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dairy cow mastitis

Marie-Eve Cousin, Maria Christina Härdi-Landerer, Verena Völk, Michèle Bodmer
BACKGROUND: Contagious mastitis is an important disease in dairy cattle, and the causative agent S. aureus can also impair raw milk cheese quality. In a confined region in eastern Switzerland attitude, knowledge and behaviour towards S. aureus und S. aureus control was assessed in 90 dairy farmers with communal alpine pasturing including raw milk cheese production with the aid of a questionnaire. RESULTS: Forty-three out of 90 questionnaires were returned (48% return rate)...
February 13, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
Troels Ronco, Ilka C Klaas, Marc Stegger, Line Svennesen, Lærke B Astrup, Michael Farre, Karl Pedersen
Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most common pathogens that cause mastitis in dairy cows. Various subtypes, virulence genes and mobile genetic elements have been associated with isolates from bulk tank milk and clinical mastitis. So far, no Danish cattle associated S. aureus isolates have been whole-genome sequenced and further analyzed. Thus, the main objective was to investigate the population structure and genomic content of isolates from bulk tank milk and clinical mastitis, using whole-genome sequencing...
February 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
Abd Al-Bar Al-Farha, Kiro Petrovski, Razi Jozani, Andrew Hoare, Farhid Hemmatzadeh
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to provide a rapid, accurate and cost-effective diagnostic real time polymerase chain reaction-high resolution melting curve assay (PCR-HRM) to identify and distinguish between four different mycoplasmas and Acholeplasma laidlawii isolated at cow-level from a single commercial dairy farm in South Australia. One set of genus-level universal primers was designed targeting the 16S ribosomal RNA gene. RESULTS: Real time PCR-HRM analysis was able to identify and distinguish between five different mollicutes, namely A...
February 7, 2018: BMC Research Notes
Şeyda Özkan Gülzari, Bouda Vosough Ahmadi, Alistair W Stott
Impaired animal health causes both productivity and profitability losses on dairy farms, resulting in inefficient use of inputs and increase in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions produced per unit of product (i.e. emissions intensity). Here, we used subclinical mastitis as an exemplar to benchmark alternative scenarios against an economic optimum and adjusted herd structure to estimate the GHG emissions intensity associated with varying levels of disease. Five levels of somatic cell count (SCC) classes were considered namely 50,000 (i...
February 1, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
J C Hadrich, C A Wolf, J Lombard, T M Dolak
Milk loss due to increased somatic cell counts (SCC) results in economic losses for dairy producers. This research uses 10 mo of consecutive dairy herd improvement data from 2013 and 2014 to estimate milk yield loss using SCC as a proxy for clinical and subclinical mastitis. A fixed effects regression was used to examine factors that affected milk yield while controlling for herd-level management. Breed, milking frequency, days in milk, seasonality, SCC, cumulative months with SCC greater than 100,000 cells/mL, lactation, and herd size were variables included in the regression analysis...
February 2, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
M Stevens, S Piepers, K Supré, S De Vliegher
The main objectives of this study were to quantify the consumption of antimicrobials on a convenience sample of dairy herds and to determine the association between herd-level antimicrobial consumption and inhibition zone diameters (IZD) of non-aureus staphylococci and Staphylococcus aureus isolates from subclinical mastitis cases. Also, the association between the IZD of non-aureus staphylococci and Staph. aureus isolates within a herd was studied. Antimicrobial consumption data on 56 Flemish dairy farms were obtained between 2013 and 2014 by so-called garbage can audits and expressed as antimicrobial treatment incidence (ATI), with the unit of ATI being the number of defined daily doses animal (DDDA) used per 1,000 cow-days...
February 2, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Felix J S van Soest, Elke Abbeloos, Scott McDougall, Henk Hogeveen
Recently, it has been shown that the addition of meloxicam to standard antimicrobial therapy for clinical mastitis (CM) improves the conception rate of dairy cows contracting CM in the first 120 d in milk. The objective of our study was to assess whether this improved reproduction through additional treatment with meloxicam would result in a positive net economic benefit for the farmer. We developed a stochastic bio-economic simulation model, in which a dairy cow with CM in the first 120 d in milk was simulated...
