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Psychosis Hippocampus

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604733/imaging-microglial-activation-in-individuals-at-clinical-high-risk-for-psychosis-an-in-vivo-pet-study-with-18-f-feppa
#1
Sina Hafizi, Tania Da Silva, Cory Gerritsen, Michael Kiang, R Michael Bagby, Ivana Prce, Alan A Wilson, Sylvain Houle, Pablo M Rusjan, Romina Mizrahi
Several lines of evidence implicate microglial activation and abnormal immune response in the etiology of psychosis. Previous positron emission tomography (PET) neuroimaging studies of the translocator protein 18 kDa, TSPO, were limited by low affinity of the first-generation radioligand, low resolution scanners, and small sample sizes. Moreover, there is a dearth of literature on microglial activation in individuals at clinical high risk (CHR) for psychosis. We used a novel second-generation TSPO radioligand, [(18)F]FEPPA, to examine whether microglial activation is elevated in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and hippocampus of antipsychotic-naïve CHR...
June 12, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601717/duration-of-untreated-psychosis-illness-and-brain-volume-changes-in-early-psychosis
#2
Charlotte Rapp, Carlos Canela, Erich Studerus, Anna Walter, Jacqueline Aston, Stefan Borgwardt, Anita Riecher-Rössler
The time period during which patients manifest psychotic or unspecific symptoms prior to treatment (duration of untreated psychosis, DUP, and the duration of untreated illness, DUI) has been found to be moderately associated with poor clinical and social outcome. Equivocal evidence exists of an association between DUP/DUI and structural brain abnormalities, such as reduced hippocampus volume (HV), pituitary volume (PV) and grey matter volume (GMV). Thus, the goal of the present work was to examine if DUP and DUI are associated with abnormalities in HV, PV and GMV...
June 3, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595456/altered-brain-wiring-in-parkinson-s-disease-a-structural-connectome-based-analysis
#3
Apurva K Shah, Abhishek Lenka, Jitender Saini, Shivali Wagle, Rajini M Naduthota, Ravi Yadav, Pramod Pal, Madhura A Ingalhalikar
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neuro-degenerative disorder, which predominantly affects the motor system. Diffusion MRI has demonstrated deficits in anisotropy as well as increased diffusivity in the sub-cortical structures, primarily in the substantia nigra in PD. However, the clinical spectrum of PD is not limited to motor symptoms, rather it encompasses several non-motor symptoms such as depression, psychosis, olfactory dysfunction and cognitive impairment. These non-motor symptoms underscore PD as a complex neurological disorder arising from dysfunction of several network components...
June 8, 2017: Brain Connectivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557508/neural-markers-of-emotional-face-perception-across-psychotic-disorders-and-general-population
#4
Amri Sabharwal, Roman Kotov, Akos Szekely, Hoi-Chung Leung, Deanna M Barch, Aprajita Mohanty
There is considerable variation in negative and positive symptoms of psychosis, global functioning, and emotional face perception (EFP), not only in schizophrenia but also in other psychotic disorders and healthy individuals. However, EFP impairment and its association with worse symptoms and global functioning have been examined largely in the domain of schizophrenia. The present study adopted a dimensional approach to examine the association of behavioral and neural measures of EFP with symptoms of psychosis and global functioning across individuals with schizophrenia spectrum (SZ; N = 28) and other psychotic (OP; N = 29) disorders, and never-psychotic participants (NP; N = 21)...
May 29, 2017: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480579/longitudinal-epigenetic-predictors-of-amygdala-hippocampus-volume-ratio
#5
Esther Walton, Charlotte A M Cecil, Matthew Suderman, Jingyu Liu, Jessica A Turner, Vince Calhoun, Stefan Ehrlich, Caroline L Relton, Edward D Barker
BACKGROUND: The ratio between amygdala:hippocampal (AH) volume has been associated with multiple psychiatric problems, including anxiety and aggression. Yet, little is known about its biological underpinnings. Here, we used a methylome-wide approach to test (a) whether DNA methylation in early life (birth, age 7) prospectively associates with total AH volume ratio in early adulthood, and (b) whether significant DNA methylation markers are influenced by prenatal risk factors. METHODS: Analyses were based on a subsample (n = 109 males) from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, which included measures of prenatal risk, DNA methylation (Infinium Illumina 450k), T1-weighted brain scans and psychopathology in early adulthood (age 18-21)...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472632/the-involvement-of-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-in-3-4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine-induced-place-preference-and-behavioral-sensitization
#6
Akihiro Mouri, Yukihiro Noda, Minae Niwa, Yurie Matsumoto, Takayoshi Mamiya, Atsumi Nitta, Kiyofumi Yamada, Shoei Furukawa, Tatsunori Iwamura, Toshitaka Nabeshima
3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) is known to induce dependence and psychosis in humans. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is involved in the synaptic plasticity and neurotrophy in midbrain dopaminergic neurons. This study aimed to investigate the role of BDNF in MDMA-induced dependence and psychosis. A single dose of MDMA (10mg/kg) induced BDNF mRNA expression in the prefrontal cortex, nucleus accumbens, and amygdala, but not in the striatum or the hippocampus. However, repeated MDMA administration for 7 days induced BDNF mRNA expression in the striatum and hippocampus...
