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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856812/resolving-the-complexity-of-vitellogenins-and-their-receptors-in-the-tetraploid-atlantic-salmon-salmo-salar-ancient-origin-of-the-phosvitin-less-vtgc-in-chondrichthyean-fishes
#1
Øivind Andersen, Chunxia Xu, Gerrit Timmerhaus, Katrine Hånes Kirste, Ingun Naeve, Maren Mommens, Helge Tveiten
Egg yolk proteins are mainly derived from vitellogenin (Vtg), and serve as essential nutrients during early development in oviparous organisms. Vertebrate Vtgs are predominantly synthesized in the liver of maturing females, and are internalized by the oocyte after binding to specific surface receptors (VtgR). Here we clarify the evolutionary history of the vertebrate Vtgs, including the teleost VtgC, which lacks phosvitin, and investigate the repertoire of Vtgs and VtgRs in the tetraploid Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)...
August 30, 2017: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836396/morphological-and-molecular-aspects-of-in-vitro-culture-of-preantral-follicles-derived-from-vitrified-ovarian
#2
Mahboobeh Amoushahi, Mojdeh Salehnia, Seyed Javad Mowla, Nassim Ghorbanmehr
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the expression of the genes related to folliculogenesis after vitrification of mouse ovarian tissues using a two-step in vitro culture. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this experimental study, vitrified and non-vitrified ovaries from 7- day old (neonate) female mice were cultured using alpha-Minimum Essential Medium (α-MEM) supplemented with 5% fetal bovine serum (FBS) for 7 days. Morphology, surface area of ovaries and percentage of normal follicles were evaluated and compared in both groups...
October 2017: Cell Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797744/mechanical-characterisation-of-oocytes-the-influence-of-sample-geometry-on-parameter-identification
#3
Johannes Dittmann, Andreas Dietzel, Markus Böl
The present study focused on the material characterisation of porcine oocytes by experiments combined with an inverse finite-element method (iFEM) approach. In doing so, two different deformation states, compression and indentation, were realised to enable the validation of the numerical model. In addition to classical force-strain relations, geometrical information on the oocyte's surface and volume changes during deformation were collected. These data reveal the typical exponential force-strain behaviour and the highly compressible behaviour of the zona pellucida, imparting overall compressibility to the entire cell...
July 26, 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783897/gonadal-intersex-in-smallmouth-bass-micropterus-dolomieu-from-northern-indiana-with-correlations-to-molecular-biomarkers-and-anthropogenic-chemicals
#4
Ahmed Abdel-Moneim, Daragh Deegan, Jiejun Gao, Chloe De Perre, Jarrod S Doucette, Byron Jenkinson, Linda Lee, Maria S Sepúlveda
Over the past decade, studies have shown that exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) can cause gonadal intersex in fish. Smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) males appear to be highly susceptible to developing testicular oocytes (TO), the most prevalent form of gonadal intersex, as observed in various areas across the U.S. In this study, prevalence and severity of TO was quantified for smallmouth bass sampled from the St. Joseph River in northern Indiana, intersex biomarkers were developed, and association between TO prevalence and organic contaminants were explored...
November 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768768/regulation-of-the-epithelial-na-channel-by-paraoxonase-2
#5
Shujie Shi, Teresa M Buck, Carol L Kinlough, Allison L Marciszyn, Rebecca P Hughey, Martin Chalfie, Jeffrey L Brodsky, Thomas R Kleyman
Paraoxonase-2 (PON-2) is a membrane-bound lactonase with unique anti-oxidative and anti-atherosclerotic properties. PON-2 shares key structural elements with MEC-6, an endoplasmic reticulum resident molecular chaperone in Caenorhabditis elegans MEC-6 modulates the expression of a mechano-transductive ion channel comprised of MEC-4 and MEC-10 in touch receptor neurons. Because pon-2 mRNA resides in multiple rat nephron segments, including aldosterone-sensitive distal nephron where the epithelial Na(+) channel (ENaC) is expressed, we hypothesized that PON-2 would similarly regulate ENaC expression...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750938/impact-of-cryopreservation-method-on-dromedary-camel-ovary-structure-viability-and-development-of-antral-follicular-oocytes
#6
M M Madboly, E S Abdel-Aal, Eitedal H Elsayed
The objectives of this study were, a) to compare two different vitrification techniques, the solid surface vitrification (SSV) and direct vitrification (DV) method, b) to evaluate the effect of four cryoprotectant agents and their toxicity on the morphological appearance and ultrastructural of camel ovarian cortex, c) to examine the development of oocytes recovered from the vitrified ovarian cortex. Fragments of ovarian cortex were exposed to equilibration solution consisting of TCM- 199 with 10% fetal camel serum (FCS); 0...
