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Psychosis Hippocampus

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688033/parvalbumin-promoter-hypermethylation-in-postmortem-brain-in-schizophrenia
#1
Helene A Fachim, Umarat Srisawat, Caroline F Dalton, Gavin P Reynolds
Deficits of brain parvalbumin (PV) are a consistent finding in schizophrenia and models of psychosis. We investigated whether this is associated with abnormal PV gene (PVALB) methylation in the brain in schizophrenia. Bisulfite pyrosequencing was used to determine cytosine (CpG) methylation in a PVALB promoter sequence. Greater PVALB methylation was found in schizophrenia hippocampus, while no differences were observed in prefrontal cortex. LINE-1 methylation, a measure of global methylation, was also elevated in both regions in schizophrenia, although the PVALB change was independent of this effect...
April 24, 2018: Epigenomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670128/mitochondrial-function-in-individuals-at-clinical-high-risk-for-psychosis
#2
Tania Da Silva, Abbie Wu, Isabelle Laksono, Ivana Prce, Margaret Maheandiran, Michael Kiang, Ana C Andreazza, Romina Mizrahi
Alterations in mitochondrial function have been implicated in the etiology of schizophrenia. Most studies have investigated alterations in mitochondrial function in patients in which the disorder is already established; however, whether mitochondrial dysfunction predates the onset of psychosis remains unknown. We measured peripheral mitochondrial complex (I-V) function and lactate/pyruvate levels in 27 antipsychotic-naïve individuals at clinical high risk for psychosis (CHR) and 16 healthy controls. We also explored the association between mitochondrial function and brain microglial activation and glutathione levels using a translocator protein 18 kDa [18 F]FEPPA PET scan and 1 H-MRS scan, respectively...
April 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625792/gray-matter-differences-between-affective-and-non-affective-first-episode-psychosis-a-review-of-magnetic-resonance-imaging-studies
#3
REVIEW
A Calvo, G Delvecchio, A C Altamura, J C Soares, P Brambilla
BACKGROUND: Non-affective and affective psychoses are very common mental disorders. However, their neurobiological underpinnings are still poorly understood. Therefore, the goal of the present review was to evaluate structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) studies exploring brain deficits in both non-affective (NA-FEP) and affective first episode psychosis (A-FEP). METHODS: A bibliographic search on PUBMED of all MRI studies exploring gray matter (GM) differences between NA-FEP and A-FEP was conducted...
March 17, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618019/differential-expression-of-synapsin-i-and-ii-upon-treatment-by-lithium-and-valproic-acid-in-various-brain-regions
#4
Hetshree Joshi, Roohie Sharma, Shreya Prashar, Joella Ho, Sharon Thomson, Ram Mishra
Introduction: Due to the heterogeneity of psychiatric illnesses and overlapping mechanisms, patients with psychosis are differentially responsive to pharmaceutical drugs. In addition to having therapeutic effects for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, antipsychotics and mood stabilizers have many clinical applications and are used unconventionally due to their direct and indirect effects on neurotransmitters. Synapsins, a family of neuronal phosphoproteins, play a key regulatory role in neurotransmitter release at synapses...
March 30, 2018: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29611035/znf804a-variation-may-affect-hippocampal-prefrontal-resting-state-functional-connectivity-in-schizophrenic-and-healthy-individuals
#5
Yuyanan Zhang, Hao Yan, Jinmin Liao, Hao Yu, Sisi Jiang, Qi Liu, Dai Zhang, Weihua Yue
The ZNF804A variant rs1344706 has consistently been associated with schizophrenia and plays a role in hippocampal-prefrontal functional connectivity during working memory. Whether the effect exists in the resting state and in patients with schizophrenia remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the ZNF804A polymorphism at rs1344706 in 92 schizophrenic patients and 99 healthy controls of Han Chinese descent, and used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging to explore the functional connectivity in the participants...
April 2, 2018: Neuroscience Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29610762/hippocampal-pathophysiology-commonality-shared-by-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-and-psychiatric-disorders
#6
REVIEW
Soichiro Nakahara, Megumi Adachi, Hiroyuki Ito, Mitsuyuki Matsumoto, Katsunori Tajinda, Theo G M van Erp
Accumulating evidence points to the association of epilepsy, particularly, temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), with psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia. Among these illnesses, the hippocampus is considered the regional focal point of the brain, playing an important role in cognition, psychosis, and seizure activity and potentially suggesting common etiologies and pathophysiology of TLE and schizophrenia. In the present review, we overview abnormal network connectivity between the dentate gyrus (DG) and the Cornus Ammonis area 3 (CA3) subregions of the hippocampus relative to the induction of epilepsy and schizophrenia...
