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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622512/structural-basis-of-egg-coat-sperm-recognition-at-fertilization
#1
Isha Raj, Hamed Sadat Al Hosseini, Elisa Dioguardi, Kaoru Nishimura, Ling Han, Alessandra Villa, Daniele de Sanctis, Luca Jovine
Recognition between sperm and the egg surface marks the beginning of life in all sexually reproducing organisms. This fundamental biological event depends on the species-specific interaction between rapidly evolving counterpart molecules on the gametes. We report biochemical, crystallographic, and mutational studies of domain repeats 1-3 of invertebrate egg coat protein VERL and their interaction with cognate sperm protein lysin. VERL repeats fold like the functionally essential N-terminal repeat of mammalian sperm receptor ZP2, whose structure is also described here...
June 15, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592487/electrostatic-control-of-dna-intersegmental-translocation-by-the-ets-transcription-factor-etv6
#2
Tam Vo, Shuo Wang, Gregory M K Poon, W David Wilson
To find their DNA target sites in complex solution environments containing excess heterogeneous DNA, sequence-specific DNA-binding proteins execute various translocation mechanisms known collectively as facilitated diffusion. For proteins harboring a single DNA contact surface, long-range translocation occurs by jumping between widely spaced DNA segments. We have configured biosensor-based surface plasmon resonance to directly measure the affinity and kinetics of this intersegmental jumping by the ETS-family transcription factor ETS variant 6 (ETV6)...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528312/low-sensitivity-of-reproductive-life-stages-in-the-pacific-oyster-crassostrea-gigas-to-abamectin
#3
Laura J Falkenberg, Anna-Lisa Wrange, Alexandra Kinnby, Jon N Havenhand, Antony Lockyer, Craig A Styan
Hard surfaces submerged in the marine environment often become colonised by macro-organisms unless the surfaces have some form of biofouling protection. While protective paints that contain tributyltin or copper work well to prevent biofouling, release of these materials into the environment has been shown to have wider negative impacts. Consequently, new low-release antifouling paints are being developed with alternative active ingredients, such as avermectins, yet little is known about their potential effects on non-target organisms in marine environments...
May 15, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525345/in-vitro-production-of-sudanese-camel-camelus-dromedarius-embryos-from-epididymal-spermatozoa-and-follicular-oocytes-of-slaughtered-animals
#4
A E Abdelkhalek, Sh A Gabr, W A Khalil, Sh M Shamiah, L Pan, G Qin, M H Farouk
Application of assisted reproductive technology in camelidea, such as artificial insemination (AI) and embryo transfer, has been slow in comparison to that for other livestock species. In Egypt, there are few attempts to establish in vitro maturation (IVM) and fertilization (IVF) techniques in dromedary camel. The present study was carried out to produce Sudanese camel embryos using in vitro matured oocytes and epididymal spermatozoa. Dromedary camel ovaries were collected from abattoirs and then, the oocytes were aspirated from all the visible follicles on the ovarian surface (~2-8 mm in a diameter)...
March 28, 2017: Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28517368/testicular-thermoregulation-scrotal-surface-temperature-patterns-and-semen-quality-of-water-buffalo-bulls-reared-in-a-tropical-climate
#5
L K X Silva, J S Sousa, A O A Silva, J B Lourenço Junior, C Faturi, L G Martorano, I M Franco, M H A Pantoja, D V Barros, A R Garcia
This study evaluated the capacity of thermoregulation and its consequences on the scrotal surface temperature patterns and semen quality of buffalo bulls raised in a wet tropical climate. Eleven water buffaloes were evaluated in the rainiest, in the transitional and in the less rainy season. Air temperature and humidity were consistently high, but the animals did not show thermal stress in any season. The scrotal temperature gradient of buffalo bulls using infrared thermography was described, and three parallel and decreasing thermal bands were characterised...
May 18, 2017: Andrologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509550/sugars-require-rigid-multivalent-displays-for-activation-of-mouse-sperm-acrosomal-exocytosis
#6
He Huang, Maria T Rodolis, Surita R Bhatia, Nicole S Sampson
As a prerequisite to mammalian fertilization, the sperm acrosomal vesicle fuses with the plasma membrane and the acrosome contents are exocytosed. Induction occurs through engagement of the sperm receptors by multiple sugar residues. Multivalent polymers displaying mannose, fucose, or GlcNAc are effective synthetic inducers of mouse sperm acrosomal exocytosis (AE). Each carbohydrate is proposed to have a distinct binding site on the sperm cell surface. To determine the role of the scaffold structure in the efficiency of AE induction, different polymer backbones were employed to display the different activating sugar residues...
