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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527946/the-microbiome-and-hepatobiliary-pancreatic-cancers
#1
Kosuke Mima, Shigeki Nakagawa, Hiroshi Sawayama, Takatsugu Ishimoto, Katsunori Imai, Masaaki Iwatsuki, Daisuke Hashimoto, Yoshifumi Baba, Yo-Ichi Yamashita, Naoya Yoshida, Akira Chikamoto, Hideo Baba
The human intestinal microbiome encompasses at least 100 trillion microorganisms that can influence host immunity and disease conditions, including cancer. Hepatobiliary and pancreatic cancers have been associated with poor prognosis owing to their high level of tumor invasiveness, distant metastasis, and resistance to conventional treatment options, such as chemotherapy. Accumulating evidence from animal models suggests that specific microbes and microbial dysbiosis can potentiate hepatobiliary-pancreatic tumor development by damaging DNA, activating oncogenic signaling pathways, and producing tumor-promoting metabolites...
May 17, 2017: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527874/pressor-support-during-a-jarisch-herxheimer-reaction-after-initiation-of-treatment-for-weil-s-disease
#2
Randi Connor-Schuler, Anee Khan, Nikhil Goyal, Erin Zimny
We present a case of Weil's disease complicated by a Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction (JHR) after initiation of antibiotics while in the emergency department requiring invasive monitoring and vasopressor support. The case is followed by a brief review of the JHR which is rarely observed with treatment of leptospirosis. A healthy 28-year-old female who recently returned from the Caribbean presented to the emergency department with flu-like symptoms. The patient appeared jaundiced with conjunctival suffusion and was ultimately treated with the appropriate antibiotics for leptospirosis in the ED...
April 27, 2017: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527651/clinical-efficacy-of-cycling-empirical-antibiotic-therapy-for-febrile-neutropenia-in-pediatric-cancer-patients
#3
Hideto Teranishi, Yuhki Koga, Hisanori Nishio, Wakako Kato, Hiroaki Ono, Shunsuke Kanno, Kentaro Nakashima, Hidetoshi Takada
BACKGROUND: Febrile neutropenia (FN) is the main treatment-related cause of mortality among children with cancer, as the prolonged use of broad-spectrum antibiotics can lead to antibiotic resistance in these patients. Antibiotic cycling has been reported to limit the emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria among adult patients. However, no studies have evaluated pediatric patients with FN. METHODS: Between September 2011 and February 2014, 126 pediatric cancer patients were admitted to our center for chemotherapy and/or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and were included in this study...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526202/capnocytophaga-canimorsus-an-underestimated-cause-of-periprosthetic-joint-infection
#4
Marcel Orth, Patrick Orth, Konstantinos Anagnostakos
BACKGROUND: Periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) is a major clinical problem in orthopedic surgery. Capnocytophaga canimorsus (C. canimorsus) is an unusual and hardly detectable bacterium. A review of the literature indicates that C. canimorsus affects mainly immunocompromised patients. It has not been reported to cause periprosthetic joint infections in immunocompetent patients so far. This case report aims to raise awareness of C. canimorsus in orthopedic surgery with special regard to joint arthroplasty...
May 16, 2017: Knee
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525763/principles-of-chemical-biology-from-antibiotic-resistance-to-rna-targeted-therapy-via-autoxidation-and-lipid-droplets
#5
(no author information available yet)
This month: Ribosome mutations and multi-antibiotic resistance, role of autoxidation in ferroptosis, ceramide metabolism, and finding RNA drug targets.
May 18, 2017: Cell Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524741/a-surgical-case-of-mycotic-aneurysm-with-staphylococcus-lugdunensis-endocarditis
#6
Kosuke Mukaihara, Kazuhisa Matsumoto, Jun Kadono, Yutaka Imoto
A 74-year-old man with a history of mitral valve repair was referred to our hospital with fever and diagnosed with mitral valve endocarditis involving occlusion of the superior mesenteric artery. Bacterial cultures showed Staphylococcus lugdunensis. Despite antibiotic therapy, orthopnea ensued due to valve destruction. Emergency mitral valve replacement was performed. Computed tomography on postoperative day 10 revealed a rapidly expanding mycotic aneurysm of the superior mesenteric artery. Aneurysmectomy was undertaken...
May 2017: Asian Cardiovascular & Thoracic Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524341/randomized-controlled-study-of-a-novel-triple-nitazoxanide-ntz-containing-therapeutic-regimen-versus-the-traditional-regimen-for-eradication-of-helicobacter-pylori-infection
#7
Mona Ah Shehata, Raghda Talaat, Samah Soliman, Huda Elmesseri, Shaimaa Soliman, Sherief Abd-Elsalam
BACKGROUND: Helicobacter pylori infection has become more and more resistant to conventional first-line treatment regimens. So, there is a considerable interest in evaluating new antibiotic combinations and regimens. Nitazoxanide is an anti-infective drug with demonstrated activity against protozoa and anaerobic bacteria including H. pylori. This work is designed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a unique triple nitazoxanide-containing regimen as a treatment regimen in Egyptian patients with H...