2018: Neuroscience Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29605160/sexually-dimorphic-subcortical-brain-volumes-in-emerging-psychosis
#7
Laura Egloff, Claudia Lenz, Erich Studerus, Fabienne Harrisberger, Renata Smieskova, André Schmidt, Christian Huber, Andor Simon, Undine E Lang, Anita Riecher-Rössler, Stefan Borgwardt
BACKGROUND: In schizophrenic psychoses, the normal sexual dimorphism of the brain has been shown to be disrupted or even reversed. Little is known, however, at what time point in emerging psychosis this occurs. We have therefore examined, if these alterations are already present in the at-risk mental state (ARMS) for psychosis and in first episode psychosis (FEP) patients. METHODS: Data from 65 ARMS (48 (73.8%) male; age=25.1±6.32) and 50 FEP (37 (74%) male; age=27±6...
March 28, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29567371/a-pilot-study-on-immuno-psychiatry-in-the-22q11-2-deletion-syndrome-a-role-for-th17-cells-in-psychosis
#8
Elfi Vergaelen, Carmen Schiweck, Kristof Van Steeland, Jacqueline Counotte, Wim Veling, Ann Swillen, Hemmo Drexhage, Stephan Claes
BACKGROUND: A growing body of evidence supports a role for immune alterations in Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders (SSD). A high prevalence (25% - 40%) of SSD has been found in patients with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS), which is known for T-cell deficits due to thymus hypoplasia. This study is the first to explore the association between the T-cell subsets and psychotic symptoms in adults with 22q11.2DS. METHODS: 34 individuals (aged 19-38 yrs.) with 22q11...
March 19, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29560312/relationship-between-muscarinic-m-1-receptor-binding-and-cognition-in-medication-free-subjects-with-psychosis
#9
Geor Bakker, Claudia Vingerhoets, Daphne Boucherie, Matthan Caan, Oswald Bloemen, Jos Eersels, Jan Booij, Thérèse van Amelsvoort
Background: It is still unclear which underlying mechanisms are involved in cognitive deficits of psychotic disorders. Pro-cognitive effects of muscarinic M1 receptor agonists suggest alterations in M1 receptor functioning may modulate these symptoms. Post mortem studies in patients with schizophrenia have shown significantly reduced M1 receptor expression rates in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) compared to controls. To date no in-vivo examinations of M1 receptor binding in relation to cognitive impairments have been done...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29531031/deletion-of-dopamine-d-2-receptors-from-parvalbumin-interneurons-in-mouse-causes-schizophrenia-like-phenotypes
#10
Eugenia Tomasella, Lucila Bechelli, Mora Belén Ogando, Camilo Mininni, Mariano N Di Guilmi, Fernanda De Fino, Silvano Zanutto, Ana Belén Elgoyhen, Antonia Marin-Burgin, Diego M Gelman
Excessive dopamine neurotransmission underlies psychotic episodes as observed in patients with some types of bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. The dopaminergic hypothesis was postulated after the finding that antipsychotics were effective to halt increased dopamine tone. However, there is little evidence for dysfunction within the dopaminergic system itself. Alternatively, it has been proposed that excessive afferent activity onto ventral tegmental area dopaminergic neurons, particularly from the ventral hippocampus, increase dopamine neurotransmission, leading to psychosis...
March 27, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29529413/correlation-between-levels-of-delusional-beliefs-and-perfusion-of-the-hippocampus-and-an-associated-network-in-a-non-help-seeking-population
#11
Rick P F Wolthusen, Garth Coombs, Emily A Boeke, Stefan Ehrlich, Stephanie N DeCross, Shahin Nasr, Daphne J Holt
BACKGROUND: Delusions are a defining and common symptom of psychotic disorders. Recent evidence suggests that subclinical and clinical delusions may represent distinct stages on a phenomenological and biological continuum. However, few studies have tested whether subclinical psychotic experiences are associated with neural changes that are similar to those observed in clinical psychosis. For example, it is unclear if overactivity of the hippocampus, a replicated finding of neuroimaging studies of schizophrenia, is also present in individuals with subclinical psychotic symptoms...
