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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346568/are-infection-specialists-recommending-short-antibiotic-treatment-durations-an-escmid-international-cross-sectional-survey
#1
Gabriel Macheda, Oliver J Dyar, Amandine Luc, Bojana Beovic, Guillaume Béraud, Bernard Castan, Rémy Gauzit, Philippe Lesprit, Pierre Tattevin, Nathalie Thilly, Céline Pulcini
Objectives: To evaluate the current practice and the willingness to shorten the duration of antibiotic therapy among infection specialists. Methods: Infection specialists giving at least weekly advice on antibiotic prescriptions were invited to participate in an online cross-sectional survey between September and December 2016. The questionnaire included 15 clinical vignettes corresponding to common clinical cases with favourable outcomes; part A asked about the antibiotic treatment duration they would usually advise to prescribers and part B asked about the shortest duration they were willing to recommend...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346373/reconciling-pasteur-and-darwin-to-control-infectious-diseases
#2
Samuel Alizon, Pierre-Olivier Méthot
The continual emergence of new pathogens and the increased spread of antibiotic resistance in bacterial populations remind us that microbes are living entities that evolve at rates that impact public health interventions. Following the historical thread of the works of Pasteur and Darwin shows how reconciling clinical microbiology, ecology, and evolution can be instrumental to understanding pathology, developing new therapies, and prolonging the efficiency of existing ones.
January 18, 2018: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346118/mycobacterium-avium-complex-pulmonary-disease-new-epidemiology-and-management-concepts
#3
Leah Lande, Jason George, Theodore Plush
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The prevalence of Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC)-related pulmonary disease has been increasing because of environmental factors, changes in organism virulence, and evolving host susceptibility. Treatment is often complicated by adverse effects, development of drug resistance, and refractory disease, with recurrence rates as high as 25-45%. RECENT FINDINGS: Aerosolization of water, soil, or dusts are the likely sources of MAC-related pulmonary disease in susceptible individuals...
January 15, 2018: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344982/experience-with-pharmacologic-leeching-with-bivalirudin-for-adjunct-treatment-of-venous-congestion-of-head-and-neck-reconstructive-flaps
#4
Aisha Harun, Rachel M Kruer, Andrew Lee, Kofi Boahene, Patrick J Byrne, Jeremy D Richmon
OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study was to review the feasibility of local bivalirudin injection for adjunct treatment of venous congestion of head and neck reconstructive flaps. METHODS: A retrospective chart review of patients who underwent bivalirudin treatment for venous congestion of head and neck reconstructive flaps in a single institution from September 1, 2012 to September 1, 2015 was undertaken. Individuals were treated with variable number of intradermal injections directly into the flap followed by a small skin incision to allow extended passive bleeding...
January 18, 2018: Microsurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344701/the-fate-of-immunocompromised-patients-in-the-treatment-of-chronic-periprosthetic-joint-infection-a-single-centre-experience
#5
Baochao Ji, Xiaogang Zhang, Boyong Xu, Jiangdong Ren, Wentao Guo, Wenbo Mu, Li Cao
PURPOSE: Immunocompromised patients with periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) are rare and currently there are no reliable guidelines according to which these infections can be successfully managed. The purpose of this study was to report the clinical course of different strategies for treatment of PJI in frail patients. METHODS: A retrospective analysis between 2004 and 2015 included 29 immunocompromised patients (13 hips and 16 knees) with chronic PJI who underwent one-stage revision or debridement, antibiotics and implant retention (DAIR)...