May 19, 2017: Helicobacter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524000/the-effect-of-a-common-antibiotics-doxycycline-on-non-healing-chronic-wound
#8
Dixon H Xu, Ziwen Zhu, Yujiang Fang
Up to 25% of diabetic patients will develop a diabetic foot ulcer. Chronic wounds such as diabetic foot ulcers often fail to heal with conventional therapies. In recent years, it has been identified that chronic wounds are usually associated with elevated level of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Doxycycline, a cheap tetracycline antibiotic, has been shown to inhibit MMPs both in vitro and in vivo independent of its antimicrobial property. In this review, we provide an overview of the roles of MMPs in the pathogenesis of chronic wounds and explore the potential application of doxycycline as a treatment option in managing chronic wounds such as diabetic foot ulcers...
May 18, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523062/role-of-antimicrobials-in-the-treatment-of-adult-patients-presenting-to-the-emergency-department-with-acute-gastroenteritis-a-mini-review
#9
REVIEW
Omar Abbas Ahmed Malik
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVE: Acute gastroenteritis is generally considered a self-limiting illness that does not require the use of antibiotics. However, many emergency departments in the country frequently prescribe antibiotics to patients presenting with diarrhoea. This review attempts to determine whether this practice is reasonable. Our objective was to determine the role of antimicrobials in the empiric management of acute gastroenteritis. METHODS: The online data base "PubMed", as well as the World Wide Web, were searched for relevant articles (RCTs, Reviews, Prospective studies, etc...
March 2017: Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523044/evaluation-of-the-synergistic-effect-of-a-combination-of-colistin-and-tigecycline-against-multidrug-resistant-acinetobacterbaumannii
#10
Ilkem Acar Kaya, Muberra Devrim Guner, Gulcin Akca, Semra Tuncbilek, Aslihan Alhan, Emin Tekeli
OBJECTIVE: Acinetobacter baumannii species cause nosocomial infections and can subsequently develop multidrug resistance (MDR). The objective of this study was to evaluate the susceptibility of A. baumannii to a novel combination of colistin and tigecycline, which may provide a faster and more efficacious treatment via a synergistic effect. METHODS: We included 50 MDR A. baumannii samples that were isolated in our clinics between 2009 and 2014. We used broth microdilution (BMD) and the E-test to evaluate the effects of colistin and tigecycline, and the E-test to assess the interaction of the colistin-tigecycline combination...
March 2017: Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522904/importance-of-antimicrobial-susceptibility-testing-for-the-management-of-eradication-in-helicobacter-pylori-infection
#11
REVIEW
Nazlı Arslan, Özlem Yılmaz, Ebru Demiray-Gürbüz
The management of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection treatment differs from the common treatment protocol for other infectious diseases. Because culture- or molecular-guided approaches face several practical issues, such as the invasive procedures required to obtain gastric biopsy specimens and the lack of availability of routine laboratory testing in some places, H. pylori treatment includes the administration of two or three empirically selected antibiotics combined with a proton pump inhibitor rather than evidence-based eradication treatment...
April 28, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522783/splenic-abcesses-as-infectious-complication-following-127-implantation-of-left-ventricular-asssist-device-case-report
#12
Sławomir Gajda, Anna M Szczepanik, Grzegorz Religa, Andrzej Misiak, Andrzej B Szczepanik
Left ventricular assist device (LVAD) is one of the modern management therapies in patients with advanced heart failure, and it serves as a bridge to heart transplantation or even as destination therapy. However, it is burdened with a high risk of thromboembolic, hemorrhagic, and infectious complications despite prophylactic management. Splenic abscesses, as septic complications following implantation of mechanical ventricular support, have not yet been described in the literature. We report of a patient with severe left ventricular insufficiency (NYHA II/III), pulmonary hypertension, and arrhythmia who underwent implantation of the Heart Ware® pump for left ventricular support with simultaneous tricuspidvalvoplasty, as a bridge therapy to heart transplantation...
