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OOcyte surface

JoAnne S Richards
Follicular development and ovulation are complex development processes that are regulated by multiple, interacting pathways and cell types. The oocyte, cumulus cells, granulosa cells, and theca cells communicate to impact follicular development and ovulation. Many hormones and cytokines control intracellular regulatory networks and transcription factors, some of which are cell type specific. Molecular biology approaches and mutant mouse models have contributed immensely to our knowledge of what genes and signaling cascades impact each stage of follicular development and ovulation, and how the alteration of gene expression profiles and the activation of specific signaling pathways can impact ovarian cancer development in ovarian surface epithelial cells as well as granulosa cells...
2018: Vitamins and Hormones
Mohamed Fathi, Adel R Moawad, Magdy R Badr
Cryopreservation of oocytes would serve as an alternative to overcome the limited availability of dromedary camel oocytes and facilitate improvements in IVP techniques in this species. Our goal was to develop a protocol for the vitrification of camel oocytes at the germinal vesicle (GV) stage using different cryoprotectant combinations: 20% EG and 20% DMSO (VS1), 25% EG plus 25% DMSO (VS2) or 25% EG and 25% glycerol (VS3) and various cryo-carriers; straws or open pulled-straw (OPS) or solid surface vitrification (SSV); and Cryotop...
2018: PloS One
J Kabutomori, O Beloto-Silva, R R Geyer, R Musa-Aziz
Xenopus laevis oocytes are a valuable tool for investigating the function of membrane proteins. However, regulations around the world, specifically in Brazil, render the import of Xenopus laevis frogs impractical, and, in some cases, impossible. Here, as an alternative, we evaluate the usefulness of the North American aquatic bullfrog Lithobates catesebeianus , which is commercially available in Brazil, for the heterologous expression of aquaporin (AQP) proteins. We have developed a method that combines a brief collagenase treatment and mechanical defolliculation for isolating individual oocytes from Lithobates ovaries...
March 12, 2018: Biology Open
Md Fazlur Rahman, Radhika Raj, Rajgopal Govindarajan
Combination antiretroviral drug treatments depend on 3'-deoxy-nucleoside analogs such as AZT (3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine) and DDI (2'3'-dideoxyinosine). Despite being effective in inhibiting HIV viral replication, these drugs produce a range of toxicities, including myopathy, pancreatitis, neuropathy and lactic acidosis, that are generally considered as sequelae to mitochondrial damage. While the cell surface localized nucleoside transporters (e.g., human equilibrative nucleoside transporter 2 (hENT2), human concentrative nucleoside transporter 1 (hCNT1)) are known to increase the carrier mediated uptake of 3'-deoxy-nucleoside analogs into cells, another ubiquitously expressed intracellular nucleoside transporter, namely, hENT3, has been implicated in the mitochondrial transport of 3'-deoxy-nucleoside analogs...
March 12, 2018: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
Kiley A Knapp, Eusebio S Pires, Sara J Adair, Arabinda Mandal, Anne M Mills, Walter C Olson, Craig L Slingluff, J Thomas Parsons, Todd W Bauer, Timothy N Bullock, John C Herr
Successful therapeutic options remain elusive for pancreatic cancer. The exquisite sensitivity and specificity of humoral and cellular immunity may provide therapeutic approaches if antigens specific for pancreatic cancer cells can be identified. Here we characterize SAS1B (ovastacin, ASTL , astacin-like), a cancer-oocyte antigen, as an attractive immunotoxin target expressed at the surface of human pancreatic cancer cells, with limited expression among normal tissues. Immunohistochemistry shows that most pancreatic cancers are SAS1Bpos (68%), while normal pancreatic ductal epithelium is SAS1Bneg ...
February 6, 2018: Oncotarget
Silke Haerteis, Anja Schork, Thomas Dörffel, Bernhard N Bohnert, Regina Nacken, Matthias Wörn, Mengyun Xiao, Daniel Essigke, Andrea Janessa, Alvin H Schmaier, Edward P Feener, Hans-Ulrich Häring, Marko Bertog, Christoph Korbmacher, Ferruh Artunc
AIM: Recent work has demonstrated that activation of the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) by aberrantly filtered serine proteases causes sodium retention in nephrotic syndrome. The aim of this study was to elucidate a potential role of plasma kallikrein (PKLK) as a candidate serine protease in this context. METHODS: We analyzed PKLK in the urine of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD, n=171) and investigated its ability to activate human ENaC expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes...