June 30, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472198/clozapine-counteracts-a-ketamine-induced-depression-of-hippocampal-prefrontal-neuroplasticity-and-alters-signaling-pathway-phosphorylation
#7
Marion Rame, Dorian Caudal, Esther Schenker, Per Svenningsson, Michael Spedding, Thérèse M Jay, Bill P Godsil
Single sub-anesthetic doses of ketamine can exacerbate the symptoms of patients diagnosed with schizophrenia, yet similar ketamine treatments rapidly reduce depressive symptoms in major depression. Acute doses of the atypical antipsychotic drug clozapine have also been shown to counteract ketamine-induced psychotic effects. In the interest of understanding whether these drug effects could be modeled with alterations in neuroplasticity, we examined the impact of acutely-administered ketamine and clozapine on in vivo long-term potentiation (LTP) in the rat's hippocampus-to-prefrontal cortex (H-PFC) pathway...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418206/anti-nmda-receptor-encephalitis-during-pregnancy-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#8
Xue Xiao, Shunping Gui, Peng Bai, Yi Bai, Dan Shan, Yayi Hu, Tri M Bui-Nguyen, Rong Zhou
Anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (anti-NMDA-R) encephalitis is an autoimmune disorder that was first described by Dr Vitaliani in 2005. In 2007, Dalmau et al. found anti-NMDA-R antibody expressed both in the hippocampus and prefrontal nerve cell membrane, finally proposing the diagnosis of autoimmune anti-NMDA-R encephalitis. Most of the patients are female (91%), with ages ranging from 4 to 76 years. The average age is 23 years, a birth peak age, although anti-NMDA-R encephalitis is rare during pregnancy...
April 2017: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375210/corticolimbic-hyper-response-to-emotion-and-glutamatergic-function-in-people-with-high-schizotypy-a-multimodal-fmri-mrs-study
#9
G Modinos, A McLaughlin, A Egerton, K McMullen, V Kumari, G J Barker, C Keysers, S C R Williams
Animal models and human neuroimaging studies suggest that altered levels of glutamatergic metabolites within a corticolimbic circuit have a major role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Rodent models propose that prefrontal glutamate dysfunction could lead to amygdala hyper-response to environmental stress and underlie hippocampal overdrive in schizophrenia. Here we determine whether changes in brain glutamate are present in individuals with high schizotypy (HS), which refers to the presence of schizophrenia-like characteristics in healthy individuals, and whether glutamate levels are related to altered corticolimbic response to emotion...
April 4, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337131/changes-in-neuronal-oscillations-accompany-the-loss-of-hippocampal-ltp-that-occurs-in-an-animal-model-of-psychosis
#10
Alexander N Kalweit, Bezhad Amanpour-Gharaei, Jens Colitti-Klausnitzer, Denise Manahan-Vaughan
The first-episode of psychosis is followed by a transient time-window of ca. 60 days during which therapeutic interventions have a higher likelihood of being effective than interventions that are started with a greater latency. This suggests that, in the immediate time-period after first-episode psychosis, functional changes occur in the brain that render it increasingly resistant to intervention. The precise mechanistic nature of these changes is unclear, but at the cognitive level, sensory and hippocampus-based dysfunctions become increasingly manifest...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320226/functional-neuroimaging-predictors-of-self-reported-psychotic-symptoms-in-adolescents
#11
Josiane Bourque, Philip A Spechler, Stéphane Potvin, Robert Whelan, Tobias Banaschewski, Arun L W Bokde, Uli Bromberg, Christian Büchel, Erin Burke Quinlan, Sylvane Desrivières, Herta Flor, Vincent Frouin, Penny Gowland, Andreas Heinz, Bernd Ittermann, Jean-Luc Martinot, Marie-Laure Paillère-Martinot, Sarah C McEwen, Frauke Nees, Dimitri Papadopoulos Orfanos, Tomáš Paus, Luise Poustka, Michael N Smolka, Nora C Vetter, Henrik Walter, Gunter Schumann, Hugh Garavan, Patricia J Conrod
OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the neural correlates of psychotic-like experiences in youths during tasks involving inhibitory control, reward anticipation, and emotion processing. A secondary aim was to test whether these neurofunctional correlates of risk were predictive of psychotic symptoms 2 years later. METHOD: Functional imaging responses to three paradigms-the stop-signal, monetary incentive delay, and faces tasks-were collected in youths at age 14, as part of the IMAGEN study...
