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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912757/dietary-interventions-in-liver-cirrhosis
#1
Chu Kion Yao, James Fung, Natural Hoi Sing Chu, Victoria Ping Yi Tan
Liver cirrhosis is associated with significant nutritional risks that often result in serious hepatic complications and poor survival rates. Diet is an important but underutilized aspect in the treatment modality of cirrhosis. Therefore, the aims of this review are to ascertain nutritional risks associated with its pathophysiology and to summarize existing evidence that support dietary recommendations for managing this patient population. Alterations in substrate utilization for energy production is a main feature of liver cirrhosis, resulting in increased catabolism of protein stores and a predisposition toward protein-energy malnutrition, even in the early stages of the disease...
June 16, 2018: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912259/-cutaneous-anthrax-the-last-outbreak-diagnosed-in-chile
#2
Sebastián Arellano, Daniela Soto, Ma Beatriz Reeves, Francisco Chávez, Rodrigo Loubies, Andrés Ojeda
Anthrax is a zoonosis caused by a spore-forming bacterium, called Bacillus anthracis. Naturally it is of global distribution, with a predilection in agricultural zones with few norms of public veterinary health. Human contagion occurs through the consumption of diseased animal's meat or through a doorway into the skin or through the spores inhalation of products derived from the affected animal (wool, leather, bones). The most frequent infection in humans occurs in the skin, followed by the gastrointestinal tract and lungs...
April 2018: Revista Chilena de Infectología: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad Chilena de Infectología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912067/rbc-exposure-in-pediatric-extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation-epidemiology-and-factors-associated-with-large-blood-transfusion-volume
#3
Conor P O'Halloran, Peta M A Alexander, Kristofer G Andren, Jessica Mecklosky, Joshua W Salvin, Stephanie Larsen, Jill Zalieckas, Francis Fynn-Thompson, Ravi R Thiagarajan
OBJECTIVES: To quantify and identify factors associated with large RBC exposure in children supported with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Single tertiary care children's hospital. PATIENTS: One-hundred twenty-two children supported with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for greater than 12 hours during January 1, 2015, to December 31, 2016. INTERVENTIONS: None...
June 14, 2018: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29911510/mixed-adenoneuroendocrine-carcinoma-of-the-colon-and-rectum
#4
S Qiu, G Pellino, O J Warren, S Mills, R Goldin, C Kontovounisios, P P Tekkis
Mixed adenoneuroendocrine carcinoma (MANEC) are rare cancers of the gastrointestinal (GI) and pancreatobiliary tract. They are characterized by the presence of a combination of epithelial and neuroendocrine elements, where each component represents at least 30% of the tumour. Review of literature and consolidation of clinicopathological data. Sixty-one cases of colorectal MANEC have been reported in literature and one seen in this centre. The median age of the patients affected was 61.9 ± 12.4 years (20-94 years)...
June 17, 2018: Acta Chirurgica Belgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29911450/inflammatory-bowel-disease-new-therapies-from-antisense-oligonucleotides
#5
Irene Marafini, Giovanni Monteleone
Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are chronic inflammatory conditions of the gastrointestinal tract encompassing two main clinical entities: Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). These disorders are characterized by various grades of tissue damage and development of local complications and extra-intestinal manifestations. The cause of IBD remains unknown but accumulating evidence indicates that both CD and UC arise in genetically-predisposed individuals as a result of the action of multiple environmental factors, which ultimately trigger excessive and poorly-controlled immune response against antigens of the luminal flora...
June 16, 2018: Annals of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29911112/translational-research-and-application-of-basic-biology-to-clinical-trial-development-in-gi-cancers
#6
REVIEW
Elizabeth Smyth, Khurum Khan, Nicola Valeri
Cancers of the gastrointestinal tract have limited available treatments and are often associated with a poor prognosis. Clinical trials and translational work associated with these trials provide the opportunity to increase understanding of the mechanisms of sensitivity and resistance to cytotoxic chemotherapy and targeted therapy in these diseases. In this review we discuss the rationale for intensive translational work within the context of academic clinical trials and the successes and challenges which have been associated with translational work at our institution over the past number of years...
May 2018: Annals of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29910812/effector-t-helper-cell-subsets-in-inflammatory-bowel-diseases
#7
REVIEW
Tanbeena Imam, Sungtae Park, Mark H Kaplan, Matthew R Olson
The gastrointestinal tract is a site of high immune challenge, as it must maintain a delicate balance between tolerating luminal contents and generating an immune response toward pathogens. CD4+ T cells are key in mediating the host protective and homeostatic responses. Yet, CD4+ T cells are also known to be the main drivers of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) when this balance is perturbed. Many subsets of CD4+ T cells have been identified as players in perpetuating chronic intestinal inflammation. Over the last few decades, understanding of how each subset of Th cells plays a role has dramatically increased...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29910605/role-of-etelcalcetide-in-the-management-of-secondary-hyperparathyroidism-in-hemodialysis-patients-a-review-on-current-data-and-place-in-therapy
#8
REVIEW
Claudia Friedl, Emanuel Zitt
Secondary hyperparathyroidism (sHPT) is a frequently occurring severe complication of advanced kidney disease. Its clinical consequences include extraskeletal vascular and valvular calcifications, changes in bone metabolism resulting in renal osteodystrophy, and an increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Calcimimetics are a cornerstone of parathyroid hormone (PTH)-lowering therapy, as confirmed by the recently updated 2017 Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes chronic kidney disease - mineral and bone disorder clinical practice guidelines...
