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Schizophrenia Hippocampus

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27874048/inverse-changes-in-l1-retrotransposons-between-blood-and-brain-in-major-depressive-disorder
#1
Shu Liu, Tingfu Du, Zeyue Liu, Yan Shen, Jianbo Xiu, Qi Xu
Long interspersed nuclear element-1 (LINE-1 or L1) is a type of retrotransposons comprising 17% of the human and mouse genome, and has been found to be associated with several types of neurological disorders. Previous post-mortem brain studies reveal increased L1 copy number in the prefrontal cortex from schizophrenia patients. However, whether L1 retrotransposition occurs similarly in major depressive disorder (MDD) is unknown. Here, L1 copy number was measured by quantitative PCR analysis in peripheral blood of MDD patients (n = 105) and healthy controls (n = 105)...
November 22, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856156/metabolic-profile-alterations-in-the-postmortem-brains-of-patients-with-schizophrenia-using-capillary-electrophoresis-mass-spectrometry
#2
Takashi Fujii, Kotaro Hattori, Tomoko Miyakawa, Yoshiaki Ohashi, Hajime Sato, Hiroshi Kunugi
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to find the alterations in the profiles of low-molecular-weight metabolites in the brains of schizophrenia patients that may reflect the pathophysiology of the disorder. METHOD: Human postmortem brain tissues from the frontal cortex (15 schizophrenia patients and 15 controls) and the hippocampus (14 schizophrenia patients and 15 controls) were obtained from the Stanley Foundation Neuropathology Consortium. We analyzed ~300 metabolites, using capillary electrophoresis with time-of-flight mass spectrometry...
November 15, 2016: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853241/supplementation-with-d-serine-prevents-the-onset-of-cognitive-deficits-in-adult-offspring-after-maternal-immune-activation
#3
Yuko Fujita, Tamaki Ishima, Kenji Hashimoto
Prenatal maternal infection contributes to the etiology of schizophrenia, with D-serine, an endogenous co-agonist of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor, playing a role in the pathophysiology of this disease. We examined whether supplementation with D-serine during juvenile and adolescent stages could prevent the onset of cognitive deficits, prodromal and the core symptoms of schizophrenia in adult offspring after maternal immune activation (MIA). Juvenile offspring exposed prenatally to poly(I:C) showed reduced expression of NMDA receptor subunits in the hippocampus...
November 17, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833555/ginkgolic-acid-protects-against-a%C3%AE-induced-synaptic-dysfunction-in-the-hippocampus
#4
Dalila Mango, Filippo Weisz, Robert Nisticò
Ginkgo leaf is the most used form of supplement for cognitive ailments. The standardized extract formulation EGb 761 is a dietary supplement with proven benefit in several neurological and psychiatric conditions including memory decline in Alzheimer's disease, schizophrenia and dementia. Ginkgolic acid (GA) is a component of this extract which shows pleiotropic effects including antitumoral and anti-HIV action; however, its effect on memory is still unknown. Here, we carried out an electrophysiological analysis to investigate the effects of GA on long term potentiation and synaptic transmission at CA1 hippocampal synapses...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832597/caveolin-1-regulation-of-disrupted-in-schizophrenia-1-as-a-potential-therapeutic-target-for-schizophrenia
#5
Adam Kassan, Junji Egawa, Zheng Zhang, Angels Almenar-Queralt, Quynh My Nguyen, Yasaman Lajevardi, Kaitlyn Kim, Edmund Posadas, Dilip V Jeste, David M Roth, Piyush M Patel, Hemal H Patel, Brian P Head
BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia is a debilitating psychiatric disorder manifested in early adulthood. Disrupted-In-Schizophrenia-1 (DISC1) is a susceptible gene for schizophrenia (54, 76, 101) implicated in neuronal development, brain maturation and neuroplasticity (12, 20). Therefore, DISC1 is a promising candidate gene for schizophrenia, but the molecular mechanisms underlying its role in the pathogenesis of the disease are still poorly understood. Interestingly, Caveolin-1 (Cav-1), a cholesterol binding and scaffolding protein, regulates neuronal signal transduction and promotes neuroplasticity...