July 19, 2017: Animal Reproduction Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738285/molecular-assessment-characterization-and-differentiation-of-theca-stem-cells-imply-the-presence-of-mesenchymal-and-pluripotent-stem-cells-in-sheep-ovarian-theca-layer
#7
Samane Adib, Mojtaba Rezazadeh Valojerdi
The ability of ovarian theca stem cells to differentiate into oocyte and theca cells may lead to a major advancement in reproductive biology and infertility treatments. However, there is little information about function, growth and differentiation potential of these immature cells. In this study adult sheep theca stem cells (TSCs) characteristics, and differentiation potential into osteocyte-like cells (OSLCs), adipocyte-like cells (ALCs), theca progenitor-like cells (TPCs), and oocyte-like cells (OLCs) were investigated...
July 8, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733348/molecular-forms-of-ruminant-bmp15-and-gdf9-and-putative-interactions-with-receptors
#8
Derek A Heath, Janet Pitman, Kenneth P McNatty
Bone morphogenetic factor 15 (BMP15) and growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9) are oocyte-secreted factors with demonstrable effects on ovarian follicular development and ovulation-rate. However, the molecular forms of BMP15 and GDF9 produced by oocytes remains unclear. The aims herein, using Western blotting (WB) procedures with specific monoclonal antibodies (mabs), were to identify the molecular forms of BMP15 and GDF9 synthesised and secreted by isolated ovine (o) and bovine (b) oocytes in vitro. The mabs were known to recognise the biological forms of BMP15 or GDF9 since they had previously been shown to inhibit their bioactivities in vitro and in vivo...
July 21, 2017: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723674/nanoparticles-and-female-reproductive-system-how-do-nanoparticles-affect-oogenesis-and-embryonic-development
#9
REVIEW
Cong-Cong Hou, Jun-Quan Zhu
Along with the increasing application of nanoparticles (NPs) in many walks of life, environmental exposure to NPs has raised considerable health concerns. When NPs enter a pregnant woman's body through inhalation, venous injection, ingestion or skin permeation, maternal toxic stress reactions such as reactive oxygen species (ROS), inflammation, apoptosis and endocrine dyscrasia are induced in different organs, particularly in the reproductive organs. Recent studies have shown that NPs disturb the developing oocyte by invading the protective barrier of theca cells, granulosa cell layers and zona pellucida...
July 7, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710092/a-missense-mutation-in-the-extracellular-domain-of-%C3%AE-enac-causes-liddle-syndrome
#10
Mahdi Salih, Ivan Gautschi, Miguel X van Bemmelen, Michael Di Benedetto, Alice S Brooks, Dorien Lugtenberg, Laurent Schild, Ewout J Hoorn
Liddle syndrome is an autosomal dominant form of hypokalemic hypertension due to mutations in the β- or γ-subunit of the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC). Here, we describe a family with Liddle syndrome due to a mutation in αENaC. The proband was referred because of resistant hypokalemic hypertension, suppressed renin and aldosterone, and no mutations in the genes encoding β- or γENaC. Exome sequencing revealed a heterozygous, nonconservative T>C single-nucleotide mutation in αENaC that substituted Cys479 with Arg (C479R)...
