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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205391/influence-of-iodine-in-excess-on-seminiferous-tubular-structure-and-epididymal-sperm-character-in-male-rats
#1
Amar K Chandra, Arijit Chakraborty
Excess iodine induced public health problems are now emerging in many iodine sufficient regions for indiscriminate intake of iodine through various iodized products. It has been reported that excess iodine can disrupt overall male reproductive physiology by generating oxidative stress in the testis. However, information on the possible effect of iodine in excess on spermatozoa found less. In the present investigation flow cytometric techniques and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) have been used to study the spermatozoal functional as well as structural status under the influence of excess iodine; generation of ROS in the spermatozoa as evident by DCFDA, altered acrosomal integrity as observed by fluorescence lectin staining method and depolarized mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm ) noticed by JC-1 staining...
February 16, 2017: Environmental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130145/effects-of-chitosan-coated-lipid-core-nanocapsules-on-bovine-sperm-cells
#2
Arthur de Castro Jorge Silva, Mariana Härter Remirão, Caroline Gomes Lucas, William Borges Domingues, Tony Silveira, Julia Dame Paschoal, Denise S Jornada, Carine Dahl Corcine, Antonio Sergio Varela Junior, Willian A Prado, Vinicius Farias Campos, Fabiana Kömmling Seixas, Silvia S Guterres, Adriana R Pohlmann, Tiago Collares
Toxicology studies have a pivotal role for selection of new nanosystems. As lipid-core nanocapsules (LNC) rise as a potential system not only for drug delivery but also for immunotherapy and gene therapy, the demand for models of toxic screening increases, and sperm arises as a promising model due to the easiness to evaluate its viability parameters. LNCs were coated with chitosan, chitosan-coated lipid-core nanocapsules (LNC-CS), in order to modify the nanocapsule surface. We evaluated the toxicity of LNC and LNC-CS after incubation with bovine sperm in different concentrations (2...
January 24, 2017: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116055/the-development-of-an-intermediate-duration-tag-to-characterize-the-diving-behavior-of-large-whales
#3
Bruce R Mate, Ladd M Irvine, Daniel M Palacios
The development of high-resolution archival tag technologies has revolutionized our understanding of diving behavior in marine taxa such as sharks, turtles, and seals during their wide-ranging movements. However, similar applications for large whales have lagged behind due to the difficulty of keeping tags on the animals for extended periods of time. Here, we present a novel configuration of a transdermally attached biologging device called the Advanced Dive Behavior (ADB) tag. The ADB tag contains sensors that record hydrostatic pressure, three-axis accelerometers, magnetometers, water temperature, and light level, all sampled at 1 Hz...
January 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107741/building-related-symptoms-are-linked-to-the-in-vitro-toxicity-of-indoor-dust-and-airborne-microbial-propagules-in-schools-a-cross-sectional-study
#4
J T Salin, M Salkinoja-Salonen, P J Salin, K Nelo, T Holma, P Ohtonen, H Syrjälä
INTRODUCTION: Indoor microbial toxicity is suspected to cause some building-related symptoms, but supporting epidemiological data are lacking. OBJECTIVE: We examined whether the in vitro toxicity of indoor samples from school buildings was associated with work-related health symptoms (building-related symptoms, BRS). METHODS: Administrators of the Helsinki City Real Estate Department selected 15 schools for the study, and a questionnaire on symptoms connected to work was sent to the teachers in the selected schools for voluntary completion...
January 17, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087654/effects-of-external-strain-on-the-regulation-of-microtubule-sliding-induced-by-outer-arm-dynein-of-sea-urchin-sperm-flagella
#5
Hiroshi Yoke, Chikako Shingyoji
Oscillatory bending movement of eukaryotic flagella is powered by orchestrated activity of dynein motor proteins that hydrolyze ATP and produce microtubule sliding. Although the ATP concentration within a flagellum is kept uniform at a few mmol l(-1) level, sliding activities of dyneins are dynamically coordinated along the flagellum in accordance with the phase of bending waves. Thus, at the organellar level the dynein not only generates force for bending but also modulates its motile activity by responding to bending of the flagellum...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072924/cryopreservation-of-carp-cyprinus-carpio-l-sperm-impact-of-seeding-and-freezing-rates-on-post-thaw-outputs
#6
Sergii Boryshpolets, Denisa Sochorová, Marek Rodina, Otomar Linhart, Borys Dzyuba
In the present study, we examined various freezing protocols, effects of controlled seeding, and changes in cooling rate and determined the endpoint (temperature at which sample could be plugged into liquid nitrogen (LN) without visible effect on survival rate after thawing) to reveal the relative importance of each different stage of cooling on freezing success during cryobanking of carp sperm. Sperm samples from different individual carp males were frozen in 0.5 mL straws by conventional freezing. Cooling rates were determined by monitoring the sample's internal temperature...
