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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859860/constrained-evolution-of-the-sex-comb-in-drosophila-simulans
#1
Manar S Maraqa, Robert Griffin, M D Sharma, Alastair J Wilson, John Hunt, David J Hosken, Clarissa M House
Male fitness is dependent on sexual traits that influence mate acquisition (pre-copulatory sexual selection) and paternity (post-copulatory sexual selection), and while many studies have documented the form of selection in one or the other of these arenas, fewer have done it for both. Nonetheless, it appears that the dominant form of sexual selection is directional, although theoretically, populations should converge on peaks in the fitness surface, where selection is stabilizing. Many factors, however, can prevent populations from reaching adaptive peaks...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852807/mechanical-tuning-of-mammalian-sperm-behaviour-by-hyperactivation-rheology-and-substrate-adhesion-a-numerical-exploration
#2
Kenta Ishimoto, Eamonn A Gaffney
The great mammalian sperm race encounters numerous microenvironments to which sperm must adapt and a fundamental sperm response is the change in its waveform owing to both fluid rheology and capacitation, with the latter associated with a hyperactivated beat pattern. Hence, in this modelling study, we examine the effect of different flagellar waveforms for sperm behaviour near adhesive substrates, which are representative of epithelia in female tract sperm reservoirs and the zona pellucida (ZP), which surrounds the mammalian egg...
November 2016: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27828766/prevalence-abundance-and-intensity-of-implanted-spermatophores-in-the-leech-haementeria-officinalis-glossiphoniidae-hirudinida-from-guanajuato-mexico
#3
Ricardo Salas-Montiel, Anna Phillips, Samantha Contreras-Mirà  N, Alejandro Francisco Oceguera-Figueroa
Fertilization through hypodermic implantation of spermatophores has been recorded in at least 4 groups of leeches: Glossiphoniidae, Piscicolidae, Ozobranchidae and Erpobdelliformes. In Piscicola respirans (Piscicolidae), vector tissue responsible for sperm transfer from a specialized region of the body to the ovaries has led to the non-random attachment of spermatophores on the body surface of the recipient leech. It has been suggested that in glossiphoniid leeches, spermatophores are implanted in any part of the body surface of the recipient leech without a clear pattern or preference for region...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812283/structural-prediction-and-in-silico-physicochemical-characterization-for-mouse-caltrin-i-and-bovine-caltrin-proteins
#4
Ernesto J Grasso, Adolfo E Sottile, Carlos E Coronel
It is known that caltrin (calcium transport inhibitor) protein binds to sperm cells during ejaculation and inhibits extracellular Ca(2+) uptake. Although the sequence and some biological features of mouse caltrin I and bovine caltrin are known, their physicochemical properties and tertiary structure are mainly unknown. We predicted the 3D structures of mouse caltrin I and bovine caltrin by molecular homology modeling and threading. Surface electrostatic potentials and electric fields were calculated using the Poisson-Boltzmann equation...
2016: Bioinformatics and Biology Insights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809479/designing-micro-and-nanoswimmers-for-specific-applications
#5
Jaideep Katuri, Xing Ma, Morgan M Stanton, Samuel Sánchez
Self-propelled colloids have emerged as a new class of active matter over the past decade. These are micrometer sized colloidal objects that transduce free energy from their surroundings and convert it to directed motion. The self-propelled colloids are in many ways, the synthetic analogues of biological self-propelled units such as algae or bacteria. Although they are propelled by very different mechanisms, biological swimmers are typically powered by flagellar motion and synthetic swimmers are driven by local chemical reactions, they share a number of common features with respect to swimming behavior...
November 3, 2016: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27690320/preliminary-maldi-tof-ms-analysis-of-seminal-plasma-n-glycome-of-infertile-men
#6
Anna Kałuża, Anna Jarząb, Andrzej Gamian, Ewa M Kratz, Mariusz Zimmer, Mirosława Ferens-Sieczkowska
Glycosylation pattern within reproductive tract is now suggested to be involved in providing female immune tolerance for allograft sperm and developing embryo, but the information whether impaired glycosylation may influence male fertility potential is still limited. We have analyzed seminal plasma N-glycome in pooled samples derived from fertile and infertile men by means of MALDI-TOF/TOF tandem mass spectrometry. Among infertile subjects, normozoospermic, oligozoospermic, asthenozoospermic and oligoasthenozoospermic samples were obtained...
September 18, 2016: Carbohydrate Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27679865/characterization-of-tetraspanin-protein-cd81-in-mouse-spermatozoa-and-bovine-gametes
#7
Jana Jankovicova, Michaela Frolikova, Natasa Sebkova, Michal Simon, Petra Cupperova, Denisa Lipcseyova, Katarina Michalkova, Lubica Horovska, Radislav Sedlacek, Pavel Stopka, Jana Antalikova, Katerina Dvorakova-Hortova
Sperm-egg interaction and fusion represents a key moment of fertilization and it would not happen in mammals without the interaction of the tetraspanin superfamily members including protein CD81. A detailed immunohistochemical localization of CD81 was monitored on bovine oocytes of different maturation stages, as well as during early embryogenesis. There was also a CD81characterization on bovine and mouse sperm carried out. On bovine eggs, CD81 was detected on the plasma membrane of the germinal vesicle, metaphase I and metaphase II oocytes...