July 14, 2017: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708538/glycosidases-in-porcine-follicular-fluid-and-their-effect-on-zona-pellucida-awn-1-spermadhesin-interaction
#11
Tomáš Dráb, Štěpán Ren, Pavla Maňásková-Postlerová, Marie Tichá, Věra Jonáková, Jiří Liberda
Oligosaccharide moieties on the surface of the oocyte belong to the key molecules that direct the course of fertilization and are subjected to changes during oocyte maturation in the follicle. In our study, we focused on the activities of five glycosidases in the fluids from porcine secondary and preovulatory follicles (α-l-fucosidase, α-d-galactosidase, β-d-galactosidase, β-D-N-acetylhexosaminidase, and α-d-mannosidase). All of them were detected active at neutral and acidic pH. However, changes in their activities associated with follicle development were observed only in the case of α-d-mannosidase, which was increased (P < 0...
June 8, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708518/ultrasonography-to-assist-with-timing-of-spawning-in-european-eel
#12
Pauline Jéhannet, Leon T N Heinsbroek, Arjan P Palstra
Ovulation in the European eel can be induced by injection of DHP (17α,20β-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one). The timing of injection is based on the developmental stage of the oocytes. The oocyte stage is determined by invasive biopsy or through external indicators of the oocyte hydration response: body weight index (BWI) and body girth index (BGI). However, in European eel, BWI and BGI are inaccurate indicators because the individual hydration response is highly variable. The aim of this study was to identify indicators of oocyte maturation non-invasively by applying ultrasonography...
June 10, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681975/exposure-effects-of-levonorgestrel-on-oogenesis-in-the-fathead-minnow-pimephales-promelas
#13
Tyler Frankel, Lance Yonkos, Jack Frankel
The synthetic progestin levonorgestrel is commonly utilized in human oral contraceptives. It enters the environment as a component of wastewater treatment plant effluent, and has been measured at low ng/L concentrations in surface waters. It has been shown to activate fish androgen receptors, causing the physical masculinization of females, changes in reproductive behavior, and decreases in fecundity. In the present study, the effects of levonorgestrel exposure on early-stage oogenesis in the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) was examined...
July 6, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655578/unusual-tissue-distribution-of-carcinin-an-antibacterial-crustin-in-the-crab-carcinus-maenas-reveals-its-multi-functionality
#14
Suzanne Suleiman, Valerie J Smith, Elisabeth A Dyrynda
Crustins are whey acidic four-disulphide core (WFDSC) domain-containing proteins in decapods that are widely regarded as antimicrobial agents that contribute to host defence. Whilst there have been many analyses of crustin gene expression in tissues, few studies have been made of the distribution of the natural proteins. Here we report an immunostaining investigation of carcinin, a native crustin from Carcinus maenas, in the body organs. The results show that the protein is largely confined to the haemocytes with only a weak signal detected in the heart, hepatopancreas and midgut caecum where it is restricted to the outer surfaces...
June 24, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643946/activated-proline-rich-tyrosine-kinase-2-regulates-meiotic-spindle-assembly-in-the-mouse-oocyte
#15
Xiao-Qian Meng, Bing Cui, Dong Cheng, Hui Lyu, Li-Gang Jiang, Ke-Gang Zheng, Shu-Zhen Liu, Jie Pan, Cong Zhang, Jing Bai, Jun Zhou
Proline-rich tyrosine kinase 2 (PYK2), a member of the protein tyrosine kinase family, plays an important role in various cellular processes. PYK2 can be phosphorylated on tyrosine 402 by diverse stimuli at the cell surface, and recent studies have shown that this activated form of PYK2 is enriched in oocytes and required for fertilization. However, the subcellular localization and functions of activated PYK2 in oocytes remain elusive. In this study, we demonstrate that the localization of p-PYK2 undergoes dynamic changes during in vitro maturation of mouse oocytes...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634819/establishment-of-a-tagged-variant-of-lgr4-receptor-suitable-for-functional-and-expression-studies-in-the-mouse
#16
Vitezslav Kriz, Michaela Krausova, Petra Buresova, Jan Dobes, Dusan Hrckulak, Olga Babosova, Jiri Svec, Vladimir Korinek
Leucine-rich repeat-containing G-protein-coupled receptor 4 (LGR4) is produced in a broad spectrum of mouse embryonic and adult tissues and its deficiency results in embryonal or perinatal lethality. The LGR4 function was mainly related to its potentiation of canonical Wnt signaling; however, several recent studies associate LGR4 with additional signaling pathways. To obtain a suitable tool for studying the signaling properties of Lgr4, we generated a tagged variant of the Lgr4 receptor using gene targeting in the mouse oocyte...
