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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342609/randomized-blinded-controlled-clinical-trial-shows-no-benefit-of-homeopathic-mastitis-treatment-in-dairy-cows
#1
Fanny Ebert, Rudolf Staufenbiel, Julia Simons, Laura Pieper
Mastitis is one of the most common diseases in dairy production, and homeopathic remedies have been used increasingly in recent years to treat it. Clinical trials evaluating homeopathy have often been criticized for their inadequate scientific approach. The objective of this triple-blind, randomized controlled trial was to assess the efficacy of homeopathic treatment in bovine clinical mastitis. The study was conducted on a conventionally managed dairy farm between June 2013 and May 2014. Dairy cows with acute mastitis were randomly allocated to homeopathy (n = 70) or placebo (n = 92), for a total of 162 animals...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342601/ultra-performance-liquid-chromatography-quadrupole-time-of-flight-mass-spectrometry-ms-e-based-untargeted-milk-metabolomics-in-dairy-cows-with-subclinical-or-clinical-mastitis
#2
Xiaomin Xi, Lai-Yu Kwok, Yuenan Wang, Chen Ma, Zhihui Mi, Heping Zhang
In this study, a novel metabolomics technique based on ultra-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry in the MS(E) mode was used to investigate the milk metabolomics of healthy, subclinical, and clinical mastitis cows, which were classified based on somatic cell count and presentation of clinical symptoms. Meanwhile, univariate and multivariate statistical analyses were performed to identify the significant differences across the 3 groups. Compared with healthy milk samples, less glucose, d-glycerol-1-phosphate, 4-hydroxyphenyllactate, l-carnitine, sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, citrate, and hippurate were detected in the clinical mastitic milk samples, whereas less d-glycerol-1-phosphate, benzoic acid, l-carnitine, and cis-aconitate were found in the subclinical mastitic milk samples...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321788/characteristics-of-aerococcus-viridans-isolated-from-bovine-subclinical-mastitis-and-its-effect-on-milk-scc-yield-and-composition
#3
Meng Sun, Jian Gao, Tariq Ali, Dan Yu, Shiyao Zhang, Saeed U Khan, Séamus Fanning, Bo Han
Aerococcus viridians (A. viridans), an environmental Gram-positive bacterium, has been documented to be associated with bovine mastitis. However, its exact role in bovine mastitis and the changes it brings about in milk characteristics are not yet known. The objectives of the current study were to describe the antibiotic resistance of A. viridans from bovine mastitis as well as the correlation between existence of this pathogen in udders and the somatic cell counts (SCC), daily milk yield, and composition of individual cow...
March 20, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318584/short-communication-early-modification-of-the-circadian-organization-of-cow-activity-in-relation-to-disease-or-estrus
#4
Isabelle Veissier, Marie-Madeleine Mialon, Karen Helle Sloth
Biological rhythms are an essential regulator of life. There is evidence that circadian rhythm of activity is disrupted under chronic stress in animals and humans, and it may also be less marked during diseases. Here we investigated whether a detectable circadian rhythm of activity exists in dairy cows in commercial settings using a real-time positioning system. We used CowView (GEA Farm Technologies) to regularly record the individual positions of 350 cows in a Danish dairy farm over 5 mo and to infer the cows' activity (resting, feeding, in alley)...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318580/the-canadian-national-dairy-study-2015-adoption-of-milking-practices-in-canadian-dairy-herds
#5
E Belage, S Dufour, C Bauman, A Jones-Bitton, D F Kelton
Several studies have investigated which management practices have the greatest effect on udder health, but little information is available on how broadly the recommended milking practices are adopted across Canada. The National Dairy Study 2015 was designed to gather dairy cattle health and management data on dairy farms across Canada. The objectives of the present study were to describe the current proportions of adoption of milking practices on Canadian dairy farms, and identify factors associated with their use on farms...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299517/characterization-and-complete-genome-sequence-analysis-of-a-novel-virulent-siphoviridae-phage-against-staphylococcus-aureus-isolated-from-bovine-mastitis-in-xinjiang-china
#6
Qian Zhang, Shaozhen Xing, Qiang Sun, Guangqian Pei, Shi Cheng, Yannan Liu, Xiaoping An, Xianglilan Zhang, Yonggang Qu, Yigang Tong
Bovine mastitis is one of the most costly diseases in dairy cows worldwide. It can be caused by over 150 different microorganisms, where Staphylococcus aureus is the most frequently isolated and a major pathogen responsible for heavy economic losses in dairy industry. Although antibiotic therapy is most widely used, alternative treatments are necessary due to the increasing antibiotic resistance. Using phage for pathogen control is a promising tool in the fight against antibiotic resistance. Mainly using high-throughput sequencing, bioinformatics and our proposed phage termini identification method, we have isolated and characterized a novel virulent phage, designated as vB_SauS_IMEP5, from manure collected from dairy farms in Shihezi, Xinjiang, China, for use as a biocontrol agent against Staphylococcus aureus infections...