June 6, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491120/microscopy-of-physcomitrella-patens-sperm-cells
#7
Nelly A Horst, Ralf Reski
BACKGROUND: Archegoniates (bryophytes, ferns and gymnosperms), such as the moss Physcomitrella patens, possess freely motile sperm cells (spermatozoids) which reach the egg cell via surface water. Although these motile flagellated sperm cells are a traditional botanical subject, they have not been thoroughly analysed in the flagship non-seed plant model species P. patens. Protocols are required to determine the behaviour of wild type sperms as a prerequisite for future research such as the characterization of mutants or factors that influence sperm number, morphology, viability and motility...
2017: Plant Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452082/reproductive-tract-modifications-of-the-boar-sperm-surface
#8
REVIEW
Bart M Gadella
The sperm cell has a unique, polarized and segregated surface that is modified extensively by the changing environments in both the male and the female reproductive tracts. The sperm cannot refresh its surface, as protein translation and membrane recycling by intracellular vesicular transport have ceased upon its maturation. So, how is the sperm surface modified in the reproductive tracts and how do these processes affect fertilization? This review traces these modifications as boar sperm travels from their liberation from the Sertoli cell into the lumen of seminiferous tubules of the testis to the site of fertilization in the ampulla of the oviduct in the sow, via an artificial insemination route...
April 27, 2017: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436137/insights-into-in-vitro-spermatogenesis-in-mammals-past-present-future
#9
REVIEW
Amir Fattahi, Zeinab Latifi, Tohid Ghasemnejad, Hamid Reza Nejabati, Mohammad Nouri
Considering the self-renewal and differentiation ability of pluripotent stem cells, some studies have pointed out the possibility of stem cell-derived sperm production. Most studies that test this hypothesis have been conducted on rodents, with some promising results; however, studies on humans are progressing slowly, and have encountered technical and ethical hurdles. Established methods to differentiate stem cells-including embryoid bodies, co-culturing, and various feeder cells-may provide a niche that is similar to in vivo conditions and resolve epigenetic abnormalities, but a gonadal-like three-dimensional structure is still required to produce germ cells with the correct imprinting...
April 24, 2017: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430907/food-intake-affects-sperm-egg-fusion-through-the-gip-psg17-axis-in-mice
#10
Tatsunori Shimizu, Takehiro Sato, Katsushi Tsukiyama, Hiroki Fujita, Shunsuke Kato, Manabu Hoizumi, Hiromitsu Shirasawa, Takuma Narita, Yukihiro Terada, Yutaka Seino, Yuichiro Yamada
In addition to overeating, starvation also reduces fecundity in mammals. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms linking food intake to fertility, especially in males. Gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP), which is released from intestinal K-cells after meal ingestion, stimulates insulin secretion from pancreatic β-cells through the action of incretin and has several extra-pancreatic effects. Here, we identified GIP receptor (Gipr) expression in mouse spermatids. Microarray analysis revealed that pregnancy-specific glycoprotein 17 (Psg17), a potential CD9-binding partner, was significantly decreased in GIP receptor-knockout (Gipr-/-) testes...
April 19, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418219/alpha-2-macroglobulin-as-a-region-specific-secretory-protein-in-male-reproductive-tract-and-its-dynamics-during-sperm-transit-toward-the-female-spermatheca-in-the-blue-crab
#11
Thanyaporn Senarai, Rapeepun Vanichviriyakit, Shinji Miyata, Chihiro Sato, Prapee Sretarugsa, Wattana Weerachatyanukul, Ken Kitajima
A 250-kDa protein was isolated from fluid in the middle spermatic duct (MSD) of the blue crab (Portunus pelagicus). N-terminal and partial amino acid sequences revealed that this MSD-specific protein is highly similar to the plasma-enriched protein Alpha-2 macroglobulin (α2M). The P. pelagicus ortholog (Ppα2M) is a large glycoprotein possessing mannose and N-acetylglucosamine residues. Ppa2m mRNA was detected in the spermatic duct, androgenic gland, and hematopoietic tissue, whereas the protein was primarily observed in the apical cytoplasm of MSD epithelium and in the matrix of the acrosome of MSD sperm; distally within spermatic duct, Ppα2M was lost from the sperm membrane but remained in the sperm acrosome...
