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Sperm surface

Carmen González-Fernández, Kevin Tallec, Nelly Le Goïc, Christophe Lambert, Philippe Soudant, Arnaud Huvet, Marc Suquet, Mathieu Berchel, Ika Paul-Pont
While the detection and quantification of nano-sized plastic in the environment remains a challenge, the growing number of polymer applications mean that we can expect an increase in the release of nanoplastics into the environment by indirect outputs. Today, very little is known about the impact of nano-sized plastics on marine organisms. Thus, the objective of this study was to investigate the toxicity of polystyrene nanoplastics (NPs) on oyster (Crassostrea gigas) gametes. Spermatozoa and oocytes were exposed to four NPs concentrations ranging from 0...
June 6, 2018: Chemosphere
J P Kastelic, G Rizzoto, J Thundathil
Several structural and functional features keep bull testes 2°C to 6°C below body temperature, essential for the production of morphologically normal, motile and fertile sperm. The testicular vascular cone (TVC), located above the testis, consists of a highly coiled testicular artery surrounded by a complex network of small veins (pampiniform plexus). The TVC functions as a counter-current heat exchanger to transfer heat from the testicular artery to the testicular vein, cooling blood before it enters the testis...
June 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
Irma Virant-Klun
Data from the literature show that there are different populations of stem cells present in human adult ovaries, including small stem cells resembling very small embryonic-like stem cells (VSELs). These small ovarian stem cells with diameters of up to 5 μm are present in the ovarian surface epithelium and can grow into bigger, primitive oocyte-like cells that express several markers of a germinal lineage and exhibit pluripotency but not the zona pellucida structure when cultured in vitro. In this report, we present the results of the functional testing of such primitive oocyte-like cells from one patient with premature ovarian failure after insemination with her partners' sperm...
June 6, 2018: Stem Cell Reviews
Shuang Sun, Cong Li, Shimin Liu, Jun Luo, Zhi Chen, Changhui Zhang, Tianying Zhang, Jiangtao Huang, Limeng Xi
A total of 24 female Xinong Saanen dairy goats were used to examine differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the ovaries of goats treated once or three times for oestrus synchronisation (ES). The goats were randomly divided into two groups: one group received three ES treatments at fortnightly intervals (repeated or triple ES group), whereas the other was only treated once on the same day as the third ES treatment for the triple group (control group) during the breeding season. Ovaries of three goats in oestrus from each group were collected for morphological examination and transcriptome sequencing, while the rest of the goats were artificially inseminated twice...
June 7, 2018: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Tse-En Wang, Sheng-Hsiang Li, Shiori Minabe, Amanda L Anderson, Matthew D Dun, Kei-Ichiro Maeda, Fuko Matsuda, Hui-Wen Chang, Brett Nixon, Pei-Shiue Jason Tsai
Sulfhydryl oxidation is part of the sperm maturation process essential for the acquisition of sperm fertilization competency and its structural stabilization; however, the specific sulfhydryl oxidases that fulfill these roles have yet to be identified. In this study, we investigate the potential involvement of one atypical thiol oxidase family called quiescin Q6/sulfhydryl oxidase (QSOX) using the mouse epididymis as our model system. With multidisciplinary approaches, we show that QSOX isoform 1 and 2 exhibit complementary distribution throughout the epididymal duct, but that each variant possesses distinct sub-cellular localization within the epididymal principal cells...
May 24, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
Darja Kanduc
Anti-ovarian cancer vaccines based on minimal immune determinants uniquely expressed in ovarian cancer biomarkers and absent in the human proteome appear to promise a high level of sensitivity and specificity for early ovarian cancer immunodiagnostics, immunoprevention, and immunotherapy. In this context, the present study analyses three ovarian cancer biomarkers - namely sperm surface protein Sp17, WAP four-disulfide core domain protein 2, and müllerian-inhibiting substance - and describes a methodology for constructing ovarian cancer biomarker-derived oligopeptide constructs that might be useful for developing new diagnostic and immunotherapeutic approaches...