February 28, 2018: Acta Physiologica
Youmei Wu, María José Luna, Lauren S Bonilla, Nicholas J P Ryba, James M Pickel
Design and engineering of complex knockin mice has revolutionized the in vivo manipulation of genetically defined cells. Recently development of the bacterial clustered regularly interspersed short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) associated protein 9 (Cas9) system for single site cleavage of mammalian genomes has opened the way for rapid generation of knockin mice by targeting homology directed repair to selected cleavage sites. We used this approach to generate new lines of mice that will be useful for a variety of aspects of neuroscience research...
2018: PloS One
J D J Gilbert, A Wells, S J Simpson
Costs and benefits of group living are a fundamental topic in behavioural ecology. Resource availability affects individuals' breeding prospects alone and in groups, as well as how reproduction is distributed within groups ("reproductive skew"). Here, in facultatively social thrips, we provide correlational evidence that breeding resources are associated with (1) whether solitary or social living is favoured, and (2) the degree of ovarian skew. Dunatothrips aneurae (Thysanoptera, Phlaeothripidae) cooperatively build silk "domiciles" on Australian Acacias, feeding exclusively from internal phyllode surfaces...
February 26, 2018: Scientific Reports
Damià Castelló, Ana Cobo, Enric Mestres, Maria Garcia, Ivette Vanrell, José Alejandro Remohí, Gloria Calderón, Nuno Costa-Borges
Vitrification is currently a well-established technique for the cryopreservation of oocytes and embryos. It can be achieved either by direct (open systems) or indirect (closed systems) contact with liquid nitrogen. While there is not a direct evidence of disease transmission by transferred cryopreserved embryos, it was experimentally demonstrated that cross-contamination between liquid nitrogen and embryos may occur, and thus, the use of closed devices has been recommended to avoid the risk of contamination...
February 20, 2018: Cryobiology
Bettina Krueger, Limin Yang, Christoph Korbmacher, Robert Rauh
The epithelial Na+ channel (ENaC) is a heteromeric channel composed of three subunits (α, β, γ). At the C-terminus of each subunit, a PY-motif allows binding of the ubiquitin ligase Nedd4-2 which plays a key role in promoting ENaC retrieval from the plasma membrane. Phosphorylation of Nedd4-2 by the serum and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase 1 (Sgk1) reduces Nedd4-2 binding to the PY-motifs. In β and γENaC, threonine residues (βT613, γT623) belong to an extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) motif and directly precede the PY-motifs...
February 3, 2018: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
Ronald H F Hunter, Fernando López-Gatius
Bearing in mind specific parallels between cow and human ovarian physiology, as noted in the manuscript, we have measured whether the temperature in a pre-ovulatory follicle is cooler than that in adjacent tissues. Using a novel approach not requiring anaesthetics or surgical procedures, we found that follicular fluid bathing cow oocytes shortly before ovulation is cooler than the neighbouring uterine surface and cooler than deep rectal temperature (the reference body temperature in cattle). By contrast, Graafian follicles of comparable size and ultrasonic image that do not subsequently ovulate do not have a reduced antral temperature...
January 29, 2018: Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics
Steven Molinarolo, Sora Lee, Lilia Leisle, John D Lueck, Daniele Granata, Vincenzo Carnevale, Christopher A Ahern
Voltage-gated, sodium ion-selective channels (NaV) generate electrical signals contributing to the upstroke of the action potential in animals. NaVs are also found in bacteria and are members of a larger family of tetrameric voltagegated channels that includes CaVs, KVs, and NaVs. Prokaryotic NaVs likely emerged from a homotetrameric Ca2+-selective voltage-gated progenerator, and later developed Na+ selectivity independently. The NaV signaling complex in eukaryotes contains auxiliary proteins, termed beta (β) subunits, which are potent modulators of the expression profiles and voltage-gated properties of the NaV pore, but it is unknown whether they can functionally interact with prokaryotic NaV channels...
January 25, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Noriyo Takeda, Yota Kon, Gonzalo Quiroga Artigas, Pascal Lapébie, Carine Barreau, Osamu Koizumi, Takeo Kishimoto, Kazunori Tachibana, Evelyn Houliston, Ryusaku Deguchi
Oocyte meiotic maturation is crucial for sexually reproducing animals, and its core cytoplasmic regulators are highly conserved between species. By contrast, the few known maturation-inducing hormones (MIHs) that act on oocytes to initiate this process are highly variable in their molecular nature. Using the hydrozoan jellyfish species Clytia and Cladonema, which undergo oocyte maturation in response to dark-light and light-dark transitions, respectively, we deduced amidated tetrapeptide sequences from gonad transcriptome data and found that synthetic peptides could induce maturation of isolated oocytes at nanomolar concentrations...