2018: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909660/-effectivity-of-the-nissen-fundoplication-and-the-influencing-factors-of-the-success-results-at-the-medical-centre-of-p%C3%A3-cs-depending-on-the-indications-and-symptoms
#9
Péter Varjú, Örs Péter Horváth, András Papp, Noémi Gede, József Czimmer
INTRODUCTION: Gastroesophageal reflux disease is one of the most common gastrointestinal diseases in developed countries. Besides the conservative modalities, surgery plays an increasing role in the treatment of the disease. AIM: Our aim was to investigate and compare the surgical and 6-month follow-up data of patients to the literature (quality control), who underwent Nissen fundoplication in the Medical Centre of Pécs between 2007 and 2014, and to assess the factors (especially psychiatric comorbidity and antidepressants) influencing the success...
June 2018: Orvosi Hetilap
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909153/gastrointestinal-graft-versus-host-disease-is-a-risk-factor-for-post-engraftment-blood-stream-infection-in-allogeneic-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplant-recipients
#10
Yasuo Mori, Goichi Yoshimoto, Ruriko Nishida, Takeshi Sugio, Kohta Miyawaki, Takahiro Shima, Yoji Nagasaki, Noriko Miyake, Yukiko Harada, Yuya Kunisaki, Kenjiro Kamezaki, Akihiko Numata, Koji Kato, Motoaki Shiratsuchi, Takahiro Maeda, Katsuto Takenaka, Hiromi Iwasaki, Nobuyuki Shimono, Koichi Akashi, Toshihiro Miyamoto
Bloodstream infection (BSI) is a well-known cause of morbidity and mortality in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) recipients. Here, we conducted a retrospective study to assess the morbidity, etiology, risk factors, and outcomes of BSI in the post-engraftment period (PE-BSI) following allo-HSCT. Forty-three out of 316 patients (13.6%) developed 57 PE-BSI episodes, in which 62 pathogens were isolated: gram-positive bacteria, gram-negative bacteria, and fungi, respectively, accounted for 54...
June 14, 2018: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908307/caga-and-vaca-allelic-combination-of-helicobacter-pylori-in-gastroduodenal-disorders
#11
Farajzadah Sheikh Ahmad, Mohammad Jaafar Yadyad, Hamed Goodarzi, Seyed Jalal Hashemi, Sajad Aslani, Mohammad-Ali Assarzadegan, Reza Ranjbar
BACKGROUND: Allelic variation of the virulence genes, vacA and cagA, as the most important virulence associated genes play an important role in the pathogenesis of severe gastrointestinal disease. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to identify the diversity of the virulence genes in patients with Gastric Cancer (GC), who were referred to the gastro-endoscopy unit of Imam Khomeini Hospital, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of medical science, Ahvaz, Iran. METHODS: Gastric biopsy specimens from 301 patients suspected to gastrointestinal disorders, were analyzed for H...
June 13, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907667/symptoms-of-autonomic-dysfunction-in-systemic-sclerosis-assessed-by-the-compass-31-questionnaire
#12
Brittany L Adler, James W Russell, Laura K Hummers, Zsuzsanna H McMahan
OBJECTIVE: Autonomic dysfunction is a known complication of systemic sclerosis (SSc) that can affect vascular tone, gastrointestinal (GI) motility, heart rate, and blood pressure control. We sought to quantify autonomic symptom burden in SSc, and to define the characteristics of patients with SSc and autonomic dysfunction. METHODS: Patients with SSc were consecutively recruited during routine clinical visits at the Johns Hopkins Scleroderma Center and asked to complete the Composite Autonomic Symptom Score (COMPASS)-31 questionnaire, a validated tool to assess symptoms of autonomic dysfunction...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907655/causes-and-predictors-of-readmission-in-patients-with-atrial-fibrillation-undergoing-catheter-ablation-a-national-population-based-cohort-study
#13
Shilpkumar Arora, Sopan Lahewala, Byomesh Tripathi, Varshil Mehta, Varun Kumar, Divya Chandramohan, Alejandro Lemor, Mihir Dave, Nileshkumar Patel, Nilay V Patel, Ghanshyam Palamaner Subash Shantha, Juan Viles-Gonzalez, Abhishek Deshmukh
BACKGROUND: Reducing readmission after catheter ablation (CA) in atrial fibrillation (AF) is important. METHODS AND RESULTS: We utilized National Readmission Data (NRD) 2010-2014. AF was identified by International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Edition, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) diagnostic code 427.31 in the primary field, while first CA of AF was identified via ICD-9 -procedure code 37.34. Any admission within 30 or 90 days of index admission was considered a readmission...