January 17, 2018: International Orthopaedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344434/rare-multidrug-resistant-pulmonary-nocardiosis-in-aids
#6
Cherry O Onaiwu, Manasa Velagapudi, Luay Sarsam, Lindsay Utley, Lauren Bricker, Venkata Sunil Bendi, Renuga Vivekanandan
Nocardiosis is an opportunistic infection in patients with depressed cell-mediated immunity. Inhalation is the primary route for exposure via dust particles. Patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) are at increased risk of disseminated disease. A challenge in the diagnosis of pulmonary nocardiosis is that it can mimic other pulmonary diseases. Nocardia farcinica tends to be a more virulent, multidrug-resistant strain with an increased tendency to disseminate. This report describes a 64-year-old man with AIDS found to have pulmonary nocardiosis that did not respond to standard antibiotic therapy...
November 11, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342903/application-of-nanoparticle-technologies-in-the-combat-against-anti-microbial-resistance
#7
REVIEW
Mayur Kumar, Anthony Curtis, Clare Hoskins
Anti-microbial resistance is a growing problem that has impacted the world and brought about the beginning of the end for the old generation of antibiotics. Increasingly, more antibiotics are being prescribed unnecessarily and this reckless practice has resulted in increased resistance towards these drugs, rendering them useless against infection. Nanotechnology presents a potential answer to anti-microbial resistance, which could stimulate innovation and create a new generation of antibiotic treatments for future medicines...
January 14, 2018: Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342478/design-and-implementation-of-a-visual-analytics-electronic-antibiogram-within-an-electronic-health-record-system-at-a-tertiary-pediatric-hospital
#8
Allan F Simpao, Luis M Ahumada, Beatriz Larru Martinez, Ana M Cardenas, Talene A Metjian, Kaede V Sullivan, Jorge A Gálvez, Bimal R Desai, Mohamed A Rehman, Jeffrey S Gerber
BACKGROUND:  Hospitals use antibiograms to guide optimal empiric antibiotic therapy, reduce inappropriate antibiotic usage, and identify areas requiring intervention by antimicrobial stewardship programs. Creating a hospital antibiogram is a time-consuming manual process that is typically performed annually. OBJECTIVE:  We aimed to apply visual analytics software to electronic health record (EHR) data to build an automated, electronic antibiogram ("e-antibiogram") that adheres to national guidelines and contains filters for patient characteristics, thereby providing access to detailed, clinically relevant, and up-to-date antibiotic susceptibility data...
January 2018: Applied Clinical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342469/the-2017-update-of-the-german-clinical-guideline-on-epidemiology-diagnostics-therapy-prevention-and-management-of-uncomplicated-urinary-tract-infections-in-adult-patients-part%C3%A2-1
#9
Jennifer Kranz, Stefanie Schmidt, Cordula Lebert, Laila Schneidewind, Falitsa Mandraka, Mirjam Kunze, Sina Helbig, Winfried Vahlensieck, Kurt Naber, Guido Schmiemann, Florian M Wagenlehner
OBJECTIVES: We aimed to update the 2010 evidence- and consensus-based national clinical guideline on the diagnosis and management of uncomplicated urinary tract infections (UTIs) in adult patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An interdisciplinary group consisting of 17 representatives of 12 medical societies and a patient representative was formed. Systematic literature searches were conducted in MEDLINE, -EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library to identify literature published in 2010-2015...
January 17, 2018: Urologia Internationalis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342270/whole-genome-analysis-reveals-the-evolution-and-transmission-of-an-mdr-dh-nap11-106-clostridium-difficile-clone-in-a-paediatric-hospital
#10
Larry K Kociolek, Egon A Ozer, Dale N Gerding, David W Hecht, Sameer J Patel, Alan R Hauser
Background: Clostridium difficile strain DH/NAP11/106, a relatively antibiotic-susceptible strain, is now the most common cause of C. difficile infection (CDI) among adults in the USA. Objectives: To identify mechanisms underlying the evolution and transmission of an MDR DH/NAP11/106 clone. Methods: WGS (Illumina MiSeq), restriction endonuclease analysis (REA) and antibiotic susceptibility testing were performed on 134 C. difficile isolates collected from paediatric patients with CDI over a 2 year period...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341844/empiric-antibiotics-for-sepsis
#11
Sara A Buckman, Isaiah R Turnbull, John E Mazuski
BACKGROUND: Sepsis is life-threatening organ dysfunction caused by a dysregulated host response to infection. Early recognition and treatment are the cornerstones of management. METHODS: Review of the English-language literature. RESULTS: For both sepsis and septic shock "antimicrobials [should be] be initiated as soon as possible and within one hour" (Surviving Sepsis Campaign). The risk of progression from severe sepsis to septic shock increases 8% for each hour before antibiotics are started...
