagnosis and linkage to care. Methods: In August-September 2014, community health workers recruited people who inject drugs (PWID) from a local needle and syringe program. Participants were tested for hepatitis C virus (HCV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), HIV and syphilis and completed a bio-behavioural questionnaire...
October 12, 2017: Sexual Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020957/social-disparities-in-the-prevalence-of-diabetes-in-australia-and-in-the-development-of-end-stage-renal-disease-due-to-diabetes-for-aboriginal-and-torres-strait-islanders-in-australia-and-maori-and-pacific-islanders-in-new-zealand
#6
Kathleen Hill, Paul Ward, Blair S Grace, Jonathan Gleadle
BACKGROUND: Disparities in health status occur between people with differing socioeconomic status and disadvantaged groups usually have the highest risk exposure and the worst health outcome. We sought to examine the social disparities in the population prevalence of diabetes and in the development of treated end stage renal disease due to type 1 diabetes which has not previously been studied in Australia and New Zealand in isolation from type 2 diabetes. METHODS: This observational study examined the population prevalence of diabetes in a sample of the Australian population (7,434,492) using data from the National Diabetes Services Scheme and of treated end stage renal disease due to diabetes using data from the Australian and New Zealand Dialysis and Transplant Registry...
October 11, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994725/-he-s-the-number-one-thing-in-my-world-application-of-the-precede-proceed-model-to-explore-child-car-seat-use-in-a-regional-community-in-new-south-wales
#7
Kate Hunter, Lisa Keay, Kathleen Clapham, Julie Brown, Lynne E Bilston, Marilyn Lyford, Celeste Gilbert, Rebecca Q Ivers
We explored the factors influencing the use of age-appropriate car seats in a community with a high proportion of Aboriginal families in regional New South Wales. We conducted a survey and three focus groups with parents of children aged 3-5 years enrolled at three early learning centres on the Australian south-east coast. Survey data were triangulated with qualitative data from focus groups and analysed using the PRECEDE-PROCEED conceptual framework. Of the 133 eligible families, 97 (73%) parents completed the survey including 31% of parents who reported their children were Aboriginal...
October 10, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987134/testing-for-type-2-diabetes-in-indigenous-australians-guideline-recommendations-and-current-practice
#8
Christine L Paul, Paul Ishiguchi, Catherine A D'Este, Jonathan E Shaw, Rob W Sanson-Fisher, Kristy Forshaw, Alessandra Bisquera, Jennifer Robinson, Claudia Koller, Sandra J Eades
OBJECTIVES: To determine the proportion of Aboriginal Controlled Community Health Service (ACCHS) patients tested according to three national diabetes testing guidelines; to investigate whether specific patient characteristics were associated with being tested. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Cross-sectional study of 20 978 adult Indigenous Australians not diagnosed with diabetes attending 18 ACCHSs across Australia. De-identified electronic whole service data for July 2010 - June 2013 were analysed...
August 4, 2017: Medical Journal of Australia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982808/cost-effectiveness-of-stroke-care-in-aboriginal-and-non-aboriginal-patients-an-observational-cohort-study-in-the-northern-territory-of-australia
#9
Yuejen Zhao, Steven Guthridge, Henrik Falhammar, Howard Flavell, Dominique A Cadilhac
OBJECTIVE: To assess cost-effectiveness of stroke care for Aboriginal compared with non-Aboriginal patients in the Northern Territory (NT), Australia. DESIGN: Cost-effectiveness analysis using data from a cohort-based follow-up study of stroke incidents. SETTING: Public hospitals in the NT from 1992 to 2013. PARTICIPANTS: Individual patient data were extracted and linked from the hospital inpatient and primary care information systems...
October 5, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980733/living-the-social-determinants-of-health-assemblages-in-a-remote-aboriginal-community
#10
Richard D Chenhall, Kate Senior
This article provides a critical discussion of the social determinants of health framework and compares it with theoretical perspectives, such as that offered by assemblage theory, offering an alternative view of the complex interplay between human relationships and the structures around us. We offer an ethnographic perspective, discussing the lived experiences of the social determinants in an Indigenous community in a remote part of northern Australia. [Indigenous health, social determinants of health, assemblages, ethnography, medical anthropology] This article is protected by copyright...
October 5, 2017: Medical Anthropology Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28979064/an-evaluation-of-multisystemic-therapy-with-australian-families
#11
Mark Porter, Leartluk Nuntavisit
This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of the Multisystemic Therapy (MST) intervention for Australian families invloved with the Specialist Child and Adolescent Mental Health Service (CAMHS). This program was implemented within the Western Australian Department of Health in 2005, and has continually operated two small clinical teams within the Perth metropolitan area since then. This intervention was specifically chosen to improve service access, engagement, and intervention with vulnerable families having young persons with a history of significant and enduring behavioural problems...
December 2016: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Family Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28976773/isolation-and-structural-characterization-of-echinocystic-acid-triterpenoid-saponins-from-the-australian-medicinal-and-food-plant-acacia-ligulata
#12
Diana Jæger, Chi P Ndi, Christoph Crocoll, Bradley S Simpson, Bekzod Khakimov, Ruth Marian Guzman-Genuino, John D Hayball, Xiaohui Xing, Vincent Bulone, Philip Weinstein, Birger L Møller, Susan J Semple
The Australian plant Acacia ligulata has a number of traditional food and medicinal uses by Australian Aboriginal people, although no bioactive compounds have previously been isolated from this species. Bioassay-guided fractionation of an ethanolic extract of the mature pods of A. ligulata led to the isolation of the two new echinocystic acid triterpenoid saponins, ligulatasides A (1) and B (2), which differ in the fine structure of their glycan substituents. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR, GC-MS, LC-MS/MS, and saccharide linkage analysis...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Natural Products
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28973397/aboriginal-youth-s-perceptions-of-traditional-and-commercial-tobacco-in-canada
#13
Fidji Gendron
Although tobacco has played an important role in Aboriginal culture for millennia, its more recent recreational use has resulted in serious health concerns among Aboriginal users. In Canada, First Nations youth have higher smoking rates than non-Aboriginal youth. The goals of this study were to examine Aboriginal youth's perceptions of traditional and commercial tobacco and to evaluate perception changes following workshops on traditional uses of tobacco by Elders and other community members, native plants used in ceremony and health impacts of cigarette smoking...