February 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29502548/increased-hippocampal-engagement-during-learning-as-a-marker-of-sensitivity-to-psychotomimetic-effects-of-%C3%AE-9-thc
#12
Sagnik Bhattacharyya, Thomas Sainsbury, Paul Allen, Chiara Nosarti, Zerrin Atakan, Vincent Giampietro, Michael Brammer, P K McGuire
BACKGROUND: Cannabis and its main psychoactive ingredient δ-9-tetrahydrocannibidiol (THC) can induce transient psychotic symptoms in healthy individuals and exacerbate them in those with established psychosis. However, not everyone experience these effects, suggesting that certain individuals are particularly susceptible. The neural basis of this sensitivity to the psychotomimetic effects of THC is unclear. METHODS: We investigated whether individuals who are sensitive to the psychotomimetic effects of THC (TP) under experimental conditions would show differential hippocampal activation compared with those who are not (NP)...
March 5, 2018: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29488894/-poor-insight-and-psychosis
#13
O Giotakos
A variety of phenomena might be considered as reflecting impaired insight in psychosis, like failure to recognize signs, symptoms or disease, failure to derive appropriate cognitive representations, despite recognition of the disease, and misattribution of the source or cause of the disease. The unawareness of tardive dyskinesia symptoms in schizophrenic patients points that self-awareness deficits in schizophrenia may be domain specific. Poor insight is an independent phenomenological and a prevalent feature in psychotic disorders in general, and in schizophrenia in particular, but we don't know yet if delusions in schizophrenia are the result of an entirely normal attempt to account for abnormal perceptual experiences or a product of abnormal experience but of normal reasoning...
October 2017: Psychiatrikē, Psychiatriki
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29486870/subcortical-local-functional-hyperconnectivity-in-cannabis-dependence
#14
Peter Manza, Dardo Tomasi, Nora D Volkow
BACKGROUND: Cannabis abuse (CA) has been associated with psychopathology, including negative emotionality and higher risk of psychosis, particularly with early age of initiation. However, the mechanisms underlying this association are poorly understood. Because aberrant dopamine signaling is implicated in cannabis-associated psychopathology, we hypothesized that regular CA would be associated with altered resting-state functional connectivity in dopamine midbrain-striatal circuits. METHODS: We examined resting-state brain activity of subcortical regions in 441 young adults from the Human Connectome Project, including 30 subjects with CA meeting DSM-IV criteria for dependence and 30 control subjects matched on age, sex, education, body mass index, anxiety, depression, and alcohol and tobacco usage...
March 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29461425/antibodies-and-the-brain-antiribosomal-p-protein-antibody-and-the-clinical-effects-in-patients-with-systemic-lupus-erythematosus
#15
Alfonso González, Loreto Massardo
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Analysis of antiribosomal P protein autoantibodies (anti-P) pathogenicity in diffuse brain manifestations of neuropsychiatric lupus, emphasizing cognitive dysfunction and the recently emerged role of cross-reacting neuronal surface P antigen (NSPA) in α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid and N-Methyl-D-Aspartate receptor glutamatergic transmission. RECENT FINDINGS: Circulating anti-P antibodies associate with executive planning dysfunction and attention impairments in lupus patients and perturb glutamatergic transmission through NSPA in mice hippocampus, translating into impaired synaptic plasticity and spatial memory...
June 2018: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440719/prefrontal-gaba-levels-hippocampal-resting-perfusion-and-the-risk-of-psychosis
#16
Gemma Modinos, Fatma Şimşek, Matilda Azis, Matthijs Bossong, Ilaria Bonoldi, Carly Samson, Beverly Quinn, Jesus Perez, Matthew R Broome, Fernando Zelaya, David J Lythgoe, Oliver D Howes, James M Stone, Anthony A Grace, Paul Allen, Philip McGuire
Preclinical models propose that the onset of psychosis is associated with hippocampal hyperactivity, thought to be driven by cortical GABAergic interneuron dysfunction and disinhibition of pyramidal neurons. Recent neuroimaging studies suggest that resting hippocampal perfusion is increased in subjects at ultra-high risk (UHR) for psychosis, but how this may be related to GABA concentrations is unknown. The present study used a multimodal neuroimaging approach to address this issue in UHR subjects. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy and pulsed-continuous arterial spin labeling imaging were acquired to investigate the relationship between medial prefrontal (MPFC) GABA+ levels (including some contribution from macromolecules) and hippocampal regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in 36 individuals at UHR of psychosis, based on preclinical evidence that MPFC dysfunction is involved in hippocampal hyperactivity...