September 27, 2016: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27678485/uterosome-like-vesicles-prompt-human-sperm-fertilising-capability
#8
A Franchi, M Cubilla, H A Guidobaldi, A A Bravo, L C Giojalas
STUDY QUESTION: Does the rapid transit through the uterine environment modulate the sperm physiological state? SUMMARY ANSWER: The uterosome-like vesicles (ULV) secreted by endometrial epithelial cells (EEC) in vitro are able to fuse with human spermatozoa, prompting their fertilising capacity. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Early studies suggest that sperm capacitation begins in the uterus and ends in the oviduct, and that a synergistic effect of both female organs may accelerate this process...
September 27, 2016: Molecular Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27671755/vitamin-a-prevents-round-spermatid-nuclear-damage-and-promotes-the-production-of-motile-sperm-during-in-vitro-maturation-of-vitrified-pre-pubertal-mouse-testicular-tissue
#9
L Dumont, A Oblette, C Rondanino, F Jumeau, A Bironneau, D Liot, V Duchesne, J Wils, N Rives
STUDY QUESTION: Does vitamin A (retinol, Rol) prevent round spermatid nuclear damage and increase the production of motile sperm during in vitro maturation of vitrified pre-pubertal mouse testicular tissue? SUMMARY ANSWER: The supplementation of an in vitro culture of ~0.75 mm(3) testicular explants from pre-pubertal mice with Rol enhances spermatogenesis progression during the first spermatogenic wave. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: The production of functional spermatozoa in vitro has only been achieved in the mouse model and remains a rare event...
September 25, 2016: Molecular Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27639492/supermolecules-of-poly-n-isopropylacrylamide-complexating-herring-sperm-dna-with-bio-multiple-hydrogen-bonding
#10
Ai-Wei Lee, Cheng-Chen Hsu, Yi-Zu Liu, Po-Li Wei, Jem-Kun Chen
In this study we used the poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm) as a medium to blend with an organic DNA, herring sperm DNA (HSD), to generate PNIPAAm-HSD supramolecular complexes. Bio-multiple hydrogen bonding (BMHB) between PNIPAAm and HSD was investigated that changed the temperature responsiveness of PNIPAAm relatively to the HSD concentrations. With blending the HSD into PNIPAAm matrix, the phase separation in solution is completely opposite from that of neat PNIPAAm. Surface property in static water contact angle (SWCA) is also opposite from that of pure PNIPAAm upon increasing HSD content over 60%...
September 12, 2016: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27638141/the-development-of-a-weak-anion-micro-capillary-film-for-protein-chromatography
#11
A J M Kouyoumdjian, R A Lazar, N K H Slater
In this study, the surface of a microporous walled micro-capillary film (MMCF) was modified into a weak anion exchanger by coupling cyanuric chloride and 2-diethylaminoethylamine (DEAE) to the ethylene-vinyl alcohol (EVOH) matrix. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) measurements of modified and unmodified MMCFs confirmed the addition of a triazine ring and DEAE onto the membrane. Binding of bovine serum albumin (BSA) at pH 7.2 was found to follow a Langmuir isotherm with a maximum equilibrium binding of 12...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27625611/the-calcium-sensing-receptor-and-the-reproductive-system
#12
REVIEW
Isabella Ellinger
Active placental transport of maternal serum calcium (Ca(2+)) to the offspring is pivotal for proper development of the fetal skeleton as well as various organ systems. Moreover, extracellular Ca(2+) levels impact on distinct processes in mammalian reproduction. The calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) translates changes in extracellular Ca(2+)-concentrations into cellular reactions. This review summarizes current knowledge on the expression of CaSR and its putative functions in reproductive organs. CaSR was detected in placental cells mediating materno-fetal Ca(2+)-transport such as the murine intraplacental yolk sac (IPYS) and the human syncytiotrophoblast...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27617973/sperm-meets-egg-the-genetics-of-mammalian-fertilization
#13
Enrica Bianchi, Gavin J Wright
Fertilization is the culminating event of sexual reproduction, which involves the union of the sperm and egg to form a single, genetically distinct organism. Despite the fundamental role of fertilization, the basic mechanisms involved have remained poorly understood. However, these mechanisms must involve an ordered schedule of cellular recognition events between the sperm and egg to ensure successful fusion. In this article, we review recent progress in our molecular understanding of mammalian fertilization, highlighting the areas in which genetic approaches have been particularly informative and focusing especially on the roles of secreted and cell surface proteins, expressed in a sex-specific manner, that mediate sperm-egg interactions...
