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Psychosis Hippocampus

Fabienne Harrisberger, Roman Buechler, Renata Smieskova, Claudia Lenz, Anna Walter, Laura Egloff, Kerstin Bendfeldt, Andor E Simon, Diana Wotruba, Anastasia Theodoridou, Wulf Rössler, Anita Riecher-Rössler, Undine E Lang, Karsten Heekeren, Stefan Borgwardt
Reduction in hippocampal volume is a hallmark of schizophrenia and already present in the clinical high-risk state. Nevertheless, other subcortical structures, such as the thalamus, amygdala and pallidum can differentiate schizophrenia patients from controls. We studied the role of hippocampal and subcortical structures in clinical high-risk individuals from two cohorts. High-resolution T1-weighted structural MRI brain scans of a total of 91 clinical high-risk individuals and 64 healthy controls were collected in two centers...
2016: NPJ Schizophrenia
Miao Chang, Fay Y Womer, Chuan Bai, Qian Zhou, Shengnan Wei, Xiaowei Jiang, Haiyang Geng, Yifang Zhou, Yanqing Tang, Fei Wang
BACKGROUND: Understanding morphologic changes in vulnerable and early disease state of schizophrenia (SZ) may provide further insight into the development of psychosis. METHOD: Whole brain voxel-based morphometry was performed to identify gray matter (GM) regional differences in 60 individuals with SZ during their first psychotic episode (FE-SZ), 31 individuals at genetic high risk for SZ (GHR-SZ) individuals, and 71 healthy controls. RESULTS: Significant differences were found in several regions including the prefrontal cortex, parietal lobe, temporal lobe, hippocampus, occipital lobe, and cerebellum among the three groups (p<0...
2016: PloS One
Michael Bodnar, Ashok K Malla, Carolina Makowski, M Mallar Chakravarty, Ridha Joober, Martin Lepage
BACKGROUND: Current neuroscience literature has related treatment with aripiprazole to improved memory performance and subcellular changes in the hippocampus. AIMS: To explore the volumetric changes in hippocampal grey matter in people with a first episode of psychosis (FEP) treated with second-generation antipsychotics. METHOD: Baseline and 1-year follow-up magnetic resonance images were obtained. Hippocampal volumes were estimated by using FreeSurfer and MAGeT-Brain...
March 2016: BJPsych Open
Pratik Talati, Swati Rane, Manus J Donahue, Stephan Heckers
Recent studies of patients in the early stage of psychosis have revealed increased cerebral blood volume (CBV) in specific subfields of the anterior hippocampus. These studies required injection of a contrast agent to measure steady state CBV. Here we used a novel, non-invasive method, inflow-based-vascular-space-occupancy with dynamic subtraction (iVASO-DS), to measure the arterial component of CBV (aCBV) in a single slice of the hippocampus. Based on evidence from contrast-enhanced CBV studies, we hypothesized increased aCBV in the anterior hippocampus in early psychosis...
October 30, 2016: Psychiatry Research
Nabi Zorlu, Maria Angelique Di Biase, Çiğdem Çolak Kalaycı, Andrew Zalesky, Başak Bağcı, Nihan Oğuz, Fazıl Gelal, Lütfullah Beşiroğlu, Şeref Gülseren, Aybala Sarıçiçek, Emre Bora, Christos Pantelis
Synthetic cannabinoids have become increasingly popular in the last few years especially among adolescents and young adults. However, no previous studies have assessed the effects of synthetic cannabinoids on the structure of the human brain. Understanding the harms of synthetic cannabinoid use on brain structure is therefore crucial given its increasing use. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was performed in 22 patients who used synthetic cannabinoids more than five times a week for at least 1 year and 18 healthy controls...
September 8, 2016: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Sina Hafizi, Huai-Hsuan Tseng, Naren Rao, Thiviya Selvanathan, Miran Kenk, Richard P Bazinet, Ivonne Suridjan, Alan A Wilson, Jeffrey H Meyer, Gary Remington, Sylvain Houle, Pablo M Rusjan, Romina Mizrahi
OBJECTIVE: Neuroinflammation and abnormal immune responses are increasingly implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Previous positron emission tomography (PET) studies targeting the translocator protein 18 kDa (TSPO) have been limited by high nonspecific binding of the first-generation radioligand, low-resolution scanners, small sample sizes, and psychotic patients being on antipsychotics or not being in the first episode of their illness. The present study uses the novel second-generation TSPO PET radioligand [(18)F]FEPPA to evaluate whether microglial activation is elevated in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and hippocampus of untreated patients with first-episode psychosis...