March 15, 2017: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277182/pharmacokinetic-analysis-of-thymol-carvacrol-and-diallyl-disulfide-after-intramammary-and-topical-applications-in-healthy-organic-dairy-cattle
#7
Sharon E Mason, Keena A E Mullen, Kevin L Anderson, Steven P Washburn, James L Yeatts, Ronald E Baynes
Mastitis is among the most costly concerns for dairy producers whether cattle are managed conventionally or organically. Unfortunately, there are no USFDA-approved mastitis treatments that allow dairy cows in the United States to maintain organic dairy status. We investigated the plasma pharmacokinetics of three organic mastitis products currently used by organic producers and organic dairy veterinarians. Those products include intramammary, topical and intravaginal preparations, each dosed at two levels. Additionally, tissue data were collected for kidney, liver and fat in order to estimate a withholding time for each of the products...
February 14, 2017: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259396/adoption-and-consistency-of-application-of-premilking-preparation-in-ontario-dairy-herds
#8
E Belage, S Dufour, D A Shock, A Jones-Bitton, D F Kelton
Milking management practices that affect udder health have been widely studied, leading to a variety of evidence-based recommendations. Lack of adoption or inconsistency in milking practices can interfere with efforts to prevent mastitis in the herd. The study objective was to assess the variation in adoption and application consistency of important milk harvest practices between and within farms over time. During the summer of 2013, 50 herds in southern Ontario were visited twice within a month, at milking time, and a single person observed and time-recorded premilking preparation procedures...
March 2, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256391/molecular-epidemiology-of-streptococcus-agalactiae-isolated-from-mastitis-in-brazilian-dairy-herds
#9
Glei A Carvalho-Castro, Juliana R Silva, Luciano V Paiva, Dircéia A C Custódio, Rafael O Moreira, Glaucia F Mian, Ingrid A Prado, Antônio Chalfun-Junior, Geraldo M Costa
Streptococcus agalactiae is one of the most common pathogens leading to mastitis in dairy herds worldwide; consequently, the pathogen causes major economic losses for affected farmers. In this study, multilocus sequence typing (MLST), genotypic capsular typing by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and virulence gene detection were performed to address the molecular epidemiology of 59 bovine (mastitis) S. agalactiae isolates from 36 dairy farms located in the largest milk-producing mesoregions in Brazil (Minas Gerais, São Paulo, Paraná, and Pernambuco)...
February 16, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Microbiology: [publication of the Brazilian Society for Microbiology]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28252361/association-of-map4k4-gene-single-nucleotide-polymorphism-with-mastitis-and-milk-traits-in-chinese-holstein-cattle
#10
Dinesh Bhattarai, Xing Chen, Zia Ur Rehman, Xingjie Hao, Farman Ullah, Rahim Dad, Hira Sajjad Talpur, Ishwari Kadariya, Lu Cui, Mingxia Fan, Shujun Zhang
The objective of the studies presented in this Research Communication was to investigate the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms present in the MAP4K4 gene with different milk traits in dairy cows. Based on previous QTL fine mapping results on bovine chromosome 11, the MAP4K4 gene was selected as a candidate gene to evaluate its effect on somatic cell count and milk traits in ChineseHolstein cows. Milk production traits including milk yield, fat percentage, and protein percentage of each cow were collected using 305 d lactation records...
