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Sperm surface

Anna Kałuża, Anna Jarząb, Andrzej Gamian, Ewa M Kratz, Mariusz Zimmer, Mirosława Ferens-Sieczkowska
Glycosylation pattern within reproductive tract is now suggested to be involved in providing female immune tolerance for allograft sperm and developing embryo, but the information whether impaired glycosylation may influence male fertility potential is still limited. We have analyzed seminal plasma N-glycome in pooled samples derived from fertile and infertile men by means of MALDI-TOF/TOF tandem mass spectrometry. Among infertile subjects, normozoospermic, oligozoospermic, asthenozoospermic and oligoasthenozoospermic samples were obtained...
September 18, 2016: Carbohydrate Research
Jana Jankovicova, Michaela Frolikova, Natasa Sebkova, Michal Simon, Petra Cupperova, Denisa Lipcseyova, Katarina Michalkova, Lubica Horovska, Radislav Sedlacek, Pavel Stopka, Jana Antalikova, Katerina Dvorakova-Hortova
Sperm-egg interaction and fusion represents a key moment of fertilization and it would not happen in mammals without the interaction of the tetraspanin superfamily members including protein CD81. A detailed immunohistochemical localization of CD81 was monitored on bovine oocytes of different maturation stages, as well as during early embryogenesis. There was also a CD81characterization on bovine and mouse sperm carried out. On bovine eggs, CD81 was detected on the plasma membrane of the germinal vesicle, metaphase I and metaphase II oocytes...
September 27, 2016: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
A Franchi, M Cubilla, H A Guidobaldi, A A Bravo, L C Giojalas
STUDY QUESTION: Does the rapid transit through the uterine environment modulate the sperm physiological state? SUMMARY ANSWER: The uterosome-like vesicles (ULV) secreted by endometrial epithelial cells (EEC) in vitro are able to fuse with human spermatozoa, prompting their fertilising capacity. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Early studies suggest that sperm capacitation begins in the uterus and ends in the oviduct, and that a synergistic effect of both female organs may accelerate this process...
September 27, 2016: Molecular Human Reproduction
L Dumont, A Oblette, C Rondanino, F Jumeau, A Bironneau, D Liot, V Duchesne, J Wils, N Rives
STUDY QUESTION: Does vitamin A (retinol, Rol) prevent round spermatid nuclear damage and increase the production of motile sperm during in vitro maturation of vitrified pre-pubertal mouse testicular tissue? SUMMARY ANSWER: The supplementation of an in vitro culture of ~0.75 mm(3) testicular explants from pre-pubertal mice with Rol enhances spermatogenesis progression during the first spermatogenic wave. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: The production of functional spermatozoa in vitro has only been achieved in the mouse model and remains a rare event...
September 25, 2016: Molecular Human Reproduction
Ai-Wei Lee, Cheng-Chen Hsu, Yi-Zu Liu, Po-Li Wei, Jem-Kun Chen
In this study we used the poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm) as a medium to blend with an organic DNA, herring sperm DNA (HSD), to generate PNIPAAm-HSD supramolecular complexes. Bio-multiple hydrogen bonding (BMHB) between PNIPAAm and HSD was investigated that changed the temperature responsiveness of PNIPAAm relatively to the HSD concentrations. With blending the HSD into PNIPAAm matrix, the phase separation in solution is completely opposite from that of neat PNIPAAm. Surface property in static water contact angle (SWCA) is also opposite from that of pure PNIPAAm upon increasing HSD content over 60%...
September 12, 2016: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
A J M Kouyoumdjian, R A Lazar, N K H Slater
In this study, the surface of a microporous walled micro-capillary film (MMCF) was modified into a weak anion exchanger by coupling cyanuric chloride and 2-diethylaminoethylamine (DEAE) to the ethylene-vinyl alcohol (EVOH) matrix. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) measurements of modified and unmodified MMCFs confirmed the addition of a triazine ring and DEAE onto the membrane. Binding of bovine serum albumin (BSA) at pH 7.2 was found to follow a Langmuir isotherm with a maximum equilibrium binding of 12...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. A
Isabella Ellinger
Active placental transport of maternal serum calcium (Ca(2+)) to the offspring is pivotal for proper development of the fetal skeleton as well as various organ systems. Moreover, extracellular Ca(2+) levels impact on distinct processes in mammalian reproduction. The calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) translates changes in extracellular Ca(2+)-concentrations into cellular reactions. This review summarizes current knowledge on the expression of CaSR and its putative functions in reproductive organs. CaSR was detected in placental cells mediating materno-fetal Ca(2+)-transport such as the murine intraplacental yolk sac (IPYS) and the human syncytiotrophoblast...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
Enrica Bianchi, Gavin J Wright
Fertilization is the culminating event of sexual reproduction, which involves the union of the sperm and egg to form a single, genetically distinct organism. Despite the fundamental role of fertilization, the basic mechanisms involved have remained poorly understood. However, these mechanisms must involve an ordered schedule of cellular recognition events between the sperm and egg to ensure successful fusion. In this article, we review recent progress in our molecular understanding of mammalian fertilization, highlighting the areas in which genetic approaches have been particularly informative and focusing especially on the roles of secreted and cell surface proteins, expressed in a sex-specific manner, that mediate sperm-egg interactions...