June 20, 2017: Transgenic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615648/embryonic-exposure-to-the-widely-used-herbicide-atrazine-disrupts-meiosis-and-normal-follicle-formation-in-female-mice
#17
Aurore Gely-Pernot, Souhila Saci, Pierre-Yves Kernanec, Chunxiang Hao, Frank Giton, Christine Kervarrec, Sergei Tevosian, Severine Mazaud-Guittot, Fatima Smagulova
The widely-used herbicide atrazine (ATZ) is detected in ground and surface water in many countries. Several studies in animals have demonstrated that ATZ has endocrine-disrupting effects on male and female reproduction in many vertebrate species. In this study, we investigated the effects of ATZ exposure on meiosis, a key step in gametogenesis in mammals. The treatment was initiated before oocyte entry into meiosis, which occurs during the embryonic period in females. We found that embryonic exposure to ATZ increases the level of 8-oxo-guanine in the nucleus of meiotic cells, reflecting oxidative stress and affecting meiotic double-strand break repair, chromosome synapsis and crossover numbers...
June 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603497/sigma-1-receptor-plays-a-negative-modulation-on-n-type-calcium-channel
#18
Kang Zhang, Zhe Zhao, Liting Lan, Xiaoli Wei, Liyun Wang, Xiaoyan Liu, Haitao Yan, Jianquan Zheng
The sigma-1 receptor is a 223 amino acids molecular chaperone with a single transmembrane domain. It is resident to eukaryotic mitochondrial-associated endoplasmic reticulum and plasma membranes. By chaperone-mediated interactions with ion channels, G-protein coupled receptors and cell-signaling molecules, the sigma-1 receptor performs broad physiological and pharmacological functions. Despite sigma-1 receptors have been confirmed to regulate various types of ion channels, the relationship between the sigma-1 receptor and N-type Ca(2+) channel is still unclear...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595033/temperature-gradients-in-vivo-influence-maturing-male-and-female-gametes-in-mammals-evidence-from-the-cow
#19
R H F Hunter, F López-Gatius, O López-Albors
Since 1980 several reports have indicated that temperatures vary between preovulatory follicles and other ovarian tissues in rabbit, cow, pig and human. However, these observations did not achieve prominence; they were regarded as artefacts due to the use of anaesthetics and open surgery (laparotomy). Recently, without resorting to anaesthesia or surgery, direct measurements of temperature in preovulatory follicles have been performed in the cow by means of a thermistor probe introduced into the antrum under ultrasonic guidance...
June 9, 2017: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552396/the-effect-of-histone-deacetylase-inhibitor-trichostatin-a-on-porcine-mesenchymal-stem-cell-transcriptome
#20
Artur Gurgul, Jolanta Opiela, Klaudia Pawlina, Tomasz Szmatoła, Michał Bochenek, Monika Bugno-Poniewierska
The use of histone deacetylase inhibitors such as trichostatin A (TSA) for epigenetic transformation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), whose nuclei will be transferred into enucleated oocytes, is a novel approach in research involving somatic cell cloning of pigs and other mammalian species. Although the effectiveness of TSA in cloning applications was confirmed, processes and mechanisms underlying achieved effects are not yet fully understood, especially for pig MSCs. To contribute to this knowledge, in this study we performed a comprehensive transcriptome analysis using high-throughput sequencing of pig bone-marrow derived MSCs, both treated and untreated with TSA, and evaluated the effect of TSA administration on their transcription profile after 24 h of in vitro culture...
August 2017: Biochimie
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