September 9, 2016: American Journal of Psychiatry
David R Roalf, Megan Quarmley, Monica E Calkins, Theodore D Satterthwaite, Kosha Ruparel, Mark A Elliott, Tyler M Moore, Ruben C Gur, Raquel E Gur, Paul J Moberg, Bruce I Turetsky
Structural brain abnormalities have been amply demonstrated in schizophrenia. These include volume decrements in the perirhinal/entorhinal regions of the ventromedial temporal lobe, which comprise the primary olfactory cortex. Olfactory impairments, which are a hallmark of schizophrenia, precede the onset of illness, distinguish adolescents experiencing prodromal symptoms from healthy youths, and may predict the transition from the prodrome to frank psychosis. We therefore examined temporal lobe regional volumes in a large adolescent sample to determine if structural deficits in ventromedial temporal lobe areas were associated, not only with schizophrenia, but also with a heightened risk for psychosis...
August 24, 2016: Schizophrenia Bulletin
Stephanie McGarrity, Rob Mason, Kevin C Fone, Marie Pezze, Tobias Bast
Subconvulsive hippocampal neural disinhibition, that is reduced GABAergic inhibition, has been implicated in neuropsychiatric disorders characterized by attentional and memory deficits, including schizophrenia and age-related cognitive decline. Considering that neural disinhibition may disrupt both intra-hippocampal processing and processing in hippocampal projection sites, we hypothesized that hippocampal disinhibition disrupts hippocampus-dependent memory performance and, based on strong hippocampo-prefrontal connectivity, also prefrontal-dependent attention...
August 22, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
Helene A Fachim, Umarat Srisawat, Caroline F Dalton, Michael K Harte, Samuel Marsh, Joanna C Neill, Gavin P Reynolds
AIM: A deficit in parvalbumin neurons is found in schizophrenia and several animal models of the disease. In this preliminary study, we determined whether one such model, phencyclidine (PCP) administration, results in changes in DNA methylation in the rat Pvalb promoter. MATERIALS & METHODS: DNA from hippocampus and prefrontal cortex from rats, which 6 weeks previously received either 2 mg/kg PCP or vehicle for 7 days, underwent bisulphite pyrosequencing to determine methylation...
September 2016: Epigenomics
Taylor S Willi, Donna J Lang, William G Honer, Geoff N Smith, Allen E Thornton, William J Panenka, Ric M Procyshyn, Fidel Vila-Rodriguez, Wayne Su, A Talia Vertinsky, Olga Leonova, Alexander Rauscher, G William MacEwan, Alasdair M Barr
After prolonged psychostimulant abuse, transient psychotic symptoms referred to as "substance-induced psychosis" (SIP) can develop - closely resembling symptoms observed in schizophrenia spectrum disorders. The comparability in psychotic presentation between SIP and schizophrenias suggests that similar underlying neural deficits may contribute to the expression of psychosis across these disorders. To date, neuroanatomical characterization of grey matter structural alterations in SIP has been limited to methamphetamine associated psychosis, with no studies controlling for potential neurotoxic effects of the psychostimulant that precipitates psychosis...
October 2016: Schizophrenia Research
P S Baumann, A Griffa, M Fournier, P Golay, C Ferrari, L Alameda, M Cuenod, J-P Thiran, P Hagmann, K Q Do, P Conus
Several lines of evidence implicate the fornix-hippocampus circuit in schizophrenia. In early-phase psychosis, this circuit has not been extensively investigated and the underlying mechanisms affecting the circuit are unknown. The hippocampus and fornix are vulnerable to oxidative stress at peripuberty in a glutathione (GSH)-deficient animal model. The purposes of the current study were to assess the integrity of the fornix-hippocampus circuit in early-psychosis patients (EP), and to study its relationship with peripheral redox markers...
2016: Translational Psychiatry
Stéphane Potvin, Andràs Tikàsz, Adrianna Mendrek
Reliable evidence shows that schizophrenia patients tend to experience negative emotions when presented with emotionally neutral stimuli. Similarly, several functional neuroimaging studies show that schizophrenia patients have increased activations in response to neutral material. However, results are heterogeneous. Here, we review the functional neuroimaging studies that have addressed this research question. Based on the 36 functional neuroimaging studies that we retrieved, it seems that the increased brain reactivity to neutral stimuli is fairly common in schizophrenia, but that the regions involved vary considerably, apart from the amygdala...
2016: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Rachael Gardner, Rajesh Rangaswamy, Yen-Yi Peng
With the increased availability of laboratory tests, glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) antibody-positive limbic encephalitis has become an emerging diagnosis. The myriad symptoms of limbic encephalitis make the diagnosis challenging. Symptoms range from seizures, memory loss, dementia, confusion, to psychosis. We present a case of a 21-year-old female with GAD65 antibody-positive limbic encephalitis. The case is unique because the clinical course suggests that non-convulsive seizures are the major cause of this patient's clinical manifestations...