September 2, 2016: Annual Review of Genetics
Jean-Ju Chung
The'sugarcoat', a dense carbohydrate coat (glycocalyx), is critical to cell-to-cell recognition, including sperm-egg interactions. Lectins are used to probe the localization of glycoproteins on the cell surface, and to track their changes during sperm maturation and capacitation (Tecle and Gagneux, 2015, Mol. Reprod. Dev 82:635-650). Among them, wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) binds to the sperm head, cytoplasmic droplet, midpiece, as well as the principal piece and end piece of the sperm tail (Fabrega et al, 2012, Reprod...
September 3, 2016: Molecular Reproduction and Development
Yuewen Zhao, Xiaojing Yang, Zongchao Jia, Robert L Reid, Pierre Leclerc, Frederick W K Kan
The mammalian oviduct synthesizes and secretes a major glycoprotein known as oviductin (OVGP1) which has been shown to interact with gametes and early embryos. We report here the use of recombinant DNA technology to produce, for the first time, the secretory form of human OVGP1 in HEK293 cells. HEK293 colonies stably expressing recombinant human OVGP1 (rHuOVGP1) were established by transfecting cells with an expression vector pCMV6-Entry constructed with OVGP1 cDNA. Large quantities of rHuOVGP1 were obtained from the stably transfected cells using the CELLSPIN cell cultivation system...
August 31, 2016: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
Alba Ledesma, Estela Fernández-Alegre, Adriana Cano, Federico Hozbor, Felipe Martínez-Pastor, Andreína Cesari
This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of interacting seminal plasma proteins (iSPP) obtained by AV or EE on frozen-thawed ram sperm in order to test the hypothesis whether this fraction could be sufficient to emulate the effect of complete seminal plasma (SP). Additionally, we evaluated whether these proteins have a differential effect between spermatozoa from high and low fertility rams and between breeding and non-breeding seasons. We assessed sperm motility, quality parameters (intracellular reactive oxygen species, membrane fluidity, plasma membrane permeability and mitochondrial activity) and capacitation status...
October 2016: Animal Reproduction Science
Cordula Franz, Anita N Böing, Markus Montag, Thomas Strowitzki, Udo R Markert, Sebastiaan Mastenbroek, Rienk Nieuwland, Bettina Toth
Body fluids contain extracellular vesicles expressing tissue factor on their surface and serve as an additional trigger for coagulation. During the menstrual cycle ovarian tissue restoration is mandatory and it is unknown whether follicular fluid might provide procoagulant substances. Within an observational study, follicular fluid from women undergoing IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) was analysed by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS), electron microscopy, resistive pulse sensing (RPS), nanoparticle-tracking analysis (NTA) and fibrin generation tests (FGT)...
August 22, 2016: Reproductive Biomedicine Online
Yingnan Hou, Xinyang Guo, Philipp Cyprys, Ying Zhang, Andrea Bleckmann, Le Cai, Qingpei Huang, Yu Luo, Hongya Gu, Thomas Dresselhaus, Juan Dong, Li-Jia Qu
During the angiosperm (flowering-plant) life cycle, double fertilization represents the hallmark between diploid and haploid generations [1]. The success of double fertilization largely depends on compatible communication between the male gametophyte (pollen tube) and the maternal tissues of the flower, culminating in precise pollen tube guidance to the female gametophyte (embryo sac) and its rupture to release sperm cells. Several important factors involved in the pollen tube reception have been identified recently [2-6], but the underlying signaling pathways are far from being understood...
September 12, 2016: Current Biology: CB
Wenhua Lexcy Li, Yuanyuan Liu, Carl J Douglas
The pollen cell wall is important for protection of male sperm from physical stresses, and consists of an inner gametophyte-derived intine layer and a sporophyte-derived exine layer. The polymeric constituents of the robust exine are termed sporopollenin. The mechanisms by which sporopollenin is anchored onto microspores and polymerized in specific patterns are unknown, but the primexine, a transient cell wall matrix formed on the surface of microspores at the late tetrad stage, is hypothesized to play a key role...