February 2017: Journal of Dairy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28246573/milk-hygiene-in-rural-southwestern-uganda-prevalence-of-mastitis-and-antimicrobial-resistance-profiles-of-bacterial-contaminants-of-milk-and-milk-products
#11
Paul Ssajjakambwe, Gloria Bahizi, Christopher Setumba, Stevens M B Kisaka, Patrick Vudriko, Collins Atuheire, John David Kabasa, John B Kaneene
Mastitis and antimicrobial resistance are a big challenge to the dairy industry in sub-Saharan Africa. A study was conducted in Kashongi and Keshunga subcounties of Kiruhura District (in Uganda) where the government and private sector have deliberate programs to improve production efficiency, quality, and safety of milk and its products. The study aimed to determine the prevalence of mastitis, its common causative agents, antimicrobial sensitivity of mastitis causing organisms, and contaminants of processed milk products: yoghurt and ghee...
2017: Veterinary Medicine International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237594/efficacy-of-a-high-free-iodine-barrier-teat-disinfectant-for-the-prevention-of-naturally-occurring-new-intramammary-infections-and-clinical-mastitis-in-dairy-cows
#12
C M M R Martins, E S C Pinheiro, M Gentilini, M Lopez Benavides, M V Santos
Using a natural exposure trial design, the goal of our study was to evaluate the clinical efficacy of an iodine teat disinfectant with barrier properties and a high level of free iodine relative to a conventional iodine teat disinfectant with no barrier properties and low levels of free iodine. During the 18 wk of the trial, quarter milk samples were collected every 2 wk from 385 dairy cows from 2 herds. Cows on both farms were assigned in a balanced way according to milk yield, number of lactation, days in milk, somatic cell count (SCC) and microbiology culture pretrial into one of following groups: nonbarrier post milking teat disinfectant (NBAR; n = 195 cows; 747 quarters) or barrier postmilking teat disinfectant (BAR; n = 190 cows; 728 quarters)...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237588/evaluating-a-commercial-pcr-assay-against-bacterial-culture-for-diagnosing-streptococcus-uberis-and-staphylococcus-aureus-throughout-lactation
#13
N M Steele, J H Williamson, R Thresher, R A Laven, J E Hillerton
The performance of a commercial, real-time PCR assay was compared with traditional bacterial culture for the identification of Streptococcus uberis and Staphylococcus aureus in bovine milk collected at different stages of lactation. Initial validation tests using fresh and frozen quarter milk samples identified factors that affected the success of the PCR. Therefore, the standard protocol was adjusted for samples collected at the first milking postpartum (colostrum) and from clinical mastitis cases. The adjustment involved PCR testing both undiluted and diluted (1 in 10 with sterile water) DNA extracts...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237241/stochastic-bio-economic-modeling-of-mastitis-in-ethiopian-dairy-farms
#14
Abraham Mekibeb Getaneh, Sefinew Alemu Mekonnen, Henk Hogeveen
Mastitis is an inflammation of the mammary gland that is considered to be one of the most frequent and costly diseases in the dairy industry. Also in Ethiopia, bovine mastitis is one of the most frequently encountered diseases of dairy cows. However, there was no study, so far, regarding the costs of clinical mastitis and only two studies were reported on costs of subclinical mastitis. Presenting an appropriate and complete study of the costs of mastitis will help farmers in making management decisions for mastitis control...