August 2016: Journal of Clinical Medicine Research
Martin Hýža, Matyáš Kuhn, Eva Češková, Libor Ustohal, Tomáš Kašpárek
OBJECTIVES: Several lines of evidence suggest an adverse effect of psychotic episodes on brain morphology. It is not clear if this relationship reflects the cumulative effect of psychotic outbursts on the gradual progressive reduction of hippocampal tissue or an increased tendency toward psychotic episodes in patients with a smaller hippocampus at the beginning of the illness. METHODS: This is a longitudinal 4-year prospective study of patients with first-episode schizophrenia (FES, N = 58)...
September 2016: World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
Lisa Buchy, Daniel H Mathalon, Tyrone D Cannon, Kristin S Cadenhead, Barbara A Cornblatt, Thomas H McGlashan, Diana O Perkins, Larry J Seidman, Ming T Tsuang, Elaine F Walker, Scott W Woods, Carrie E Bearden, Jean Addington
Among people at genetic risk of schizophrenia, those who use cannabis show smaller thalamic and hippocampal volumes. We evaluated this relationship in people at clinical high risk (CHR) of psychosis. The Alcohol and Drug Use Scale was used to identify 132 CHR cannabis users, the majority of whom were non-dependent cannabis users, 387 CHR non-users, and 204 healthy control non-users, and all participants completed magnetic resonance imaging scans. Volumes of the thalamus, hippocampus and amygdala were extracted with FreeSurfer, and compared across groups...
August 30, 2016: Psychiatry Research
Klara Mareckova, Laura M Holsen, Roee Admon, Nikos Makris, Larry Seidman, Stephen Buka, Susan Whitfield-Gabrieli, Jill M Goldstein
Negative affective stimuli elicit behavioral and neural responses which vary on a continuum from adaptive to maladaptive, yet are typically investigated in a dichotomous manner (healthy controls vs. psychiatric diagnoses). This practice may limit our ability to fully capture variance from acute responses to negative affective stimuli to psychopathology at the extreme end. To address this, we conducted a functional magnetic resonance imaging study to examine the neural responses to negative valence/high arousal and neutral valence/low arousal images as a function of dysphoric mood and sex across individuals (n = 99) who represented traditional categories of healthy controls, major depressive disorder, bipolar psychosis, and schizophrenia...
June 1, 2016: Human Brain Mapping
Jan Lošák, Jitka Hüttlová, Petra Lipová, Radek Mareček, Martin Bareš, Pavel Filip, Jozef Žůbor, Libor Ustohal, Jiří Vaníček, Tomáš Kašpárek
Abnormalities in both time processing and dopamine (DA) neurotransmission have been observed in schizophrenia. Time processing seems to be linked to DA neurotransmission. The cognitive dysmetria hypothesis postulates that psychosis might be a manifestation of the loss of coordination of mental processes due to impaired timing. The objective of the present study was to analyze timing abilities and their corresponding functional neuroanatomy in schizophrenia. We performed a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study using a predictive motor timing paradigm in 28 schizophrenia patients and 27 matched healthy controls (HC)...
May 17, 2016: Schizophrenia Bulletin
Siriluk Veerasakul, Samur Thanoi, Gavin P Reynolds, Sutisa Nudmamud-Thanoi
Methamphetamine (METH) is a psychostimulant drug with potent effects on the central nervous system that can cause psychotic symptoms similar to those of schizophrenia. Specific alterations in GABAergic neuronal markers have been reported in schizophrenia and animal models of psychotic illness. The aim of this study was to determine whether there are changes in subpopulations of GABAergic neurons, defined by the presence of calcium binding proteins (CBPs), in animal models of METH abuse. Rats received acute (Binge) doses of 4 × 6 mg/kg, a chronic escalating dose regime (0...
October 2016: Neurotoxicity Research
I Valli, N A Crossley, F Day, J Stone, S Tognin, V Mondelli, O Howes, L Valmaggia, C Pariante, P McGuire
The onset of psychosis is thought to involve interactions between environmental stressors and the brain, with cortisol as a putative mediator. We examined the relationship between the cortisol stress response and brain structure in subjects at ultra-high risk (UHR) for psychosis. Waking salivary cortisol was measured in 22 individuals at UHR for psychosis and 17 healthy controls. Grey matter volume was assessed using magnetic resonance imaging at 3 T. The relationship between the stress response and grey matter volume was investigated using voxel-based analyses...
2016: Translational Psychiatry
Raphael Underwood, Veena Kumari, Emmanuelle Peters
Cognitive models of psychosis propose that maladaptive appraisals of anomalous experiences contribute to distress and disability in psychosis. Attentional, attributional and reasoning biases are hypothesised to drive these threat-based appraisals. Experimental and self-report data have provided support for the presence of these biases in psychosis populations, but recently there have been calls for neurobiological data to be integrated into these findings. Currently, little investigation has been conducted into the neural correlates of maladaptive appraisals...
May 30, 2016: Psychiatry Research
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