May 24, 2018: Current Drug Discovery Technologies
Yongkang Zhang, Meng Li, Shuying Li, Qiangwei Wang, Guonian Zhu, Guanyong Su, Robert J Letcher, Chunsheng Liu
Previous studies reported that exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of TDCIPP significantly decreased the number of cumulative eggs in zebrafish, but effects on the quantity of eggs and sperms remained unknown. Therefore, in this study, effects of TDCIPP on yolk diameter, surface morphology of eggs, sperm density and total motility were evaluated. First generation (F0) zebrafish larvae (Danio rerio) were exposed to 0, 50, 500 or 5000 ng/L tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCIPP) from 14 days post fertilization (dpf) to 120 dpf...
May 14, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
Yésica P Zaio, Gerardo Gatti, Andrés A Ponce, Natalia A Saavedra Larralde, María J Martinez, María P Zunino, Julio A Zygadlo
BACKGROUND: Insecticidal activity and repellent effects on adults of Sitophilus zeamais of 12 cinnamaldehyde-related compounds was evaluated by contact toxicity bioassays and a two-choice olfactometer, respectively. To determine non-toxicity in mammals, additionally, body weight, serum biochemical profiles, liver weight, physiological parameters, sperm motility and histopathological data were obtained as complementary information in C57BL/6 mice, treated with the best natural compound...
May 13, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Arpita Bhoumik, Sudipta Saha, Pavan V Payghan, Prasanta Ghosh, Sandhya Rekha Dungdung
Motility of spermatozoa is crucial factor for determining semen quality. Here we report Motility inhibitory factor (MIF-II) from goat epididymal plasma, revealing its structure, function, localization and motility inhibitory pathway. Structural characterization with MALDI revealed novelty of this protein while circular dichroism data confirmed its alpha helical nature. Higher dilutions of MIF-II antibody increased cauda sperm motility and induced immature/immotile caput sperm motility as tested microscopically...
April 30, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Luna Samanta, Rajeshwari Parida, Tania R Dias, Ashok Agarwal
BACKGROUND: The 'omics' approach for a noninvasive diagnosis of male reproductive system disorders has gained momentum during the last decade, particularly from a screening and prognosis point of view. Due to the rapid development in assisted reproductive technologies (ART) over the years, the major focus of proteomic studies has been around the ejaculated spermatozoa. Although seminal plasma is not a requirement for ART, the question arose whether the role of seminal plasma is merely to transport spermatozoa...
April 28, 2018: Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology: RB&E
Michael G O'Rand, Katherine G Hamil, Tiffany Adevai, Mary Zelinski
Men have two practical choices for contraception; the condom which has a high typical use failure rate or vasectomy. New male hormonal and non-hormonal contraceptives are under development that target either the production of sperm (spermatogenesis) or the delivery of sperm. One particular target is the sperm protein EPPIN, which is present on the surface of human spermatozoa. EP055 is a small organic compound that targets EPPIN on the surface of sperm and inhibits motility. EP055 was tested in cynomolgus (Macaca fascicularis) males to determine its plasma half-life after intravenous (i...
2018: PloS One
Xavier Druart, Simon de Graaf
During ejaculation, the spermatozoa are transported by the seminal plasma, a fluid resulting from secretions originating mainly from the prostate and the seminal vesicles in mammals. The interaction of the seminal plasma with spermatozoa induces binding of seminal proteins onto the sperm surface and membrane remodeling potentially impacting the sperm transport, survival and fertilizing ability in the female genital tract. The seminal plasma also contains peptides and proteins involved in the inflammatory and immune response of the female tract...
July 2018: Animal Reproduction Science
Taylor Pini, Kiri Farmer, Xavier Druart, Ana Paula Teixeira-Gomes, Guillaume Tsikis, Valerie Labas, Tamara Leahy, Simon P de Graaf
Cryopreservation causes sub-lethal damage which limits the fertility of frozen thawed spermatozoa. Seminal plasma has been investigated as a cryoprotectant, but has yielded inconsistent results due to considerable variation in its constituents. Individual seminal plasma proteins offer an ideal alternative to whole seminal plasma, and several have been correlated with freezing success. Binder of Sperm Proteins (BSPs) are abundant ram seminal plasma proteins which have been suggested to have significant protective effects on ram spermatozoa during cold shock...