March 21, 2017: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087359/the-effect-of-nmda-r-antagonism-on-simultaneously-acquired-local-field-potentials-and-tissue-oxygen-levels-in-the-brains-of-freely-moving-rats
#12
John Kealy, Sean Commins, John P Lowry
Non-competitive NMDA receptor antagonists are known to induce psychosis-like symptoms in rodents. Administration of such compounds cause behavioural effects such as memory impairment and hyperlocomotion. Additionally, drugs such as phencyclidine (PCP), ketamine and MK-801 all cause distinctive increases in striatal local field potential (LFP) in the high frequency oscillation (HFO) band in the power spectrum (140-180 Hz). Amperometric sensors provide a means to measure tissue oxygen (tO2; a BOLD-like signal) in the brains of freely-moving rats while simultaneously acquiring LFP using the same electrode...
January 11, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079061/progressive-decline-in-hippocampal-ca1-volume-in-individuals-at-ultra-high-risk-for-psychosis-who-do-not-remit-findings-from-the-longitudinal-youth-at-risk-study
#13
New Fei Ho, Daphne J Holt, Mike Cheung, Juan Eugenio Iglesias, Alex Goh, Mingyuan Wang, Joseph Kw Lim, Joshua de Souza, Joann S Poh, Yuen Mei See, Alison R Adcock, Stephen J Wood, Michael Wl Chee, Jimmy Lee, Juan Zhou
Most individuals identified as ultra-high-risk (UHR) for psychosis do not develop frank psychosis. They continue to exhibit subthreshold symptoms, or go on to fully remit. Prior work has shown that the volume of CA1, a subfield of the hippocampus, is selectively reduced in the early stages of schizophrenia. Here we aimed to determine whether patterns of volume change of CA1 are different in UHR individuals who do or do not achieve symptomatic remission. Structural MRI scans were acquired at baseline and at 1-2 follow-up time points (at 12-month intervals) from 147 UHR and healthy control subjects...
May 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053019/biological-mechanisms-whereby-social-exclusion-may-contribute-to-the-etiology-of-psychosis-a-narrative-review
#14
Jean-Paul Selten, Jan Booij, Bauke Buwalda, Andreas Meyer-Lindenberg
The purpose of this review is to examine whether a contribution of social exclusion to the pathogenesis of psychosis is compatible with the dopamine hypothesis and/or the neurodevelopmental hypothesis. Humans experience social exclusion as defeating. An animal model for defeat is the resident-intruder paradigm. The defeated animal shows evidence of an increased sensitivity to amphetamine, increased dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens and prefrontal cortex, and increased firing of dopaminergic neurons in the ventral tegmental area...
January 3, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27942450/impact-of-schizophrenia-on-anterior-and-posterior-hippocampus-during-memory-for-complex-scenes
#15
J D Ragland, E Layher, D E Hannula, T A Niendam, T A Lesh, M Solomon, C S Carter, C Ranganath
OBJECTIVES: Hippocampal dysfunction has been proposed as a mechanism for memory deficits in schizophrenia. Available evidence suggests that the anterior and posterior hippocampus could be differentially affected. Accordingly, we used fMRI to test the hypothesis that activity in posterior hippocampus is disproportionately reduced in schizophrenia, particularly during spatial memory retrieval. METHODS: 26 healthy participants and 24 patients with schizophrenia from the UC Davis Early Psychosis Program were studied while fMRI was acquired on a 3 Tesla Siemens scanner...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853241/supplementation-with-d-serine-prevents-the-onset-of-cognitive-deficits-in-adult-offspring-after-maternal-immune-activation
#16
Yuko Fujita, Tamaki Ishima, Kenji Hashimoto
Prenatal maternal infection contributes to the etiology of schizophrenia, with D-serine, an endogenous co-agonist of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor, playing a role in the pathophysiology of this disease. We examined whether supplementation with D-serine during juvenile and adolescent stages could prevent the onset of cognitive deficits, prodromal and the core symptoms of schizophrenia in adult offspring after maternal immune activation (MIA). Juvenile offspring exposed prenatally to poly(I:C) showed reduced expression of NMDA receptor subunits in the hippocampus...
