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Gastrointestinal disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231915/lactobacillus-gasseri-endocarditis-on-the-aortic-valve-bioprosthesis-a-case-report
#1
Waldemar Elikowski, Małgorzata Małek-Elikowska, Monika Lisiecka, Anna Bodora, Katarzyna Wiśniewska, Zofia Oko-Sarnowska
Lactobacillus is a genus of Gram-positive, facultative anaerobic/ microaerophilic, rod-shaped bacteria. Lactobacilli constitute a significant component of the human microbiota in the oral cavity, gastrointestinal tract and female urogenital tract. They are also widely used as probiotics. Rarely, especially in patients with impaired immunity or with structural heart disease, do Lactobacilli become the pathogen responsible for serious infections, e.g. infective endocarditis (IE). CASE REPORT: The authors describe a case of an 80-year-old female with a past history of aortic valve replacement, mitral annuloplasty and pacemaker implantation admitted to hospital due to weakening, subfebrile state and chills...
November 23, 2017: Polski Merkuriusz Lekarski: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231488/-clinical-data-analysis-of-279-inpatients-with-acupuncture-consultation-in-a-comprehensive-hospital
#2
Yamin Zhang, Hua Sun, Suhui Chen, Hong Xu, Fei Bao
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the current status of acupuncture consultation in Peking Union Medical College Hospital, which could provide references and suggestions for the development of acupuncture at comprehensive hospitals and the treatment of diseases. METHODS: The source of departments, the number of patients, the number of consultation, treatment frequency, consultation reasons and western medicine diagnosis of 279 inpatients who received acupuncture consultation were analyzed...
February 12, 2017: Zhongguo Zhen Jiu, Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230485/-importance-of-functional-diagnostics-in-gastroenterology
#3
REVIEW
M Hollenbach, A Hoffmeister, J Rosendahl, J Mössner
In this review article important and frequently used investigation methods for gastrointestinal functional diagnostics are presented. Some other rarely used special investigations are also explained. The hydrogen breath test is simple to carry out, ubiquitously available and enables the detection of lactose, fructose and sorbitol malabsorption. Furthermore, by the application of glucose, the test can be carried out when there is a suspicion of abnormal intestinal bacterial colonization and using lactulose for measuring small intestinal transit time...
December 11, 2017: Der Internist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230339/nodular-lymphocyte-predominant-hodgkin-lymphoma-of-the-ileum
#4
Aruna Rangan, Sarah W Grahn, Andrew L Feldman
Nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma (NLPHL) is a rare lymphoma derived from germinal center B lymphocytes that typically presents with localized lymph node involvement and can mimic a variety of both reactive and other neoplastic conditions. Extranodal involvement is uncommon in NLPHL and typically occurs in the context of previously documented or synchronous nodal disease. Involvement of the gastrointestinal tract is exceedingly rare. Here, we present the first case to our knowledge of NLPHL involving the ileum that was discovered incidentally on routine screening colonoscopy in an asymptomatic patient...
2017: Case Reports in Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230240/utility-of-endoscopic-examination-in-the-diagnosis-of-acute-graft-versus-host-disease-in-the-lower-gastrointestinal-tract
#5
Kosuke Nomura, Toshiro Iizuka, Daisuke Kaji, Hisashi Yamamoto, Yasutaka Kuribayashi, Masami Tanaka, Tsukasa Furuhata, Satoshi Yamashita, Daisuke Kikuchi, Akira Matsui, Toshifumi Mitani, Yasunori Ota, Shuichi Taniguchi, Shu Hoteya
Background and Aims: We retrospectively investigated the incidence of acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) in the lower gastrointestinal (GI) tract and the diagnostic accuracy of endoscopy. Methods: Of 1231 patients who underwent allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation between January 2005 and December 2014, 186 of whom underwent colonoscopy and biopsy and had no cytomegalovirus infection. The endoscopic findings and histologic diagnosis from these 186 patients were retrospectively analyzed...