January 30, 2018: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426955/uncoupling-the-widespread-occurrence-of-anti-nmdar1-autoantibodies-from-neuropsychiatric-disease-in-a-novel-autoimmune-model
#17
Hong Pan, Bárbara Oliveira, Gesine Saher, Ekrem Dere, Daniel Tapken, Marina Mitjans, Jan Seidel, Janina Wesolowski, Debia Wakhloo, Christina Klein-Schmidt, Anja Ronnenberg, Kerstin Schwabe, Ralf Trippe, Kerstin Mätz-Rensing, Stefan Berghoff, Yazeed Al-Krinawe, Henrik Martens, Martin Begemann, Winfried Stöcker, Franz-Josef Kaup, Reinhard Mischke, Susann Boretius, Klaus-Armin Nave, Joachim K Krauss, Michael Hollmann, Fred Lühder, Hannelore Ehrenreich
Autoantibodies of the IgG class against N-methyl-D-aspartate-receptor subunit-NR1 (NMDAR1-AB) were considered pathognomonic for anti-NMDAR encephalitis. This view has been challenged by the age-dependent seroprevalence (up to >20%) of functional NMDAR1-AB of all immunoglobulin classes found in >5000 individuals, healthy or affected by different diseases. These findings question a merely encephalitogenic role of NMDAR1-AB. Here, we show that NMDAR1-AB belong to the normal autoimmune repertoire of dogs, cats, rats, mice, baboons, and rhesus macaques, and are functional in the NMDAR1 internalization assay based on human IPSC-derived cortical neurons...
February 9, 2018: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29391571/dietary-glucoraphanin-prevents-the-onset-of-psychosis-in-the-adult-offspring-after-maternal-immune-activation
#18
Akiko Matsuura, Tamaki Ishima, Yuko Fujita, Yoshimi Iwayama, Shunsuke Hasegawa, Ryouka Kawahara-Miki, Motoko Maekawa, Manabu Toyoshima, Yusuke Ushida, Hiroyuki Suganuma, Satoshi Kida, Takeo Yoshikawa, Masaomi Iyo, Kenji Hashimoto
Maternal immune activation (MIA) contributes to behavioral abnormalities relevant to schizophrenia in adult offspring, although the molecular mechanisms underlying MIA-induced behavioral changes remain unclear. Here we demonstrated that dietary intake of glucoraphanin (GF), the precursor of a natural antioxidant sulforaphane, during juvenile and adolescent stages prevented cognitive deficits and loss of parvalbumin (PV) immunoreactivity in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) of adult offspring after MIA. Gene set enrichment analysis by RNA sequencing showed that MIA caused abnormal expression of centrosome-related genes in the PFC and hippocampus of adult offspring, and that dietary intake of GF improved these abnormal gene expressions...
February 1, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329382/adolescent-synthetic-cannabinoid-exposure-produces-enduring-changes-in-dopamine-neuron-activity-in-a-rodent-model-of-schizophrenia-susceptibility
#19
David D Aguilar, Andrea Giuffrida, Daniel J Lodge
Background: Epidemiological studies recognize cannabis intake as a risk factor for schizophrenia, yet the majority of adolescents who use marijuana do not develop psychosis. Similarly, the abuse of synthetic cannabinoids poses a risk for psychosis. For these reasons, it is imperative to understand the effects of adolescent cannabinoid exposure in susceptible individuals. Methods: We recently developed a novel rodent model of schizophrenia susceptibility, the F2 methylazoxymethanol acetate rat, where only a proportion (~40%) of rats display a schizophrenia-like phenotype...
April 1, 2018: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326362/-18-f-pbr111-pet-imaging-in-healthy-controls-and-schizophrenia-test-retest-reproducibility-and-quantification-of-neuroinflammation
#20
Julie Ottoy, Livia De Picker, Jeroen Verhaeghe, Steven Deleye, Leonie Wyffels, Lauren Kosten, Bernard Sabbe, Violette Coppens, Maarten Timmers, Luc Van Nueten, Sarah Ceyssens, Sigrid Stroobants, Manuel Morrens, Steven Staelens
Activated microglia express the translocator protein (TSPO) on the outer mitochondrial membrane. 18 F-PBR111 is a second-generation positron emission tomography (PET) ligand that specifically binds the TSPO, allowing in-vivo visualization and quantification of neuroinflammation. The aim of this study is to evaluate if the test-retest variability of 18 F-PBR111 in healthy controls is acceptable to detect a psychosis-associated neuroinflammatory signal in schizophrenia. Methods: Dynamic 90-min 18 F-PBR111 scans were obtained in 17 healthy male controls (HC) and 11 male schizophrenia patients during a psychotic episode (SP)...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
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