February 2, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Lorraine M Sordillo
Inflammation is a critical aspect of the innate immune system that can determine the outcome of several economically important diseases of dairy cattle such as mastitis. The purpose of the inflammatory response is to eliminate the source of tissue injury and then return tissues to normal function. Aggressive or uncontrolled inflammatory responses, however, can damage host tissues and contribute significantly to the pathophysiology associated with mastitis. A precarious balance between pro-inflammatory and pro-resolving mechanisms is needed to ensure optimal pathogen clearance and a prompt return to immune homeostasis...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Lumin Yu, Wenchang Li, Ming Zhang, Yunmei Cui, Xiaolin Chen, Jingtian Ni, Li Yu, Fei Shang, Ting Xue
Extended-spectrum β-lactamase-positive Escherichia coli is an important causative agent of mastitis in dairy cows that results in reduced milk production and quality, and is responsible for severe economic losses in the dairy industry worldwide. The quorum sensing signaling molecule autoinducer 2 (AI-2) is produced by many species of gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria, and might be a universal language for intraspecies and interspecies communication. Our previous work confirmed that exogenous AI-2 increases the antibiotic resistance of extended-spectrum β-lactamase-positive E...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Ehsan Mahjoubi, Davood Zahmatkesh, Mehdi Hossein-Yazdi, Mohammad Hadi Khabbazan, Mohammad Reza Samadian
Prepartum milk leakage happens in some pregnant dairy cows close to calving. It has been hypothesized that low blood Ca is a cause of this event. To investigate the possible reason(s) of milk leakage, 137 multiparous pregnant Holstein cows were enrolled in the experiment and categorized by the presence (72 heads; leak group) or lack (65 heads; control group) of milk leakage before calving. The concentrations of Ca and P and the length of the teat were measured for all cows. Data showed that Ca concentration was not different between cows in the leak group (7...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
S Ali Naqvi, Jeroen De Buck, Simon Dufour, Herman W Barkema
Mastitis is the most prevalent and costly disease in dairy cattle worldwide, with implications for animal health and welfare as well as production and economics. Nonlactating heifers are an often-neglected group of animals concerning mastitis management, as they are assumed to be free of mastitis. An observational field study was conducted between 2007 and 2008 on 91 dairy herds across Canada, representative of provincial averages of bulk milk somatic cell count (BMSCC) and barn type. The aims of that study were to (1) estimate in early-lactating heifers overall and pathogen-specific incidence rate of clinical mastitis (IRCM), prevalence of intramammary infection (IMI), and prevalence of subclinical mastitis (SCM; defined as SCC ≥200,000 cells/mL); (2) compare these udder health parameters between heifers and multiparous cows; and (3) determine regional patterns and variations in these udder health parameters across BMSCC categories...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Shiyao Zhang, Sofie Piepers, Ruixue Shan, Lingjie Cai, Shuanglan Mao, Jiaqi Zou, Tariq Ali, Sarne De Vliegher, Bo Han
Bovine mastitis is among the most prevalent and costly diseases of dairy animals and is caused by a variety of bacterial pathogens including Streptococcus dysgalactiae. However, comprehensive studies reporting the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance profiles of S. dysgalactiae isolated from bovine mastitis are scarce. Therefore, this study was to investigate the occurrence of S. dysgalactiae associated with bovine clinical mastitis, to assess their antimicrobial resistance profiles, and to analyze the phenotypic and genotypic profiling of resistant isolates...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Reta Duguma Abdi, Barbara Erin Gillespie, Jacqueline Vaughn, Caitlin Merrill, Susan Ivory Headrick, Desta Beyene Ensermu, Doris Helen D'Souza, Getahun Ejeta Agga, Raul Antonio Almeida, Stephen Paul Oliver, Oudessa Kerro Dego
Staphylococcus aureus is a frequent and major contagious mastitis bacterial pathogen. The antibiotic treatment cure rates vary considerably from 4% to 92%. Staphylococcus aureus readily becomes resistant to antibiotics, resulting in persistent noncurable intramammary infection that usually results in culling of infected animals. Because of its notorious ability to acquire resistance to the commonly used as well as last resort antimicrobials such as methicillin and vancomycin and the development of multidrug-resistant strains, antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in S...
February 2, 2018: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
Angela Filipa Damaso, Martina Velasova, Steven Van Winden, Yu-Mei Chang, Javier Guitian
This study describes the occurrence of preterm calving in Great Britain and evaluates its associations with subsequent milk production and reproductive performances and survival on farm of dairy cows. A total of 53 British dairy farms and 5759 animals with detailed breeding and milk recording data available were used to form two study groups: preterm calving (calving occurring between days 266 and 277 of gestation) and full-term calving (calving occurring at 278 days of gestation and over). Mixed effects models were implemented to compare milk production, clinical cases of mastitis and number of services per conception between groups...