November 2, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830729/causal-evidence-for-the-role-of-specific-gabaergic-interneuron-types-in-entorhinal-recruitment-of-dentate-granule-cells
#6
Cheng-Ta Lee, Min-Hua Kao, Wen-Hsien Hou, Yu-Ting Wei, Chin-Lin Chen, Cheng-Chang Lien
The dentate gyrus (DG) is the primary gate of the hippocampus and controls information flow from the cortex to the hippocampus proper. To maintain normal function, granule cells (GCs), the principal neurons in the DG, receive fine-tuned inhibition from local-circuit GABAergic inhibitory interneurons (INs). Abnormalities of GABAergic circuits in the DG are associated with several brain disorders, including epilepsy, autism, schizophrenia, and Alzheimer disease. Therefore, understanding the network mechanisms of inhibitory control of GCs is of functional and pathophysiological importance...
November 10, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824119/intake-of-7-8-dihydroxyflavone-during-juvenile-and-adolescent-stages-prevents-onset-of-psychosis-in-adult-offspring-after-maternal-immune-activation
#7
Mei Han, Ji-Chun Zhang, Wei Yao, Chun Yang, Tamaki Ishima, Qian Ren, Min Ma, Chao Dong, Xu-Feng Huang, Kenji Hashimoto
Prenatal infection and subsequent abnormal neurodevelopment of offspring is involved in the etiology of schizophrenia. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its high affinity receptor, tropomyosin receptor kinase B (TrkB) signaling plays a key role in the neurodevelopment. Pregnant mice exposed to polyriboinosinic-polyribocytidylic acid [poly(I:C)] causes schizophrenia-like behavioral abnormalities in their offspring at adulthood. Here we found that the juvenile offspring of poly(I:C)-treated mice showed cognitive deficits, as well as reduced BDNF-TrkB signaling in the prefrontal cortex (PFC)...
November 8, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806441/acute-systemic-mk-801-induced-functional-uncoupling-between-hippocampal-areas-ca3-and-ca1-with-distant-effect-in-the-retrosplenial-cortex
#8
Helena Buchtová, Iveta Fajnerová, Aleš Stuchlík, Štěpán Kubík
The hippocampus and retrosplenial cortex are integrated within a higher-order cognitive circuit supporting relational (spatial, contextual, episodic) forms of learning and memory. Hippocampal place cells can coordinate multiple parallel representations in the same physical environment. Novel environment exploration triggers expression of immediate-early genes (IEGs) Arc and Homer1a in spatial context-specific ensembles of CA1 and CA3 neurons. Less is know about ensemble coding in the retrosplenial cortex (RSC), a region directly connected and functionally coupled to CA1...
November 2, 2016: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796754/ketamine-self-administration-reduces-the-homeostasis-of-the-glutamate-synapse-in-the-rat-brain
#9
Lucia Caffino, Alessandro Piva, Giuseppe Giannotti, Marzia Di Chio, Francesca Mottarlini, Marco Venniro, David T Yew, Cristiano Chiamulera, Fabio Fumagalli
Ketamine is a non-competitive antagonist of the NMDA glutamate receptor with psychotomimetic and reinforcing properties, although recent work has pointed out its antidepressant action following acute exposure. Our aim was to investigate the expression of crucial components of the glutamate synapse following chronic ketamine self-administration (S/A), focusing our attention on medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and hippocampus (Hip), two brain regions involved in compulsive drug-seeking and drug-related cognitive disorders...
October 29, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784625/nicotine-induced-neuroplasticity-counteracts-the-effect-of-schizophrenia-linked-neuregulin-1-signaling-on-nmdar-function-in-the-rat-hippocampus
#10
Yoshihiko Yamazaki, Katumi Sumikawa
A high rate of heavy tobacco smoking among people with schizophrenia has been suggested to reflect self-medication and amelioration of cognitive dysfunction, a core feature of schizophrenia. NMDAR hypofunction is hypothesized to be a mechanism of cognitive dysfunction, and excessive schizophrenia-linked neuregulin 1 (NRG1) signaling through its receptor ErbB4 can suppress NMDAR function by preventing Src-mediated enhancement of NMDAR responses. Here we investigated whether chronic nicotine exposure in rats by subcutaneous injection of nicotine (0...