March 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229929/intramammary-1-25-dihydroxyvitamin-d3-treatment-increases-expression-of-host-defense-genes-in-mammary-immune-cells-of-lactating-dairy-cattle
#15
Kathryn E Merriman, Michael B Poindexter, Mercedes F Kweh, Jose E P Santos, Corwin D Nelson
Bacterial infection of the mammary gland activates an intracrine vitamin D pathway in macrophages of dairy cows. The active hormone of the vitamin D pathway, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25D), stimulates nitric oxide and β-defensin responses in bovine monocyte cultures, but the effect of 1,25D on innate immune genes in the mammary gland remained unknown. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the effects intramammary 1,25D treatment on expression of vitamin D associated host-defenses of the bovine mammary gland...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222802/counts-of-bovine-monocyte-subsets-prior-to-calving-are-predictive-for-postpartum-occurrence-of-mastitis-and-metritis
#16
Brianna Pomeroy, Anja Sipka, Jamal Hussen, Melanie Eger, Ynte Schukken, Hans-Joachim Schuberth
The heightened susceptibility to infectious diseases in postpartum dairy cows is often attributed to immune dysfunction associated with the transition period. However, the cell populations involved in this immune dysfunction and the dynamics between those populations are not well defined. Monocytes play a crucial role in governing initial immune response in bacterial infections. Bovine monocytes are subdivided in classical (CD14(+)/CD16(-)), intermediate (CD14(+)/CD16(+)) and non-classical monocytes (CD14(-)/CD16(+)) with distinct phenotypic and functional differences...
February 21, 2017: Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219684/development-of-magnetic-nanoparticle-based-calorimetric-assay-for-the-detection-of-bovine-mastitis-in-cow-milk
#17
Raja Chinnappan, Sana Al Attas, Wendy E Kaman, Floris J Bikker, Mohammed Zourob
Mastitis in dairy cattle is an inflammatory reaction of the udder tissue. Mastitis increases plasmin levels, leading to an increased proteolysis of milk proteins such as casein, resulting in a significant decrease in milk quality and related dairy products. Due to its key-role in mastitis, we used plasmin proteolytic activity as a biomarker for the detection of mastitis in bovine mastitic milk. Inspired by earlier studies on protease activity using mastitic milk samples, we developed a simple colorimetric assay to distinguish mastitic milk from milk derived from healthy animals...
February 17, 2017: Analytical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196553/association-between-body-energy-content-in-the-dry-period-and-post-calving-production-disease-status-in-dairy-cattle
#18
G L Smith, N C Friggens, C J Ashworth, M G G Chagunda
The transition from gestation to lactation is marked by significant physiological changes for the individual cow such that disease incidence is highest in early lactation. Around the time of calving, cows rely on mobilisation of body energy reserves to fill the energy deficit created by an increase in nutrient demands at a time of restricted feed intake. It is well established that monitoring of body energy reserves in lactation is an important component of herd health management. However, despite their influence on future health and productivity, monitoring of body energy reserves in the dry period is often sparse...
February 15, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188901/trueperella-pyogenes-isolated-from-dairy-cows-with-endometritis-in-inner-mongolia-china-tetracycline-susceptibility-and-tetracycline-resistance-gene-distribution
#19
Dexian Zhang, Jingcui Zhao, Qiuxia Wang, Yaochuan Liu, Chunlian Tian, Yujun Zhao, Lihui Yu, Mingchun Liu
Trueperella pyogenes plays a crucial role in endometritis pathogenesis and is also associated with many infections, including metritis, mastitis, arthritis and liver abscessation, in many domestic animals. In this study, we investigated the prevalence of tetracycline resistance in T. pyogenes isolated from dairy cows with endometritis in Inner Mongolia, China, and we assessed tetracycline-resistance gene distribution among the isolates. Our results indicated that 68.7% and 62.5% of the isolates were resistant to tetracycline and doxycycline, respectively, and the rate of resistance to metacycline was 18...
February 8, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185209/meta-analysis-of-the-prevalence-of-mastitis-and-associated-risk-factors-in-dairy-cattle-in-ethiopia
#20
Abraham Mekibeb Getaneh, Endrias Zewdu Gebremedhin
Mastitis is among the most prevalent disease that contributes for the reduction of milk production in dairy herds. Although several published studies have estimated the prevalence of mastitis, variation among studies is great. The objective of the present meta-analysis was to provide a pooled estimate of the prevalence of overall, clinical, and subclinical mastitis in dairy cattle in Ethiopia. A pooled estimate was also conducted by potential risk factors. The literature search was restricted to studies published in English language from January 2002 to June 2016...
February 9, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
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