June 15, 2018: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907560/validation-of-a-natural-language-processing-algorithm-for-detecting-infectious-disease-symptoms-in-primary-care-electronic-medical-records-in-singapore
#14
Antony Hardjojo, Arunan Gunachandran, Long Pang, Mohammed Ridzwan Bin Abdullah, Win Wah, Joash Wen Chen Chong, Ee Hui Goh, Sok Huang Teo, Gilbert Lim, Mong Li Lee, Wynne Hsu, Vernon Lee, Mark I-Cheng Chen, Franco Wong, Jonathan Siung King Phang
BACKGROUND: Free-text clinical records provide a source of information that complements traditional disease surveillance. To electronically harness these records, they need to be transformed into codified fields by natural language processing algorithms. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to develop, train, and validate Clinical History Extractor for Syndromic Surveillance (CHESS), an natural language processing algorithm to extract clinical information from free-text primary care records...
June 11, 2018: JMIR Medical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907537/first-report-on-giardia-duodenalis-assemblage-f-in-slovakian-children-living-in-poor-environmental-conditions
#15
Jana Pipiková, Ingrid Papajová, Viktória Majláthová, Jindřich Šoltys, Júlia Bystrianska, Ingrid Schusterová, Veronika Vargová
BACKGROUND: Giardiasis is one of the most common gastrointestinal infections of humans and animals attributable to complex of eight morphologically identical genetic assemblages, further divided into sub-assemblages. Disease is common for a wide range of hosts and genetic characterization is needed for better understanding of multifaceted epidemiology for this protozoan parasite. The aim of this study was to identify genetic heterogeneity in assemblages and sub-assemblages of Giardiaduodenalis circulating among the children population living in deprived socioeconomic conditions...
June 2, 2018: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection, Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907489/extended-field-chemoradiation-therapy-for-definitive-treatment-of-anal-canal-squamous-cell-carcinoma-involving-the-para-aortic-lymph-nodes
#16
Emma B Holliday, Scott C Lester, W Scott Harmsen, Cathy Eng, Michael G Haddock, Sunil Krishnan, Prajnan Das, Christopher L Hallemeier
PURPOSE: To report cancer control rates and adverse events (AEs) of curative-intent, extended-field chemoradiation therapy administered to patients with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the anal canal presenting with distant metastasis limited to the para-aortic (PA) lymph nodes. METHODS: This was a retrospective review of patients with SCC of the anal canal metastatic to the PA lymph nodes at initial diagnosis who were treated with curative-intent, extended-field chemoradiation therapy between September 2002 and February 2016 at two tertiary care centers...
May 5, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906666/real-life-persistence-and-tolerability-with-dimethyl-fumarate
#17
Tobias Sejbaek, Mads Nybo, Thor Petersen, Zsolt Illes
BACKGROUND: Dimethyl fumarate (DMF) has been registered for the treatment of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). Differences in tolerability between multiple sclerosis clinics in patients treated with DMF has not been examined. AIM: We examined real-world tolerability to DMF, and also compared adherence data between two MS clinics. METHODS: Adverse events (AE), discontinuation rates, and causes of discontinuation were investigated...
June 2, 2018: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906405/dermatologic-manifestations-of-inflammatory-bowel-disease-a-review
#18
Uma Keyal, Yeqiang Liu, Anil Kumar Bhatta
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic relapsing disease of the gastrointestinal tract with unknown etiology and pathogenesis. It includes Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). Approximately one-third of the patients with IBD are seen to develop extraintestinal manifestations, among which cutaneous manifestations are the most common and should be managed in close collaboration with a dermatologist. Depending upon the nature of the association, skin conditions associated with IBD can be listed under 4 categories: specific, reactive, secondary to malnutrition or malabsorption, and secondary to drug therapy...
May 2018: Discovery Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906334/spontaneous-gastric-dilatation-volvulus-in-two-cats
#19
Meredith L Leary, Virginia Sinnott-Stutzman
OBJECTIVES: To describe 2 cases of gastric dilatation-volvulus (GDV) in cats. To describe 2 unique clinical settings in which the disease occurs in cats, and to highlight the differences between GDV in cats and dogs. CASE SERIES SUMMARY: Two neutered female Persian cats were presented for evaluation of respiratory distress. Initial physical examination revealed tachypnea, dyspnea, and a markedly distended and painful abdomen in both cats. Radiographs revealed a gas-dilated stomach and gastrointestinal (GI) tract in both cats but were only diagnostic for GDV in 1 case...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906324/electroacupuncture-treatments-for-gut-motility-disorders
#20
REVIEW
J D Z Chen, M Ni, J Yin
Functional gastrointestinal (GI) diseases are common and there are patients who are refractory to medical therapies as not all treatments work in all patients. Consequently, a large number of patients with functional GI diseases use complementary and alternative medicine, such as acupuncture or electroacupuncture (EA). In this issue, Zheng et al. reported interesting results of a multi-center placebo-controlled clinical study on the use of EA for treating refractory functional dyspepsia; another study reported a multi-center clinical trial on EA for chronic functional constipation; Liang et al...
July 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
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