August 30, 2017: Health Promotion International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28970365/early-peritonitis-and-its-outcome-in-incident-peritoneal-dialysis-patients
#14
Emily J See, David W Johnson, Carmel M Hawley, Elaine M Pascoe, Darsy Darssan, Philip A Clayton, Monique Borlace, Sunil V Badve, Kamal Sud, Neil C Boudville, Yeoungjee Cho
BACKGROUND: Early-onset peritonitis is a serious complication of peritoneal dialysis (PD) and is associated with heightened risks of technique failure and death. The risk factors for early peritonitis and its outcomes are unknown. METHODS: This registry study examined all incident Australian PD patients between 2003 and 2014. The primary outcome was early peritonitis, defined as onset within 12 months of starting therapy. Secondary outcomes were medical cure, relapse/recurrence, catheter removal, peritonitis-associated technique failure, and peritonitis-associated death...
September 28, 2017: Peritoneal Dialysis International: Journal of the International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28965536/effect-of-an-ageing-population-on-services-for-the-elderly-in-the-northern-territory
#15
Michael Lowe, Pasqualina Coffey
Objective The aim of the present study was to describe the elderly population of the Northern Territory (NT), explore the challenges of delivering aged care services to this population and implications for the acute care sector.Methods Data gathered from a variety of sources were used to describe the demographic and health profile of elderly Territorians, the aged care structure and services in the NT, and admission trends of elderly patients in NT hospitals. Information regarding NT community and residential aged care services was sourced from government reports...
October 2, 2017: Australian Health Review: a Publication of the Australian Hospital Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961160/assessing-and-validating-an-educational-resource-package-for-health-professionals-to-improve-smoking-cessation-care-in-aboriginal-and-torres-strait-islander-pregnant-women
#16
Yael Bar-Zeev, Michelle Bovill, Billie Bonevski, Maree Gruppetta, Jennifer Reath, Gillian S Gould
Australian Aboriginal pregnant women have a high smoking prevalence (45%). Health professionals lack adequate educational resources to manage smoking. Resources need to be tailored to ensure saliency, cultural-sensitivity and account for diversity of Indigenous populations. As part of an intervention to improve health professionals' smoking cessation care in Aboriginal pregnant women, a resource package was developed collaboratively with two Aboriginal Medical Services. The purpose of this study was to assess and validate this resource package...
September 29, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951343/the-relationship-between-treatment-for-strongyloides-stercoralis-infection-and-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-in-an-australian-aboriginal-population-a-three-year-cohort-study
#17
Russell Hays, Paul Giacomin, Lennart Olma, Adrian Esterman, Robyn McDermott
AIM: To determine the effect of treatment for Strongyloides stercoralis infection on type 2 diabetes mellitus in an Australian Aboriginal population. METHODS: A three-year cohort study of 259 Aboriginal adults living in northern Australia. Subjects were tested for S. stercoralis infection, diabetic status and HbA1c at recruitment. 92 subjects were ELISA positive for S. stercoralis and 91 were treated with two doses of ivermectin 0.2mg/kg. Serological cure was assessed after 6months and those who remained positive were retreated...
September 23, 2017: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28950874/-work-it-out-evaluation-of-a-chronic-condition-self-management-program-for-urban-aboriginal-and-torres-strait-islander-people-with-or-at-risk-of-cardiovascular-disease
#18
Kyly Mills, Michelle L Gatton, Ray Mahoney, Alison Nelson
BACKGROUND: Chronic diseases disproportionately burden Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people in Australia, with cardiovascular (CV) diseases being the greatest contributor. To improve quality of life and life expectancy for people living with CV disease, secondary prevention strategies such as rehabilitation and self-management programs are critical. However, there is no published evidence examining the effect of chronic condition self-management (CCSM) group programs for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people who have, or are at risk of, CV disease specifically...
September 26, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28949835/the-canadian-otolaryngology-head-and-neck-surgery-workforce-in-the-urban-rural-continuum-longitudinal-data-from-2002-to-2013
#19
Matthew G Crowson, Vincent Lin
Objectives To evaluate the proportion of otolaryngology-head and neck surgery (OHNS) providers who are rural versus urban based from 2002 to 2013. Secondary objective was to present perspectives of rural primary care providers on unmet needs for OHNS services. Study Design Mixed methods database analysis and prospective survey. Setting National administrative database. Subjects and Methods The Canadian Medical Association OHNS provider Masterfile and the Statistics Canada postal code file were used to determine provincial, urban, rural, and Aboriginal group care coverage...
September 1, 2017: Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28948178/snowshoe-hare-virus-causing-meningoencephalitis-in-a-young-adult-from-northern-manitoba-canada
#20
Lawrence Lau, Beverly Wudel, Kamran Kadkhoda, Yoav Keynan
We describe a dramatic presentation of meningoencephalitis, in a young Aboriginal male from Northern Manitoba, due to infection with the Snowshoe hare virus, a member of the California serogroup viruses. Snowshoe hare virus represents a rare cause of meningoencephalitis, and, to date, few Canadian cases have been described in the literature.
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
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