February 28, 2017: Polski Przeglad Chirurgiczny
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521004/guidelines-for-the-prevention-and-treatment-of-travelers-diarrhea-a-graded-expert-panel-report
#13
Mark S Riddle, Bradley A Connor, Nicholas J Beeching, Herbert L DuPont, Davidson H Hamer, Phyllis Kozarsky, Michael Libman, Robert Steffen, David Taylor, David R Tribble, Jordi Vila, Philipp Zanger, Charles D Ericsson
Background: : Travelers' diarrhea causes significant morbidity including some sequelae, lost travel time and opportunity cost to both travelers and countries receiving travelers. Effective prevention and treatment are needed to reduce these negative impacts. Methods: : This critical appraisal of the literature and expert consensus guideline development effort asked several key questions related to antibiotic and non-antibiotic prophylaxis and treatment, utility of available diagnostics, impact of multi-drug resistant (MDR) colonization associated with travel and travelers' diarrhea, and how our understanding of the gastrointestinal microbiome should influence current practice and future research...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Travel Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520997/resistant-pathogens-as-causes-of-traveller-s-diarrhea-globally-and-impact-s-on-treatment-failure-and-recommendations
#14
David R Tribble
Background: : Diarrhea is a frequent clinical syndrome affecting international travellers. Bacterial etiologic agents have a long history of emergent antimicrobial resistance against commonly used antibiotics. Current approaches applying first-line antimicrobial therapy are being challenged by increasingly resistant organisms. This review summarizes recent epidemiological and clinical evidence of antibiotic resistance among enteropathogens causing traveller's diarrhea and the subsequent impact on current treatment recommendations...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Travel Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518131/incidence-of-respiratory-viral-infection-in-infants-with-respiratory-symptoms-evaluated-for-late-onset-sepsis
#15
J B Cerone, R P Santos, D Tristram, D M Lamson, K A Stellrecht, K St George, M J Horgan, A Rios
OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency, etiology and impact of respiratory viral infection (RVI) on infants evaluated for late-onset sepsis (LOS), defined as sepsis occurring >72 h of life, in the neonatal intensive care unit. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective observational study conducted from 6 March 2014 to 3 May 2016 on infants evaluated for LOS. PCR viral panel performed on nasopharyngeal specimens among infants with clinical suspicion for RVI. Sequence analysis was performed to determine viral subtypes...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518072/in-vivo-investigation-of-antimicrobial-blue-light-therapy-for-multidrug-resistant-acinetobacter-baumannii-burn-infections-using-bioluminescence-imaging
#16
Yucheng Wang, Olivia D Harrington, Ying Wang, Clinton K Murray, Michael R Hamblin, Tianhong Dai
Burn infections continue to be an important cause of morbidity and mortality. The increasing emergence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria has led to the frequent failure of traditional antibiotic treatments. Alternative therapeutics are urgently needed to tackle MDR bacteria. An innovative non-antibiotic approach, antimicrobial blue light (aBL), has shown promising effectiveness against MDR infections. The mechanism of action of aBL is not yet well understood. It is commonly hypothesized that naturally occurring endogenous photosensitizing chromophores in bacteria (e...
April 28, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28517024/treatment-of-severe-alcoholic-hepatitis-past-present-and-future
#17
REVIEW
Nicolas Lanthier, Peter Stärkel
Alcoholic hepatitis manifests as a clinical syndrome characterized by recent jaundice and liver function deterioration in an actively drinking patient. The principal cause of alcoholic hepatitis is alcoholic steatohepatitis defined histologically by the coexistence of steatosis, hepatocyte ballooning and satellitosis. While non-severe alcoholic hepatitis usually responds to alcohol abstinence, severe alcoholic hepatitis, identified by Maddrey scoring ≥ 32, has a bad prognosis and is traditionally treated by a 28-day course of prednisone therapy...
May 18, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516981/botulinum-toxin-therapy-functional-silencing-of-salivary-disorders
#18
A Lovato, D A Restivo, G Ottaviano, G Marioni, R Marchese-Ragona
Botulinum toxin (BTX) is a neurotoxic protein produced by Clostridium botulinum, an anaerobic bacterium. BTX therapy is a safe and effective treatment when used for functional silencing of the salivary glands in disorders such as sialoceles and salivary fistulae that may have a post-traumatic or post-operative origin. BTX injections can be considered in sialoceles and salivary fistulae after the failure of or together with conservative treatments (e.g. antibiotics, pressure dressings, or serial aspirations)...
April 2017: Acta Otorhinolaryngologica Italica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516770/conjugated-polymers-act-synergistically-with-antibiotics-to-combat-bacterial-drug-resistance
#19
Jingxiao Tian, Jiangyan Zhang, Jiangtao Yang, Lingyun Du, Hao Geng, Yongqiang Cheng
The emergence of drug-resistance bacteria severely challenges the antimicrobial agents and antibacterial strategy. Here we demonstrate a novel, simple and highly efficient combination therapy strategy by direct combinations of cationic conjugated polymers (CCPs) with polypeptide antibiotics against gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria based on a synergistic antibacterial effect. The combination therapy method enhances the antibacterial efficacy with significantly reduced antibiotic dosage. Also the highly efficient and synergistically killing of drug-resistant bacteria is realized...
May 18, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516730/control-of-pseudomonas-mastitis-on-a-large-dairy-farm-by-using-slightly-acidic-electrolyzed-water
#20
Kazuhiro Kawai, Yasunori Shinozuka, Ikuo Uchida, Kazuhiko Hirose, Takashi Mitamura, Aiko Watanabe, Kana Kuruhara, Reiko Yuasa, Reiichiro Sato, Ken Onda, Hajime Nagahata
The disinfection effect of slightly acidic electrolyzed water (SAEW) use in a farm where Pseudomonas mastitis has spread was evaluated. Despite the application of antibiotic therapy and complete cessation of milking infected quarters, numerous new and recurrent Pseudomonas aeruginosa clinical mastitis infections (5.8-7.1% of clinical mastitis cases) occurred on the farm from 2003 to 2005. Procedural changes and equipment modifications did not improve environmental contamination or the incidence of Pseudomonas mastitis...
May 18, 2017: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
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