January 17, 2018: Surgical Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340609/impact-of-antibiotic-stewardship-programmes-in-asia-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#12
Chun Fan Lee, Benjamin J Cowling, Shuo Feng, Hanae Aso, Peng Wu, Keiji Fukuda, Wing Hong Seto
Background: The use of antibiotic stewardship programmes (ASPs) is increasing in Asia, but their effectiveness in reducing antibiotic consumption and their impact on clinical outcomes is not known. Objectives: To determine the impact of ASPs conducted in Asia on the consumption of antibiotics and on patients' clinical outcomes. Methods: We systematically searched the Embase and Medline (PubMed) databases for studies that compared antibiotic consumption or clinical outcomes of patients in an Asian hospital or clinic with an ASP (intervention) with those in a similar setting without an ASP (control)...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340593/the-clinical-utility-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-mrsa-nasal-screening-to-rule-out-mrsa-pneumonia-a-diagnostic-meta-analysis-with-antimicrobial-stewardship-implications
#13
Diane M Parente, Cheston B Cunha, Eleftherios Mylonakis, Tristan T Timbrook
Background: Recent literature has highlighted MRSA nasal screening as a possible antimicrobial stewardship program (ASP) tool for avoiding unnecessary empiric MRSA therapy for pneumonia, yet current guidelines recommend MRSA therapy based on risk factors. The objective of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the diagnostic value of MRSA nasal screening in MRSA pneumonia. Methods: Pubmed and EMBASE were searched from inception to November 2016 for English studies evaluating MRSA nasal screening and development of MRSA pneumonia...
January 11, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340257/symmetrical-drug-related-intertriginous-and-flexural-exanthema-induced-by-doxycycline
#14
David G Li, Cristina Thomas, Gil S Weintraub, Arash Mostaghimi
Symmetrical drug-related intertriginous and flexural exanthema (SDRIFE) is a cutaneous drug reaction characterized by erythema over the buttocks, thighs, groin, and flexural regions most commonly associated with the use of beta-lactam antibiotics. Although the exact pathophysiology of this disease remains unknown, it is theorized to be the result of a delayed hypersensitivity response presenting as a cutaneous eruption days to weeks after exposure to the drug. The treatment involves discontinuation of the suspected medication, symptomatic control of pruritus, and topical steroid therapy...
November 10, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340102/the-impact-of-antibiotic-usage-on-the-efficacy-of-chemoimmunotherapy-is-contingent-on-the-source-of-tumor-reactive-t-cells
#15
Michal P Kuczma, Zhi-Chun Ding, Tao Li, Tsadik Habtetsion, Tingting Chen, Zhonglin Hao, Locke Bryan, Nagendra Singh, James N Kochenderfer, Gang Zhou
In recent years the combined use of chemotherapy and immunotherapy, collectively termed chemoimmunotherapy, has emerged as a promising treatment option for patients with cancer. Antibiotics are commonly used to reduce infection-related complications in patients undergoing chemotherapy. Intriguingly, accumulating evidence has implicated gut microbiota as a critical determinant of host antitumor immune responses, raising the question as to whether the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics would invariably diminish tumor response to chemoimmunotherapies...