2017: Gastroenterology Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230215/potential-effects-of-horizontal-gene-exchange-in-the-human-gut
#6
Aaron Lerner, Torsten Matthias, Rustam Aminov
Many essential functions of the human body are dependent on the symbiotic microbiota, which is present at especially high numbers and diversity in the gut. This intricate host-microbe relationship is a result of the long-term coevolution between the two. While the inheritance of mutational changes in the host evolution is almost exclusively vertical, the main mechanism of bacterial evolution is horizontal gene exchange. The gut conditions, with stable temperature, continuous food supply, constant physicochemical conditions, extremely high concentration of microbial cells and phages, and plenty of opportunities for conjugation on the surfaces of food particles and host tissues, represent one of the most favorable ecological niches for horizontal gene exchange...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230210/checkpoint-blockade-toxicity-and-immune-homeostasis-in-the-gastrointestinal-tract
#7
REVIEW
Michael Dougan
Monoclonal antibodies targeting the regulatory immune "checkpoint" receptors CTLA-4, PD-1, and PD-L1 are now standard therapy for diverse malignancies including melanoma, lung cancer, and renal cell carcinoma. Although effective in many patients and able to induce cures in some, targeting these regulatory pathways has led to a new class of immune-related adverse events. In many respects, these immune toxicities resemble idiopathic autoimmune diseases, such as inflammatory bowel disease, autoimmune hepatitis, rheumatoid arthritis, and vitiligo...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230136/managing-the-adult-patient-with-short-bowel-syndrome
#8
Carol Rees Parrish, John K DiBaise
Short bowel syndrome (SBS) is a malabsorptive disorder associated with significant morbidity and mortality, reduced quality of life, and high health care costs. Managing the patient with SBS requires an understanding of gastrointestinal anatomy and physiology; a dedicated multidisciplinary team; and the coordination of dietary, fluid, pharmacologic, and comorbid disease management. This article provides an overview of the current state of management of SBS, including a practical approach to optimizing the care and quality of life of the adult patient with SBS...
October 2017: Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230128/sigmoid-colonic-polyp-as-initial-presentation-of-metastatic-papillary-renal-cell-carcinoma
#9
Andrew C Berry, Rahman Nakshabendi, Ozdemir Kanar, Wayne Cai, Mohan Persaud
Background: Upon initial presentation, 25%-30% of patients with renal cell carcinoma have metastatic disease. Metastasis to the gastrointestinal tract is rare, but when it occurs, the large bowel is the least common site. Case Report: A 75-year-old white male presented with vague abdominal symptoms and worsening hemoglobin and hematocrit levels. Colonoscopy revealed a polyp in the distal portion of the sigmoid colon. Histologic and immunohistochemical analysis suggested metastatic papillary renal cell carcinoma...
2017: Ochsner Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229450/gastric-emptying-time-esophageal-ph-impedance-parameters-quality-of-life-and-gastrointestinal-comorbidity-in-obese-children-and-adolescents
#10
Paolo Quitadamo, Letizia Zenzeri, Enza Mozzillo, Irene Cuccurullo, Alba Rocco, Adriana Franzese, Gerardo Nardone, Annamaria Staiano
OBJECTIVES: To provide further evidence regarding the relationship between obesity and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) in children, through the use of 13C-octanoic acid breath test for gastric emptying time (GET) assessment and esophageal multichannel intraluminal impedance pH-testing (MII-pH). STUDY DESIGN: Obese children aged 4-17 years completed a questionnaire investigating reflux symptoms, the presence of functional gastrointestinal disorders, and quality of life...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228839/validation-of-fatigue-impact-scale-with-various-item-sets-a-rasch-analysis
#11
Åsa Lundgren-Nilsson, Alan Tennant, Sofie Jakobsson, Magnus Simrén, Charles Taft, Anna Dencker
PURPOSE: Fatigue is a symptom in patients with chronic gastrointestinal (GI) and liver diseases. Different instruments have been developed to assess the severity of fatigue and the 40-item Fatigue Impact Scale (FIS) is among the most widely used. Shorter versions of FIS include the 21-item Modified Fatigue Impact Scale (MFIS), and an eight-item version for everyday use. The study aimed to assess construct validity, reliability, and sufficiency of the raw score of the original FIS with 40 items, and examine the sufficiency of the 21 items from the Modified scale and the eight items of the Daily Fatigue Impact Scale (D-FIS), all of which are embedded in the 40-item scale...