January 10, 2017: Biopreservation and Biobanking
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070288/getting-to-the-core-internal-body-temperatures-help-reveal-the-ecological-function-and-thermal-implications-of-the-lions-mane
#7
Paul Trethowan, Andrea Fuller, Anna Haw, Tom Hart, Andrew Markham, Andrew Loveridge, Robyn Hetem, Byron du Preez, David W Macdonald
It has been proposed that there is a thermal cost of the mane to male lions, potentially leading to increased body surface temperatures (Ts), increased sperm abnormalities, and to lower food intake during hot summer months. To test whether a mane imposes thermal costs on males, we measured core body temperature (Tb) continuously for approximately 1 year in 18 free-living lions. There was no difference in the 24-hr maximum Tb of males (n = 12) and females (n = 6), and males had a 24-hr mean Tb that was 0...
January 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051360/the-notch-ligand-jag1-regulates-gdnf-expression-in-sertoli-cells
#8
Thomas Xavier Garcia, Parag Parekh, Pooja Gandhi, Krishna M Sinha, Marie-Claude Hofmann
In the seminiferous epithelium of the testis, Sertoli cells are key niche cells directing proliferation and differentiation of spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) into spermatozoa. Sertoli cells produce glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), which is essential for SSC self-renewal and progenitor expansion. While the role of GDNF in the testis stem cell niche is established, little is known about how this factor is regulated. Our previous studies on NOTCH activity in Sertoli cells demonstrated a role of this pathway in limiting stem/progenitor cell numbers, thus ultimately down-regulating sperm cell output...
January 4, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043366/semen-cryopreservation-and-radical-reduction-capacity-of-seminal-fluid-in-captive-african-lion-panthera-leo
#9
I Luther, U Jakop, I Lueders, A Tordiffe, C Franz, J Schiller, A Kotze, K Müller
Optimizing cryopreservation protocols for nondomestic felids contributes to the successful development of assisted reproduction techniques and genetic resource banking. In this study, we describe a simple cryopreservation procedure for African lion (Panthera leo) ejaculates, which was tested with different packaging options and different sperm numbers per dose. By applying urethral catheterization and electroejaculation, 17 ejaculates with greater than 20% motile and greater than 5% progressively motile sperm were collected...
February 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017538/sedimentation-properties-in-density-gradients-correspond-with-levels-of-sperm-dna-fragmentation-chromatin-compaction-and-binding-affinity-to-hyaluronic-acid
#10
Forough Torabi, Adel Binduraihem, David Miller
Mature spermatozoa bind hyaluronic acid in the extracellular matrix via hyaladherins. Immature spermatozoa may be unable to interact because they do not express the appropriate hyaladherins on their surface. Fresh human semen samples were fractionated using differential density gradient centrifugation (DDGC) and the ability of these fractions to bind hyaluronic acid was evaluated. The presence of sperm hyaladherins was also assessed. CD44 was located mainly on the hyaluronic and equatorial segment and became more restricted to the equatorial segment in capacitated spermatozoa...
December 15, 2016: Reproductive Biomedicine Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27977898/expansion-of-divergent-sea-domains-in-cell-surface-proteins-and-nucleoporin-54
#11
Jimin Pei, Nick V Grishin
SEA (sea urchin sperm protein, enterokinase, agrin) domains, many of which possess autoproteolysis activity, have been found in a number of cell surface and secreted proteins. Despite high sequence divergence, SEA domains were also proposed to be present in dystroglycan based on a conserved autoproteolysis motif and receptor-type protein phosphatase IA-2 based on structural similarity. The presence of a SEA domain adjacent to the transmembrane segment appears to be a recurring scheme in quite a number of type I transmembrane proteins on the cell surface, such as MUC1, dystroglycan, IA-2, and Notch receptors...
December 15, 2016: Protein Science: a Publication of the Protein Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27976493/graphene-oxide-restricts-growth-and-recrystallization-of-ice-crystals
#12
Hongya Geng, Xing Liu, Guosheng Shi, Guoying Bai, Ji Ma, Jingbo Chen, Zhuangyuan Wu, Yanlin Song, Haiping Fang, Jianjun Wang
We show graphene oxide (GO) greatly suppresses the growth and recrystallization of ice crystals, and ice crystals display a hexagonal shape in the GO dispersion. Preferred adsorption of GO on the ice crystal surface in liquid water leads to curved ice crystal surface. Therefore, the growth of ice crystal is suppressed owing to the Gibbs-Thompson effect, that is, the curved surface lowers the freezing temperature. Molecular dynamics simulation analysis reveals that oxidized groups on the basal plane of GO form more hydrogen bonds with ice in comparison with liquid water because of the honeycomb hexagonal scaffold of graphene, giving a molecular-level mechanism for controlling ice formation...
December 15, 2016: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27934514/septin-interferes-with-the-temperature-dependent-domain-formation-and-disappearance-of-lipid-bilayer-membranes
#13
Shunsuke Yamada, Takumi Isogai, Ryugo Tero, Yohko Tanaka-Takiguchi, Toru Ujihara, Makoto Kinoshita, Kingo Takiguchi
Domain formation or compartmentalization in a lipid bilayer membrane has been thought to take place dynamically in cell membranes and play important roles in the spatiotemporal regulation of their physiological functions. In addition, the membrane skeleton, which is a protein assembly beneath the cell membrane, also regulates the properties as well as the morphology of membranes because of its role as a diffusion barrier against constitutive molecules of the membrane or as a scaffold for physiological reactions...