December 19, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339387/the-genetic-basis-of-emerging-vancomycin-linezolid-and-daptomycin-heteroresistance-in-a-case-of-persistent-enterococcus-faecium-bacteremia
#16
Kieran Chacko, Mitchell Sullivan, Colleen Beckford, Deena Altman, Brianne Ciferri, Theodore Pak, Robert Sebra, Andrew Kasarskis, Camille Hamula, Harm van Bakel
Whole-genome sequencing was used to examine a persistent E. faecium bacteremia that acquired heteroresistance to three antibiotics in response to prolonged multidrug therapy. Comparison of complete genomes before and after each change revealed the emergence of known resistance determinants for vancomycin and linezolid, and suggested that a novel mutation in fabF, encoding a fatty acid synthase, was responsible for daptomycin nonsusceptibility. Plasmid recombination contributed to progressive loss of vancomycin resistance after withdrawal of the drug...
January 16, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339063/evolution-of-intravitreal-therapy-for-retinal-diseases-from-cmv-to-cnv-the-lxxiv-edward-jackson-memorial-lecture
#17
Daniel F Martin
PURPOSE: To present the evolution of intravitreal therapy for retinal diseases and its impact on clinical practice. DESIGN: Retrospective literature review and personal perspective. METHODS: Retrospective literature review and personal perspective. RESULTS: Pharmacotherapeutic advances in retinal disease have been remarkable over the last 25 years. Almost all of the new drugs developed have required intravitreal administration to be highly effective, leading to an exponential increase in the annual number of intravitreal injections given...
January 12, 2018: American Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338445/investigational-inhaled-therapies-for-non-cf-bronchiectasis
#18
Sabina Antonela Antoniu
Bronchiectasis not related to cystic fibrosis (non-CF bronchiectasis) are associated with a high unmet therapeutic need due to the lack of specifically authorized medications, especially via the inhalation route. In non-CF bronchiectasis chronic infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa is common and favored by the persistent local inflammation and viscid sputum production. Therefore inhaled antibiotics, mucolytics or anti-inflammatory agents could represent appropriate therapeutic interventions in this setting Areas covered: This review herein discusses the inhaled therapies currently under investigation for non-CF bronchiectasis and their potential therapeutic positioning in exacerbation versus stable state...
January 17, 2018: Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338140/primary-pyomyositis-in-north-india-a-clinical-microbiological-and-outcome-study
#19
Susheel Kumar, Ashish Bhalla, Rajveer Singh, Navneet Sharma, Aman Sharma, Vikas Gautam, Surjit Singh, Subhash Varma
Background/Aims: Pyomyositis is an infective condition with primary involvement of the skeletal muscles. There is sparse recent literature on patients with pyomyositis. Methods: This study was carried out at emergency services of a tertiary care center located in subtropical area of Indian subcontinent. Results: Sixty-two patients of primary pyomyositis formed the study cohort. Mean age of occurrence was 29.9 ± 14.8 years. There were 54 men...
January 18, 2018: Korean Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337862/therapeutic-management-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-bloodstream-infection-non-susceptible-to-carbapenems-but-susceptible-to-old-cephalosporins-and-or-to-penicillins
#20
Ronit Zaidenstein, Asaf Miller, Ruthy Tal-Jasper, Hadas Ofer-Friedman, Menachem Sklarz, David E Katz, Tsillia Lazarovitch, Paul R Lephart, Bethlehem Mengesha, Oran Tzuman, Mor Dadon, Chen Daniel, Jacob Moran-Gilad, Dror Marchaim
It is unknown as to whether other beta-lactams can be used for bloodstream infections (BSI) resulting from Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) which are non-susceptible to one or more carbapenem. We conducted a retrospective cohort study at the Assaf Harofeh Medical Center (AHMC) from January 2010 to August 2014. Adult patients with PA-BSI non-susceptible to a group 2 carbapenem but susceptible to ceftazidime or piperacillin (with or without tazobactam), were enrolled. We compared the outcomes of patients who received an appropriate beta-lactam antibiotic ("cases") to those who received an appropriate non-beta-lactam antibiotic ("controls")...
January 16, 2018: Microorganisms
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