April 18, 2017: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417633/ph-responsive-graphene-oxide-dna-nanosystem-for-live-cell-imaging-and-detection
#12
Chen Shao, Jia Liang, Sihui He, Tianqi Luan, Jiantao Yu, Haoran Zhao, Jingyuan Xu, Leilei Tian
The interaction between graphene oxide (GO) and DNA is very sensitive to the environment. For example, under acidic conditions, the affinity of GO for DNA is enhanced, weakening the capability of GO to distinguish DNAs with different conformations. This effect has impeded the development of sensitive pH biosensors based on GO-DNA nanosystems. In this work, we systematically studied the affinity between GO and i-motif forming oligonucleotides (IFOs) at different pH values and developed a herring sperm DNA (HSD) treatment method...
April 27, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407435/sl15-a-seminal-plasma-derived-lectin-from-the-sperm-of-llama-lama-glama
#13
Renato Zampini, Sabrina Sequeira, Martin Eduardo Argañaraz, Silvana Andrea Apichela
The oviductal sperm reservoir of South American camelids is formed when sperm bind to N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc) on the surface of oviductal epithelium. The aim of this study was to characterize the GalNAc-binding proteins on llama sperm, and to establish their origin. Sperm-adsorbed proteins were extracted with 0.5 M KCl in Hepes-balanced salts. Sperm-adsorbed and seminal plasma proteins were then subjected to ligand blotting for their GalNAc affinity, and the labeled bands were identified by mass spectrometry...
April 13, 2017: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401960/sperm-whale-long-range-echolocation-sounds-revealed-by-antares-a-deep-sea-neutrino-telescope
#14
M André, A Caballé, M van der Schaar, A Solsona, L Houégnigan, S Zaugg, A M Sánchez, J V Castell, M Solé, F Vila, D Djokic, S Adrián-Martínez, A Albert, M Anghinolfi, G Anton, M Ardid, J-J Aubert, T Avgitas, B Baret, J Barrios-Martí, S Basa, V Bertin, S Biagi, R Bormuth, M C Bouwhuis, R Bruijn, J Brunner, J Busto, A Capone, L Caramete, J Carr, S Celli, T Chiarusi, M Circella, A Coleiro, R Coniglione, H Costantini, P Coyle, A Creusot, A Deschamps, G De Bonis, C Distefano, I Di Palma, C Donzaud, D Dornic, D Drouhin, T Eberl, I El Bojaddaini, D Elsässer, A Enzenhöfer, K Fehn, I Felis, L A Fusco, S Galatà, P Gay, S Geißelsöder, K Geyer, V Giordano, A Gleixner, H Glotin, R Gracia-Ruiz, K Graf, S Hallmann, H van Haren, A J Heijboer, Y Hello, J J Hernandez-Rey, J Hößl, J Hofestädt, C Hugon, G Illuminati, C W James, M de Jong, M Jongen, M Kadler, O Kalekin, U Katz, D Kießling, A Kouchner, M Kreter, I Kreykenbohm, V Kulikovskiy, C Lachaud, R Lahmann, D Lefèvre, E Leonora, S Loucatos, M Marcelin, A Margiotta, A Marinelli, J A Martínez-Mora, A Mathieu, K Melis, T Michael, P Migliozzi, A Moussa, C Mueller, E Nezri, G E Păvălaş, C Pellegrino, C Perrina, P Piattelli, V Popa, T Pradier, C Racca, G Riccobene, K Roensch, M Saldaña, D F E Samtleben, M Sanguineti, P Sapienza, J Schnabel, F Schüssler, T Seitz, C Sieger, M Spurio, Th Stolarczyk, A Sánchez-Losa, M Taiuti, A Trovato, M Tselengidou, D Turpin, C Tönnis, B Vallage, C Vallée, V Van Elewyck, D Vivolo, S Wagner, J Wilms, J D Zornoza, J Zuñiga
Despite dedicated research has been carried out to adequately map the distribution of the sperm whale in the Mediterranean Sea, unlike other regions of the world, the species population status is still presently uncertain. The analysis of two years of continuous acoustic data provided by the ANTARES neutrino telescope revealed the year-round presence of sperm whales in the Ligurian Sea, probably associated with the availability of cephalopods in the region. The presence of the Ligurian Sea sperm whales was demonstrated through the real-time analysis of audio data streamed from a cabled-to-shore deep-sea observatory that allowed the hourly tracking of their long-range echolocation behaviour on the Internet...