October 23, 2016: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27778340/maternal-protein-restriction-during-gestation-and-lactation-in-the-rat-results-in-increased-brain-levels-of-kynurenine-and-kynurenic-acid-in-their-adult-offspring
#11
Paula Honório de Melo Martimiano, André de Sa Braga Oliveira, Véronique Ferchaud-Roucher, Mikaël Croyal, Audrey Aguesse, Isabelle Grit, Khadija Ouguerram, Sandra Lopes de Souza, Bertrand Kaeffer, Francisco Bolaños-Jiménez
Early malnutrition is a risk factor for depression and schizophrenia. Since the offspring of malnourished dams exhibit increased brain levels of serotonin (5-HT), a tryptophan-derived neurotransmitter involved in the pathophysiology of these mental disorders, it is believed that the deleterious effects of early malnutrition on brain function are due in large part to altered serotoninergic neurotransmission resulting from impaired tryptophan (Trp) metabolism. However, tryptophan is also metabolized through the kynurenine (KYN) pathway yielding several neuroactive compounds including kynurenic (KA), Qinolinic (QA) and Xanthurenic (XA) acids...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27776571/common-pattern-of-gray-matter-abnormalities-in-drug-naive-and-medicated-first-episode-schizophrenia-a-multimodal-meta-analysis
#12
C Shah, W Zhang, Y Xiao, L Yao, Y Zhao, X Gao, L Liu, J Liu, S Li, B Tao, Z Yan, Y Fu, Q Gong, S Lui
Studies of schizophrenia at drug-naive state and on antipsychotic medication have reported a number of regions of gray-matter (GM) abnormalities but the reports have been inconsistent. The aim of this study was to conduct multimodal meta-analysis to compare the cross-sectional voxel-based morphometry studies of brain GM in antipsychotic-naive first-episode schizophrenia (AN-FES) and those with antipsychotic treatment within 1 year (AT-FES) to determine the similarities and differences in these groups. We conducted two separate meta-analyses containing 24 studies with a sample size of 801 patients and 957 healthy controls...
October 25, 2016: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760700/altered-interregional-correlations-between-serotonin-transporter-availability-and-cerebral-glucose-metabolism-in-schizophrenia-a-high-resolution-pet-study-using-11-c-dasb-and-18-f-fdg
#13
Jeong-Hee Kim, Jong-Hoon Kim, Young-Don Son, Yo-Han Joo, Sang-Yoon Lee, Hang-Keun Kim, Myung-Kyun Woo
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the patterns of interregional correlations of serotonin transporter (SERT) availability with glucose metabolism using 7-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and high-resolution positron emission tomography (PET) with (11)C-3-amino-4-(2-dimethylaminomethylphenylthio)benzonitrile ([(11)C]DASB) and [(18)F]fluorodeoxyglucose ([(18)F]FDG) in antipsychotic-free patients with schizophrenia in order to shed new light on the disrupted functional connectivity in schizophrenia...
October 16, 2016: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27738647/alterations-in-the-hippocampus-and-thalamus-in-individuals-at-high-risk-for-psychosis
#14
Fabienne Harrisberger, Roman Buechler, Renata Smieskova, Claudia Lenz, Anna Walter, Laura Egloff, Kerstin Bendfeldt, Andor E Simon, Diana Wotruba, Anastasia Theodoridou, Wulf Rössler, Anita Riecher-Rössler, Undine E Lang, Karsten Heekeren, Stefan Borgwardt
Reduction in hippocampal volume is a hallmark of schizophrenia and already present in the clinical high-risk state. Nevertheless, other subcortical structures, such as the thalamus, amygdala and pallidum can differentiate schizophrenia patients from controls. We studied the role of hippocampal and subcortical structures in clinical high-risk individuals from two cohorts. High-resolution T1-weighted structural MRI brain scans of a total of 91 clinical high-risk individuals and 64 healthy controls were collected in two centers...
2016: NPJ Schizophrenia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27735901/-creatine-kinase-isoform-b-distribution-in-the-brain-in-schizophrenia
#15
O K Savushkina, E B Tereshkina, T A Prokhorova, E A Vorob'eva, I S Boksha, G Sh Burbaeva
AIM: To compare patterns of brain isoform creatine phosphokinase (CPK B) distributions in post-mortem brain from patients with schizophrenia (Sch) and patients with somatic diseases (controls). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Extracts of readily soluble and membrane-associated proteins were prepared from post-mortem samples of prefrontal cortex (Brodmann area 10), anterior (area 24) and posterior (area 23) cingulate cortex, hippocampus and cerebellum cortex from patients with Sch and control group (the samples were matched by age and postmortem interval)...