June 2018: Cryobiology
Pietro Boccaletto, Mohammad Abdul Momin Siddique, Jacky Cosson
Proteomics techniques, such as two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, mass spectrometry, and differential gel electrophoresis, have been extensively used to describe the protein composition of male gametes in different animals, mainly mammals. They have also provided a deeper understanding of protein functions involved in sperm processes, as in processes that in humans lead to male infertility. However, few studies focus on fish sperm proteomics and even fewer have tried to explore the proteomic profile of Sturgeon spermatozoa...
May 2018: Animal Reproduction Science
B Fernandez-Fuertes, A Blanco-Fernandez, C J Reid, K G Meade, S Fair, P Lonergan
This study tested the hypothesis that sperm sialic acid (Sia) is required to reach the site of fertilization, and that successful fertilization requires recognition of Sia from both the sperm and oocyte to occur. In addition, it has recently been reported that Siglecs (Sia-binding-immunoglobulin-like lectins) are present on the sperm surface. Thus, the possibility that the recognition of oocyte Sia was sperm-Siglec-mediated was also addressed. Sperm exposed to neuraminidase (NMase) exhibited lower overall and progressive motility, which translated to a decreased ability to swim through cervical mucus from cows in oestrus...
June 2018: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
Sira Defaus, Manuel Avilés, David Andreu, Ricardo Gutiérrez-Gallego
Seminal plasma proteins are relevant for sperm functionality and some appear responsible for establishing sperm interactions with the various environments along the female genital tract towards the oocyte. In recent years, research has focused on characterizing the role of these proteins in the context of reproductive biology, fertility diagnostics and treatment of related problems. Herein, we focus on the main protein of bovine seminal plasma, PDC-109 (BSP-A1/-A2), which by virtue of its lectin properties is involved in fertilization...
April 4, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
K Alkhodair, H Almhanna, J McGetrick, S Gedair, M E Gallagher, B Fernandez-Fuertes, T Tharmalingam, P B Larsen, E Fitzpatrick, P Lonergan, A C O Evans, S D Carrington, C J Reid
Sialic acid (Sia) is a major constituent of both the sperm glycocalyx and female reproductive mucosal surface and is involved in regulating sperm migration, uterotubal reservoir formation and oocyte binding. Siglecs (sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin - like lectins) commonly found on immune cells, bind to Sia in a linkage- and sugar-specific manner and often mediate cell-to-cell interactions and signalling. Proteomic and transcriptomic analysis of human and bovine sperm have listed Siglecs, but to date, their presence and/or localisation on sperm has not been studied...
April 2018: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
Szabolcs Nagy, Tuire Tamminen, Magnus Andersson, Heriberto Rodriguez-Martinez
Two cases of a previously unreported sperm defect appearing in boar studs in Finland are presented. Spermatozoa showed small particles scattered on their surface with a prevalence decreasing with boar age. Semen samples, either stained with eosin-nigrosin or examined with phase contrast optics on formaldehyde-fixed spermatozoa, revealed the presence of multiple particles attached to the surface of spermatozoa counted as dead cells at fixation. Transmission electron microscopy revealed these were multivesicular and multilamellar vesicles, built up by phospholipid membranes...
March 27, 2018: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
Michael G Bertram, Tiarne E Ecker, Bob B M Wong, Moira K O'Bryan, John B Baumgartner, Jake M Martin, Minna Saaristo
Contamination of aquatic habitats with pharmaceuticals is a major environmental concern. Recent studies have detected pharmaceutical pollutants in a wide array of ecosystems and organisms, with many of these contaminants being highly resistant to biodegradation and capable of eliciting sub-lethal effects in non-target species. One such pollutant is fluoxetine, a widely prescribed antidepressant, which is frequently detected in surface waters globally and can alter physiology and behaviour in aquatic organisms...
July 2018: Environmental Pollution
Keigo Nakamura, Tetsuya Hisanaga, Koichi Fujimoto, Keiji Nakajima, Hirofumi Wada
The female sex organ of the liverwort ( Marchantia polymorpha ) has a characteristic parasol-like form highly suitable for collecting water droplets containing sperm for fertilization. Motivated by this observation and using three-dimensional printing techniques, we develop a parasol-like rigid object that can grab, transport and release water droplets of a maximum size of about 1 cm. By combining experiments and scaling theory, we quantify the object's fundamental wetting and fluid dynamical properties. We construct a stability phase diagram and suggest that it is largely insensitive to properties of liquids such as surface tension and viscosity...
March 2018: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
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