January 22, 2018: Development
Johanna Bischof, Christoph A Brand, Kálmán Somogyi, Imre Májer, Sarah Thome, Masashi Mori, Ulrich S Schwarz, Péter Lénárt
A Supplementary Information file from a different paper was inadvertently published with the original version of this Article. This file was replaced with the correct Supplementary Information file on 24 October 2017.
January 10, 2018: Nature Communications
Cong-Cong Hou, Jun-Quan Zhu
Along with the increasing application of nanoparticles (NPs) in many walks of life, environmental exposure to NPs has raised considerable health concerns. When NPs enter a pregnant woman's body through inhalation, venous injection, ingestion or skin permeation, maternal toxic stress reactions such as reactive oxygen species (ROS), inflammation, apoptosis and endocrine dyscrasia are induced in different organs, particularly in the reproductive organs. Recent studies have shown that NPs disturb the developing oocyte by invading the protective barrier of theca cells, granulosa cell layers and zona pellucida...
December 12, 2017: Oncotarget
Dongsheng Jia, Qian Chen, Qianzhuo Mao, Xiaofeng Zhang, Wei Wu, Hongyan Chen, Xiangzhen Yu, Zhiqiang Wang, Taiyun Wei
Many vector-borne plant viruses of agricultural importance are persistently transmitted from plant to plant by sap-sucking insects. So far, the mechanisms for vector-mediated horizontal transmission of the viruses to plant hosts and for vertical transmission to insect offspring have been poorly understood. During horizontal transmission, intact virions or virus-induced inclusions are exploited by persistently transmitted viruses to overcome the midgut and salivary gland barriers. The existing oocyte entry paths used by vitellogenin or symbiont bacteria can mediate the vertical transmission of viruses by female insects...
January 3, 2018: Current Opinion in Virology
Karen L Reader, Francesco E Marino, Helen D Nicholson, Gail P Risbridger, Elspeth J Gold
Activins and inhibins play important roles in the development, growth and function of the ovary. Mice lacking inhibin develop granulosa cell tumours in their ovaries that secrete activin A, and these tumours are modulated by increased activin C expression. The aim of the present study was to identify where activin C is expressed in mouse and human ovaries and whether overexpression of activin C modulates normal follicular development in mice. Immunohistochemical staining for the activin βC subunit was performed on sections from mouse and human ovaries and human adult granulosa cell tumours...
December 6, 2017: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Anne Bachelot, Jerome Gilleron, Geri Meduri, Mihelai Guberto, Jerome Dulon, Sylviane Boucherie, Philippe Touraine, Micheline Misrahi
Folliculogenesis requires communication between granulosa cells and oocytes, mediated by connexin-based gap junctions. Connexin 37 (Cx37)-deficient female mice are infertile. The present study assessed Cx37 deficiency in patients with primary ovarian insufficiency (POI). A candidate gene study was performed in patients and controls from the National Genotyping Center (Evry, France) including 58 Caucasian patients with idiopathic isolated POI and 142 Caucasian controls. Direct genomic sequencing of the coding regions of the GJA4 gene (encoding Cx37) was performed with the aim to identify a deleterious variant associated with POI and absent in ethnically matched controls...
February 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
Matheus Pereira-Santos, Eduardo Shimoda, André Furugen Cesar de Andrade, Luciano Andrade Silva, Takafumi Fujimoto, José Augusto Senhorini, George Shigueki Yasui, Laura Satiko Okada Nakaghi
In fish with external fertilization, sperm must reach the oocyte through the micropyle to enter the cytoplasm. Fertilization success is then influenced by characteristics of oocytes or sperm. In this study, we evaluated oocyte morphology and sperm motility parameters and their effects on the inseminating dose in a teleost fish Astyanax altiparanae. Interestingly, we found one of the lowest yet described inseminating doses in teleosts (2390 spermatozoa oocyte-1 ml-1). Such a fertilization efficacy may be explained by the long duration of sperm motility (>75 s), the small oocyte diameter (695...
December 2017: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
Ossama B Kashlan, Carol L Kinlough, Michael M Myerburg, Shujie Shi, Jingxin Chen, Brandon M Blobner, Teresa M Buck, Jeffrey L Brodsky, Rebecca P Hughey, Thomas R Kleyman
Epithelial Na+ channel (ENaC) subunits undergo N-linked glycosylation in the endoplasmic reticulum where they assemble into an αβγ complex. Six, thirteen and five consensus sites (Asn-x-Ser/Thr) for N-glycosylation reside in the extracellular domains of the mouse α, β and γ subunits, respectively. Because the importance of ENaC N-linked glycans has not been fully addressed, we examined the effect of preventing N-glycosylation of specific subunits on channel function, expression, maturation, and folding...
November 29, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
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