November 17, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824119/intake-of-7-8-dihydroxyflavone-during-juvenile-and-adolescent-stages-prevents-onset-of-psychosis-in-adult-offspring-after-maternal-immune-activation
#17
Mei Han, Ji-Chun Zhang, Wei Yao, Chun Yang, Tamaki Ishima, Qian Ren, Min Ma, Chao Dong, Xu-Feng Huang, Kenji Hashimoto
Prenatal infection and subsequent abnormal neurodevelopment of offspring is involved in the etiology of schizophrenia. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its high affinity receptor, tropomyosin receptor kinase B (TrkB) signaling plays a key role in the neurodevelopment. Pregnant mice exposed to polyriboinosinic-polyribocytidylic acid [poly(I:C)] causes schizophrenia-like behavioral abnormalities in their offspring at adulthood. Here we found that the juvenile offspring of poly(I:C)-treated mice showed cognitive deficits, as well as reduced BDNF-TrkB signaling in the prefrontal cortex (PFC)...
November 8, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806441/acute-systemic-mk-801-induced-functional-uncoupling-between-hippocampal-areas-ca3-and-ca1-with-distant-effect-in-the-retrosplenial-cortex
#18
Helena Buchtová, Iveta Fajnerová, Aleš Stuchlík, Štěpán Kubík
The hippocampus and retrosplenial cortex are integrated within a higher-order cognitive circuit supporting relational (spatial, contextual, episodic) forms of learning and memory. Hippocampal place cells can coordinate multiple parallel representations in the same physical environment. Novel environment exploration triggers expression of immediate-early genes (IEGs) Arc and Homer1a in spatial context-specific ensembles of CA1 and CA3 neurons. Less is know about ensemble coding in the retrosplenial cortex (RSC), a region directly connected and functionally coupled to CA1...
November 2, 2016: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27738647/alterations-in-the-hippocampus-and-thalamus-in-individuals-at-high-risk-for-psychosis
#19
Fabienne Harrisberger, Roman Buechler, Renata Smieskova, Claudia Lenz, Anna Walter, Laura Egloff, Kerstin Bendfeldt, Andor E Simon, Diana Wotruba, Anastasia Theodoridou, Wulf Rössler, Anita Riecher-Rössler, Undine E Lang, Karsten Heekeren, Stefan Borgwardt
Reduction in hippocampal volume is a hallmark of schizophrenia and already present in the clinical high-risk state. Nevertheless, other subcortical structures, such as the thalamus, amygdala and pallidum can differentiate schizophrenia patients from controls. We studied the role of hippocampal and subcortical structures in clinical high-risk individuals from two cohorts. High-resolution T1-weighted structural MRI brain scans of a total of 91 clinical high-risk individuals and 64 healthy controls were collected in two centers...
2016: NPJ Schizophrenia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27723806/voxel-based-morphometry-in-individuals-at-genetic-high-risk-for-schizophrenia-and-patients-with-schizophrenia-during-their-first-episode-of-psychosis
#20
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Miao Chang, Fay Y Womer, Chuan Bai, Qian Zhou, Shengnan Wei, Xiaowei Jiang, Haiyang Geng, Yifang Zhou, Yanqing Tang, Fei Wang
BACKGROUND: Understanding morphologic changes in vulnerable and early disease state of schizophrenia (SZ) may provide further insight into the development of psychosis. METHOD: Whole brain voxel-based morphometry was performed to identify gray matter (GM) regional differences in 60 individuals with SZ during their first psychotic episode (FE-SZ), 31 individuals at genetic high risk for SZ (GHR-SZ) individuals, and 71 healthy controls. RESULTS: Significant differences were found in several regions including the prefrontal cortex, parietal lobe, temporal lobe, hippocampus, occipital lobe, and cerebellum among the three groups (p<0...
2016: PloS One
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