2016: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27735056/differential-expression-of-cytoskeletal-regulatory-factors-in-the-adolescent-prefrontal-cortex-implications-for-cortical-development
#16
Lauren P Shapiro, Ryan G Parsons, Anthony J Koleske, Shannon L Gourley
The prevalence of depression, anxiety, schizophrenia, and drug and alcohol use disorders peaks during adolescence. Further, up to 50% of "adult" mental health disorders emerge in adolescence. During adolescence, the prefrontal cortex (PFC) undergoes dramatic structural reorganization, in which dendritic spines and synapses are refined, pruned, and stabilized. Understanding the molecular mechanisms that underlie these processes should help to identify factors that influence the development of psychiatric illness...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27733539/epigenetic-regulation-of-glutamic-acid-decarboxylase-67-in-a-hippocampal-circuit
#17
Sivan Subburaju, Andrew J Coleman, Miles G Cunningham, W Brad Ruzicka, Francine M Benes
GABAergic dysfunction in hippocampus, a key feature of schizophrenia (SZ), may contribute to cognitive impairment in this disorder. In stratum oriens (SO) of sector CA3/2 of the human hippocampus, a network of genes involved in the regulation of glutamic acid decarboxylase GAD67 has been identified. Several of the genes in this network including epigenetic factors histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1) and death-associated protein 6 (DAXX), the GABAergic enzyme GAD65 as well as the kainate receptor (KAR) subunits GluR6 and 7 show significant changes in expression in this area in SZ...
October 12, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27729083/disrupted-in-schizophrenia1-disc1-l100p-mutation-alters-synaptic-transmission-and-plasticity-in-the-hippocampus-and-causes-recognition-memory-deficits
#18
Lin Cui, Wei Sun, Ming Yu, Nan Li, Li Guo, Huating Gu, Yu Zhou
Disrupted-in-schizophrenia 1(DISC1) is a promising candidate susceptibility gene for a spectrum of psychiatric illnesses that share cognitive impairments in common, including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and major depression. Here we report that DISC1 L100P homozygous mutant shows normal anxiety- and depression-like behavior, but impaired object recognition which is prevented by administration of atypical antipsychotic drug clozapine. Ca(2+) image analysis reveals suppression of glutamate-evoked elevation of cytoplasmic [Ca(2+)] in L100P hippocampal slices...
October 12, 2016: Molecular Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27723806/voxel-based-morphometry-in-individuals-at-genetic-high-risk-for-schizophrenia-and-patients-with-schizophrenia-during-their-first-episode-of-psychosis
#19
Miao Chang, Fay Y Womer, Chuan Bai, Qian Zhou, Shengnan Wei, Xiaowei Jiang, Haiyang Geng, Yifang Zhou, Yanqing Tang, Fei Wang
BACKGROUND: Understanding morphologic changes in vulnerable and early disease state of schizophrenia (SZ) may provide further insight into the development of psychosis. METHOD: Whole brain voxel-based morphometry was performed to identify gray matter (GM) regional differences in 60 individuals with SZ during their first psychotic episode (FE-SZ), 31 individuals at genetic high risk for SZ (GHR-SZ) individuals, and 71 healthy controls. RESULTS: Significant differences were found in several regions including the prefrontal cortex, parietal lobe, temporal lobe, hippocampus, occipital lobe, and cerebellum among the three groups (p<0...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27721389/neurodevelopmental-expression-profile-of-dimeric-and-monomeric-group-1-mglurs-relevance-to-schizophrenia-pathogenesis-and-treatment
#20
Jeremy S Lum, Francesca Fernandez, Natalie Matosin, Jessica L Andrews, Xu-Feng Huang, Lezanne Ooi, Kelly A Newell
Group 1 metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR1/mGluR5) play an integral role in neurodevelopment and are implicated in psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia. mGluR1 and mGluR5 are expressed as homodimers, which is important for their functionality and pharmacology. We examined the protein expression of dimeric and monomeric mGluR1α and mGluR5 in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and hippocampus throughout development (juvenile/adolescence/adulthood) and in the perinatal phencyclidine (PCP) model of schizophrenia...
October 10, 2016: Scientific Reports
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