August 5, 2016: Plant Physiology
Aaron Teo, James R Guest, Mei Lin Neo, Kareen Vicentuan, Peter A Todd
Most studies of coral reproductive biology to date have focused on oocyte numbers and sizes. Only one (ex situ) study has enumerated sperm numbers, even though these data have multiple potential applications. We quantified total coral sperm and eggs per gamete bundle collected from six species in situ during a synchronous spawning event in Singapore. Egg-sperm bundles were captured midwater as they floated towards the surface after being released by the colony. For each sample, a semi-transparent soft plastic bottle was squeezed and released to create a small suction force that was used to 'catch' the bundles...
2016: PeerJ
Nirmala Jagadish, Namita Gupta, Sumit Agarwal, Deepak Parashar, Aditi Sharma, Rukhsar Fatima, Amos Prashant Topno, Vikash Kumar, Anil Suri
Recently, we demonstrated the association of sperm-associated antigen 9 (SPAG9) expression with breast cancer. Among breast cancer, 15 % of the cancers are diagnosed as triple-negative breast cancers (TNBC) based on hormone receptor status and represent an important clinical challenge because of lack of effective available targeted therapy. Therefore, in the present investigation, plasmid-based small hairpin (small hairpin RNA (shRNA)) approach was used to ablate SPAG9 in aggressive breast cancer cell line model (MDA-MB-231) in order to understand the role of SPAG9 at molecular level in apoptosis, cell cycle, and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) signaling...
July 23, 2016: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
Lingtong Liu, Canhui Zheng, Baijan Kuang, Liqin Wei, Longfeng Yan, Tai Wang
During sexual reproduction of flowering plants, the pollen tube grows fast and over a long distance within the pistil to deliver two sperms for double fertilization. Growing plant cells need to communicate constantly with external stimuli as well as monitor changes in surface tension of the cell wall and plasma membrane to coordinate these signals and internal growth machinery; however, the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. Here we show that the rice member of plant-specific receptor-like kinase CrRLK1Ls subfamily, Ruptured Pollen tube (RUPO), is specifically expressed in rice pollen...
July 2016: PLoS Genetics
Sandra Whelly, Archana Muthusubramanian, Jonathan Powell, Seethal Johnson, Mary Catherine Hastert, Gail A Cornwall
STUDY QUESTION: Do the CRES (cystatin-related epididymal spermatogenic) subgroup members, including CRES2, CRES3 and cystatin E2, contribute to the formation of a nonpathological, functional amyloid matrix in the mouse epididymal lumen? SUMMARY ANSWER: CRES2, CRES3 and cystatin E2 self-assemble with different aggregation properties into amyloids in vitro, are part of a common amyloid matrix in the mouse epididymal lumen, and are present in extracellular vesicles...
July 21, 2016: Molecular Human Reproduction
Mohammad Hossein Nasr Esfahani, Mohammad Reza Deemeh, Marziyeh Tavalaee, Mohammad Hadi Sekhavati, Hamid Gourabi
BACKGROUND: Selection of sperm for intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) is usually considered as the ultimate technique to alleviate male-factor infertility. In routine ICSI, selection is based on morphology and viability which does not necessarily preclude the chance injection of DNA-damaged or apoptotic sperm into the oocyte. Sperm with high negative surface electrical charge, named "Zeta potential", are mature and more likely to have intact chromatin. In addition, X-bearing spermatozoa carry more negative charge...
July 2016: International Journal of Fertility & Sterility
Kazuki Kato, Yuhkoh Satouh, Hiroshi Nishimasu, Arisa Kurabayashi, Junko Morita, Yoshitaka Fujihara, Asami Oji, Ryuichiro Ishitani, Masahito Ikawa, Osamu Nureki
Sperm-egg fusion is the critical step in mammalian fertilization, and requires the interaction between IZUMO1 on the sperm surface and JUNO (also known as folate receptor (FR) 4 or IZUMO1R) on the egg surface. Whereas other FRs bind and uptake folates, JUNO binds IZUMO1 and establishes the cell-cell adhesion. However, the mechanism of IZUMO1 recognition by JUNO has remained elusive. Here we report the crystal structure of mouse JUNO, at 2.3 Å resolution. A structural comparison of JUNO with the FRs revealed that JUNO and the FRs have similar overall structures, but JUNO lacks the folate-binding pocket, thereby explaining the inability of JUNO to bind folate...
2016: Nature Communications
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