December 6, 2016: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927095/genital-autocleaning-in-the-male-cricket-gryllus-bimaculatus-1-structure-and-function-of-the-genital-membrane
#14
Mikihiko Kumashiro, Masaki Sakai
We found that the genitalia of the male cricket Gryllus bimaculatus are equipped with an autocleaning system. The cricket keeps its genitalia clean by removing foreign matter and endogenous waste. Morphological study showed that the membrane complex consists of a median pouch and a genital chamber floor covered by small scales, each of which has a base of approximately 10 µm in width and a fringe with 5-10 spines 3-20 µm in length. The scales are arranged symmetrically about the midline, curving gradually in the lateral direction and continuing to the lateral pouch serving as a trash container...
December 2016: Zoological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921298/female-induced-remote-regulation-of-sperm-physiology-may-provide-opportunities-for-gamete-level-mate-choice
#15
Jukka Kekäläinen, Jonathan P Evans
In sedentary externally fertilizing species, direct interactions between mating partners are limited and prefertilization communication between sexes occurs largely at the gamete level. Certain combinations of eggs and sperm often have higher fertilization success than others, which may be contingent on egg-derived chemical factors that preferentially attract sperm from compatible males. Here, we examine the mechanisms underlying such effects in the marine mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis, where differential sperm attraction has recently been shown to be associated with variation in offspring viability...
December 6, 2016: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859860/constrained-evolution-of-the-sex-comb-in-drosophila-simulans
#16
M S Maraqa, R Griffin, M D Sharma, A J Wilson, J Hunt, D J Hosken, C M House
Male fitness is dependent on sexual traits that influence mate acquisition (precopulatory sexual selection) and paternity (post-copulatory sexual selection), and although many studies have documented the form of selection in one or the other of these arenas, fewer have done it for both. Nonetheless, it appears that the dominant form of sexual selection is directional, although theoretically, populations should converge on peaks in the fitness surface, where selection is stabilizing. Many factors, however, can prevent populations from reaching adaptive peaks...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852807/mechanical-tuning-of-mammalian-sperm-behaviour-by-hyperactivation-rheology-and-substrate-adhesion-a-numerical-exploration
#17
Kenta Ishimoto, Eamonn A Gaffney
The great mammalian sperm race encounters numerous microenvironments to which sperm must adapt and a fundamental sperm response is the change in its waveform owing to both fluid rheology and capacitation, with the latter associated with a hyperactivated beat pattern. Hence, in this modelling study, we examine the effect of different flagellar waveforms for sperm behaviour near adhesive substrates, which are representative of epithelia in female tract sperm reservoirs and the zona pellucida (ZP), which surrounds the mammalian egg...
November 2016: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27828766/prevalence-abundance-and-intensity-of-implanted-spermatophores-in-the-leech-haementeria-officinalis-glossiphoniidae-hirudinida-from-guanajuato-mexico
#18
Ricardo Salas-Montiel, Anna Phillips, Samantha Contreras-Mirà  N, Alejandro Francisco Oceguera-Figueroa
Fertilization through hypodermic implantation of spermatophores has been recorded in at least 4 groups of leeches: Glossiphoniidae, Piscicolidae, Ozobranchidae and Erpobdelliformes. In Piscicola respirans (Piscicolidae), vector tissue responsible for sperm transfer from a specialized region of the body to the ovaries has led to the non-random attachment of spermatophores on the body surface of the recipient leech. It has been suggested that in glossiphoniid leeches, spermatophores are implanted in any part of the body surface of the recipient leech without a clear pattern or preference for region...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812283/structural-prediction-and-in-silico-physicochemical-characterization-for-mouse-caltrin-i-and-bovine-caltrin-proteins
#19
Ernesto J Grasso, Adolfo E Sottile, Carlos E Coronel
It is known that caltrin (calcium transport inhibitor) protein binds to sperm cells during ejaculation and inhibits extracellular Ca(2+) uptake. Although the sequence and some biological features of mouse caltrin I and bovine caltrin are known, their physicochemical properties and tertiary structure are mainly unknown. We predicted the 3D structures of mouse caltrin I and bovine caltrin by molecular homology modeling and threading. Surface electrostatic potentials and electric fields were calculated using the Poisson-Boltzmann equation...
2016: Bioinformatics and Biology Insights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809479/designing-micro-and-nanoswimmers-for-specific-applications
#20
Jaideep Katuri, Xing Ma, Morgan M Stanton, Samuel Sánchez
Self-propelled colloids have emerged as a new class of active matter over the past decade. These are micrometer sized colloidal objects that transduce free energy from their surroundings and convert it to directed motion. The self-propelled colloids are in many ways, the synthetic analogues of biological self-propelled units such as algae or bacteria. Although they are propelled by very different mechanisms, biological swimmers are typically powered by flagellar motion and synthetic swimmers are driven by local chemical reactions, they share a number of common features with respect to swimming behavior...
17, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
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