December 12, 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228790/an-evidence-based-study-on-medicinal-plants-for-hemorrhoids-in-medieval-persia
#12
Mohammad Hashem Hashempur, Fatemeh Khademi, Maryam Rahmanifard, Mohammad M Zarshenas
Hemorrhoids is one of the most common gastrointestinal diseases. There are several therapeutic options associated with some complications. Therefore, researchers look for traditional medicines as a potential resource for introduction of new natural drugs. The current study reports an evidence-based review of herbal remedies for hemorrhoids in traditional Persian medicine. A comprehensive survey about hemorrhoids on the most important manuscripts of traditional Persian medicine was done. Then, scientific data banks were searched for possible related properties of each herb in the conventional medicine...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Evidence-based Complementary & Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228659/prospective-randomized-phase-ii-study-of-folfiri-versus-folfox7-in-advanced-gastric-adenocarcinoma-a-chinese-western-cooperative-gastrointestinal-oncology-group-study
#13
Qiu Li, Feng Wen, Chengya Zhou, Meng Qiu, Jiyan Liu, Jing Chen, Cheng Yi, Zhiping Li, Deyun Luo, Feng Xu, Xiaohong Cai, Feng Bi
Until now, no standard chemotherapy has been widely accepted for advanced gastric cancer (GC). The current research aimed to compare folinic acid, fluorouracil with irinotecan (mFOLFIRI) or with oxaliplatin (mFOLFOX7) as first-line treatments in patients with locally advanced GC in an open, randomized, phase II study. Previously untreated metastatic or recurrent GC patients with measurable disease received mFOLFIRI (arm A) or mFOLFOX7 (arm B) every 2 weeks. The defined second-line treatment was mFOLFOX7 for arm A and mFOLFIRI for arm B...
November 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228643/estrogen-and-estrogen-receptors-in-the-modulation-of-gastrointestinal-epithelial-secretion
#14
REVIEW
Xin Yang, Yanjun Guo, Jialin He, Fenglian Zhang, Xuemei Sun, Shiming Yang, Hui Dong
Gastrointestinal (GI) epithelial ion transport is physiologically important in many aspects of humans, such as in maintaining fluid balance of whole body, and also plays a role in the development and progression of common GI disease. Estrogen and estrogen receptors have been shown to modulate the activity of epithelial ion secretion in GI tract. This review aims to address the current state of knowledge about the role of estrogen and estrogen receptors in modulation of GI epithelial secretion and to elucidate the underlying mechanisms...
November 14, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228523/advanced-therapeutic-gastrointestinal-endoscopy-in-children-today-and-tomorrow
#15
Zaheer Nabi, Duvvur Nageshwar Reddy
Gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy plays an indispensable role in the diagnosis and management of various pediatric GI disorders. While the pace of development of pediatric GI endoscopy has increased over the years, it remains sluggish compared to the advancements in GI endoscopic interventions available in adults. The predominant reasons that explain this observation include lack of formal training courses in advanced pediatric GI interventions, economic constraints in establishing a pediatric endoscopy unit, and unavailability of pediatric-specific devices and accessories...