November 23, 2016: Annual Review of Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27591546/sugarcoated-sperm
#14
Jean-Ju Chung
The'sugarcoat', a dense carbohydrate coat (glycocalyx), is critical to cell-to-cell recognition, including sperm-egg interactions. Lectins are used to probe the localization of glycoproteins on the cell surface, and to track their changes during sperm maturation and capacitation (Tecle and Gagneux, 2015, Mol. Reprod. Dev 82:635-650). Among them, wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) binds to the sperm head, cytoplasmic droplet, midpiece, as well as the principal piece and end piece of the sperm tail (Fabrega et al, 2012, Reprod...
September 3, 2016: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27581080/recombinant-human-oviductin-regulates-protein-tyrosine-phosphorylation-and-acrosome-reaction
#15
Yuewen Zhao, Xiaojing Yang, Zongchao Jia, Robert L Reid, Pierre Leclerc, Frederick W K Kan
The mammalian oviduct synthesizes and secretes a major glycoprotein known as oviductin (OVGP1) which has been shown to interact with gametes and early embryos. We report here the use of recombinant DNA technology to produce, for the first time, the secretory form of human OVGP1 in HEK293 cells. HEK293 colonies stably expressing recombinant human OVGP1 (rHuOVGP1) were established by transfecting cells with an expression vector pCMV6-Entry constructed with OVGP1 cDNA. Large quantities of rHuOVGP1 were obtained from the stably transfected cells using the CELLSPIN cell cultivation system...
August 31, 2016: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27570190/seminal-plasma-proteins-interacting-with-sperm-surface-revert-capacitation-indicators-in-frozen-thawed-ram-sperm
#16
Alba Ledesma, Estela Fernández-Alegre, Adriana Cano, Federico Hozbor, Felipe Martínez-Pastor, Andreína Cesari
This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of interacting seminal plasma proteins (iSPP) obtained by AV or EE on frozen-thawed ram sperm in order to test the hypothesis whether this fraction could be sufficient to emulate the effect of complete seminal plasma (SP). Additionally, we evaluated whether these proteins have a differential effect between spermatozoa from high and low fertility rams and between breeding and non-breeding seasons. We assessed sperm motility, quality parameters (intracellular reactive oxygen species, membrane fluidity, plasma membrane permeability and mitochondrial activity) and capacitation status...
October 2016: Animal Reproduction Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27569704/extracellular-vesicles-in-human-follicular-fluid-do-not-promote-coagulation
#17
Cordula Franz, Anita N Böing, Markus Montag, Thomas Strowitzki, Udo R Markert, Sebastiaan Mastenbroek, Rienk Nieuwland, Bettina Toth
Body fluids contain extracellular vesicles expressing tissue factor on their surface and serve as an additional trigger for coagulation. During the menstrual cycle ovarian tissue restoration is mandatory and it is unknown whether follicular fluid might provide procoagulant substances. Within an observational study, follicular fluid from women undergoing IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) was analysed by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS), electron microscopy, resistive pulse sensing (RPS), nanoparticle-tracking analysis (NTA) and fibrin generation tests (FGT)...
August 22, 2016: Reproductive Biomedicine Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27524487/maternal-enodls-are-required-for-pollen-tube-reception-in-arabidopsis
#18
Yingnan Hou, Xinyang Guo, Philipp Cyprys, Ying Zhang, Andrea Bleckmann, Le Cai, Qingpei Huang, Yu Luo, Hongya Gu, Thomas Dresselhaus, Juan Dong, Li-Jia Qu
During the angiosperm (flowering-plant) life cycle, double fertilization represents the hallmark between diploid and haploid generations [1]. The success of double fertilization largely depends on compatible communication between the male gametophyte (pollen tube) and the maternal tissues of the flower, culminating in precise pollen tube guidance to the female gametophyte (embryo sac) and its rupture to release sperm cells. Several important factors involved in the pollen tube reception have been identified recently [2-6], but the underlying signaling pathways are far from being understood...
September 12, 2016: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27495941/role-of-glycosyl-transferases-in-pollen-wall-primexine-formation-and-exine-patterning
#19
Wenhua Lexcy Li, Yuanyuan Liu, Carl J Douglas
The pollen cell wall is important for protection of male sperm from physical stresses, and consists of an inner gametophyte-derived intine layer and a sporophyte-derived exine layer. The polymeric constituents of the robust exine are termed sporopollenin. The mechanisms by which sporopollenin is anchored onto microspores and polymerized in specific patterns are unknown, but the primexine, a transient cell wall matrix formed on the surface of microspores at the late tetrad stage, is hypothesized to play a key role...
August 5, 2016: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27478697/quantification-of-coral-sperm-collected-during-a-synchronous-spawning-event
#20
Aaron Teo, James R Guest, Mei Lin Neo, Kareen Vicentuan, Peter A Todd
Most studies of coral reproductive biology to date have focused on oocyte numbers and sizes. Only one (ex situ) study has enumerated sperm numbers, even though these data have multiple potential applications. We quantified total coral sperm and eggs per gamete bundle collected from six species in situ during a synchronous spawning event in Singapore. Egg-sperm bundles were captured midwater as they floated towards the surface after being released by the colony. For each sample, a semi-transparent soft plastic bottle was squeezed and released to create a small suction force that was used to 'catch' the bundles...
2016: PeerJ
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