April 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395972/optimization-of-conditions-for-the-cryopreservation-of-yellow-catfish-pelteobagrus-fulvidraco-sperm
#15
Sen Yang, Linqiang Han, Rushou Huang, Yongzhong Liufu, Zining Meng, Haoran Lin
Yellow catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco) is a promising aquaculture species in China with an increasing market demand. To serve the growing demand of male broodstock for artificial fertilization and the preservation of valuable strains for selective breeding, we tried to develop a species-specific cryopreservation protocol for yellow catfish sperm in this study. Important factors such as cryoprotectant, freezing height above the liquid nitrogen (LN) surface, dilution ratio, equilibration time, thawing temperature and cool storage before freezing were standardized...
April 7, 2017: Cryobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391616/variation-in-the-post-mating-fitness-landscape-in-fruitflies
#16
Claudia Fricke, Tracey Chapman
Sperm competition is pervasive and fundamental to determining a male's overall fitness. Sperm traits and seminal fluid proteins (Sfps) are key factors. However, studies of sperm competition may often exclude females that fail to remate during a defined period. Hence, the resulting datasets contain fewer data from the potentially fittest males that have most success in preventing female remating. It is also important to consider a male's reproductive success before entering sperm competition, which is a major contributor to fitness...
April 9, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389766/carcinogenic-activities-and-sperm-abnormalities-of-methicillin-resistance-staphylococcus-aureus-and-inhibition-of-their-virulence-potentials-by-ayamycin
#17
Mervat Morsy Abbas Ahmed El-Gendy, Khaled G Abdel-Wahhab, Fathia A Mannaa, Ayman A Farghaly, Ahmed M A El-Bondkly
This investigation aimed to study the in vivo harmful effects of the subcutaneous injection of different methicillin resistance Staphylococcus aureus extracts (MRSA2, MRSA4, MRSA10, MRSA69, MRSA70, MRSA76, and MRSA78). Such strains represented the highest minimum inhibition concentration toward methicillin with various multidrug-resistant patterns. The obtained results revealed that rats injected with the MRSA4 extract died immediately after the last dose indicating the high cytotoxicity of MRSA4 strain (100% mortality)...
April 7, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386334/are-sertoli-cells-a-kind-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#18
Daoyuan Gong, Chunfu Zhang, Tao Li, Jiahui Zhang, Nannan Zhang, Zehua Tao, Wei Zhu, Xiaochun Sun
OBJECTIVE: Sertoli cells (SCs) are a major component of testis which secrete a variety of cytokines and immunosuppressive factors, providing nutritional support and immune protection for sperm growth and development. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between SCs and bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) in order to provide a theoretical basis for better application of SCs. METHODS: We used the adherence method to isolate Sprague-Dawley rat SCs and BMSCs...
2017: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376140/effect-of-monosaccharides-in-glycerol-free-tris-extender-on-reactive-oxygen-species-and-apoptosis-in-dog-sperm-cryopreservation
#19
M A Rahman, S H Park, I J Yu
BACKGROUND OBJECTIVE: The present study investigated the effect of monosaccharides in a glycerol-free tris (GFT) extender on reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and apoptosis in cryopreserved dog spermatozoa. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The sperm pellets were resuspended (5 × 10(7) mL(-1)) with GFT containing 172 mM glucose (G), 86 mM glucose + 86 mM fructose (GF), 86 mM glucose + 86 mM galactose (Gg), 172 mM fructose (F), 172 mM galactose (g) or 86 mM fructose + 86 mM galactose (Fg)...
January 2017: Cryo Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371886/chemical-and-physical-guidance-of-fish-spermatozoa-into-the-egg-through-the-micropyle%C3%A2-%C3%A2
#20
Ryuzo Yanagimachi, Tatsuo Harumi, Hajime Matsubara, Wei Yan, Shuiqiao Yuan, Noritaka Hirohashi, Tomohiro Iida, Etsuro Yamaha, Katsutoshi Arai, Takahiro Matsubara, Tadashi Andoh, Carol Vines, Gary N Cherr
Eggs of teleost fish, unlike those of many other animals, allow sperm entry only at a single site, a narrow canal in the egg's chorion called the micropyle. In some fish (e.g., flounder, herring, and Alaska pollock), the micropyle is a narrow channel in the chorion, with or without a shallow depression around the outer opening of micropyle. In some other fish (e.g., salmon, pufferfish, cod, and medaka), the micropyle is like a funnel with a conical opening. Eggs of all the above fish have a glycoprotein tightly bound to the chorion surface around the micropyle...
April 1, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
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