December 12, 2017: Clinical Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228513/an-analysis-of-the-morbidity-and-mortality-of-diabetes-mellitus-in-a-forensic-context
#16
Chong Zhou, Roger W Byard
To investigate the spectrum of diseases seen in diabetes mellitus in a forensic context, all autopsy reports of diabetic individuals who presented to Forensic Science, South Australia (FSSA), over a 5-year period from 2005 to 2009 were studied. The leading cause of death was cardiovascular disease (55.0%), followed by unnatural deaths (15.4%) and infections (9.4%). In type 1 diabetics, principal causes of death included cardiovascular disease (44.7%), acute metabolic complications (18.7%), unnatural deaths (17...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228000/an-in-vivo-assessment-of-the-cholesterol-lowering-efficacy-of-lactobacillus-plantarum-ecgc-13110402-in-normal-to-mildly-hypercholesterolaemic-adults
#17
Adele Costabile, Ivan Buttarazzi, Sofia Kolida, Sara Quercia, Jessica Baldini, Jonathan R Swann, Patrizia Brigidi, Glenn R Gibson
Coronary heart disease (CHD) is one of the major causes of death and disability in industrialised countries, with elevated blood cholesterol an established risk factor. Total plasma cholesterol reduction in populations suffering from primary hypercholesterolemia may lower CHD incidence. This study investigated the cholesterol reducing capacity of Lactobacillus plantarum ECGC 13110402, a strain selected for its high bile salt hydrolase activity, in 49 normal to mildly hypercholesterolaemic adults. Primary efficacy outcomes included effect on blood lipids (total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoproteins (LDL-C), high density lipoproteins (HDL-C) and triacylgycerides (TAG), inflammatory biomarkers and occurrence/severity of gastrointestinal side effects to establish safety and tolerance of the intervention...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227201/early-rescue-from-acute-severe-clostridium-difficile-a-novel-treatment-strategy
#18
Biniam Kidane, Kalvin Lung, Greig McCreery, Chadia El-Khatib, Michael C Ott, Roberto Hernandez-Alejandro, Chris Vinden, Daryl Gray, Neil G Parry, Kenneth A Leslie, Tina S Mele
BACKGROUND: Severe Clostridium difficile infections (CDI) can lead to significant impediments to effective treatment. We developed a novel treatment protocol utilizing bedside gastrointestinal lavage (GIL) for the management of patients with severe, complicated CDI. We describe the development and early outcomes of non-operative bedside GIL in hospitalized patients with severe, complicated CDI following the Idea, Development, Exploration, Assessment, Long Term Study (IDEAL) framework at the Idea stage...
December 11, 2017: Surgical Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227120/-molecular-mechanisms-of-primary-and-secondary-resistance-molecular-genetic-features-and-characteristics-of-kit-pdgfra-non-mutated-gists
#19
Alena Kalfusová, Roman Kodet
Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are the most common mesenchymal tumors of the gastrointestinal tract. Most of them arise due to activating mutations in KIT (75 - 85 %) or PDGFRA (less than 10 %) genes. Identification of the activating mutations in KIT and PDGFRA genes, which code for receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), has improved the outcome of targeted therapy of metastatic, unresectable or recurrent GISTs. Primary and/or secondary resistance represents a significant problem in the targeted therapy by Imatinib mesylate (IM) in patients with GIST...
2017: Ceskoslovenská Patologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226615/intestinal-organoids-containing-plga-nanoparticles-for-the-treatment-of-inflammatory-bowel-diseases
#20
Zahra Davoudi, Nathan Peroutka-Bigus, Bryan Bellaire, Michael Wannemuehler, Terrence Barrett, Balaji Narasimhan, Qun Wang
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) causes inflammation to the gastrointestinal tract. Local administration of Anti-inflammatory drugs such as 5-aminosalysilic acid (5-ASA) can alleviate the symptoms of IBD. The application of nanoparticles for IBD treatment in direct rectal administration showed high drug availability and treatment efficacy. However, relying on size-dependent adsorption of smaller particles is not sufficient for making the formulation capable of targeting. Intestinal organoids can improve the functionality of the nanoparticles due to their ability to adsorb small nanoparticle inside the lumen and attach to the damaged area...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
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