2018: Veterinary Record Open
Diana Keller, Albert Sundrum
Based on the widespread use of homeopathy in dairy farm practice when treating mastitis, a blind randomised controlled trial (RCT) was conducted to assess the effectiveness of homeopathic treatment of clinical mastitis on four dairy farms. The study considered specific guidelines for RCTs as well as the basic principles of individualised homeopathy and involved 180 lactating dairy cows. Evaluation of cure rates was based on clinical investigation of the udder and on laboratory analysis of milk samples. In culture-positive cases, the antibiotic treatment provided suboptimal bacteriological cures (60-81 per cent) but was more effective than individualised homeopathy (33-43 per cent) whose effects appeared little different to those of placebos (45-47 per cent) (P≤0...
January 26, 2018: Veterinary Record
Amira Klibi, Ahlem Jouini, Paula Gómez, Khouloud Slimene, Sara Ceballos, Carmen Torres, Abderrazek Maaroufi
The aim of this study was to determine the genetic lineages, and the frequency of antibiotic resistance and virulence determinants in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) isolates recovered from milk of cows with clinical mastitis. Three hundred milk samples from bovine with clinical mastitis were obtained from 30 dairy farms in different regions of Tunisia. Fifteen of the 300 tested samples contained S. aureus (5%), in three cases were MRSA. Isolates (one/sample) were typed (S...
January 26, 2018: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
M Lasagno, M Ortiz, C Vissio, R Yaciuk, C Bonetto, M Pellegrino, C Bogni, L Odierno, C Raspanti
Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) are the most frequently isolated bacteria in cases of subclinical mastitis in dairy cows. CNS species may differ in their pathogenicity, but very little is known about their virulence factors or their immune response in intramammary infections. To our knowledge, no experimental studies into the mastitis pathogenesis caused by CNS have been described in lactating goats. The aim of this study was to induce an experimentally Staphylococcus chromogenes mastitis in lactating goats aimed at verifying if the model can be used to evaluate the inflammatory response, the dynamics of infection and the pathological findings within the first hours of intramammary inoculation...
January 19, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Artur Burmańczuk, Piotr Hola, Andrzej Milczak, Tomasz Piech, Cezary Kowalski, Beata Wojciechowska, Tomasz Grabowski
Quercetin is a dietary flavonoid which has an effect on inflammation, angiogenesis and vascular inflammation. In several other flavonoids (e.g. kaempferol, astragalin, alpinetin, baicalein, indirubin), anti-inflammatory mechanism was proven by using mice mastitis model. The aim of the current study was pilot analysis of quercetin tolerability and its impact on somatic cells count (SCC) after multiple intramammary treatment on dairy cows with clinical mastitis. Based on SCC and clinical investigation, 9 dairy cows with clinical mastitis of one quarter were selected for the pilot study...
January 9, 2018: Research in Veterinary Science
C A Bauman, H W Barkema, J Dubuc, G P Keefe, D F Kelton
The objective of this study was to estimate Canadian national milk quality parameters and estimate the bulk tank milk (BTM) prevalence of 4 mastitis pathogens, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, Mycoplasma bovis, and Prototheca spp., on Canadian dairy farms. A questionnaire was sent to all Canadian dairy producers. Of the 1,062 producers who completed the questionnaire, 374 producers from across the country were visited and milking hygiene was assessed. Farm-level milk quality data for all Canadian dairy producers was collected from the provincial marketing boards and combined with the questionnaire and farm visit data...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Håvard Nørstebø, Amira Rachah, Gunnar Dalen, Odd Rønningen, Anne Cathrine Whist, Olav Reksen
BACKGROUND: Having a poor teat-end condition is associated with increased mastitis risk, hence avoiding milking machine settings that have a negative effect on teat-end condition is important for successful dairy production. Milking-time testing (MTT) can be used in the evaluation of vacuum conditions during milking, but the method is less suited for herds using automatic milking systems (AMS) and relationships with teat end condition is poorly described. This study aimed to increase knowledge on interpretation of MTT in AMS and to assess whether milk-flow data obtained routinely by an AMS can be useful for the management of teat-end health...
January 11, 2018: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
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