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dairy cow mastitis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635647/virulence-genes-of-s-aureus-from-dairy-cow-mastitis-and-contagiousness-risk
#1
Giada Magro, Stefano Biffani, Giulietta Minozzi, Ralf Ehricht, Stefan Monecke, Mario Luini, Renata Piccinini
Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is a major agent of dairy cow intramammary infections: the different prevalences of mastitis reported might be related to a combination of S. aureus virulence factors beyond host factors. The present study considered 169 isolates from different Italian dairy herds that were classified into four groups based on the prevalence of S. aureus infection at the first testing: low prevalence (LP), medium-low (MLP), medium-high (MHP) and high (HP). We aimed to correlate the presence of virulence genes with the prevalence of intramammary infections in order to develop new strategies for the control of S...
June 21, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626609/detection-and-drug-resistance-profile-of-escherichia-coli-from-subclinical-mastitis-cows-and-water-supply-in-dairy-farms-in-saraburi-province-thailand
#2
Woranich Hinthong, Natapol Pumipuntu, Sirijan Santajit, Suphang Kulpeanprasit, Shutipen Buranasinsup, Nitat Sookrung, Wanpen Chaicumpa, Pisinee Aiumurai, Nitaya Indrawattana
Subclinical mastitis is a persistent problem in dairy farms worldwide. Environmental Escherichia coli is the bacterium predominantly responsible for this condition. In Thailand, subclinical mastitis in dairy cows is usually treated with various antibiotics, which could lead to antibiotic resistance in bacteria. E. coli is also a reservoir of many antibiotic resistance genes, which can be conveyed to other bacteria. In this study, the presence of E. coli in milk and water samples was reported, among which enteropathogenic E...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625182/bovine-intra-mammary-challenge-with-streptococcus-dysgalactiae-spp-dysgalactiae-to-explore-the-effect-on-the-response-of-complement-activity
#3
Susan Maye, James Flynn, Catherine Stanton, Gerald F Fitzgerald, Philip M Kelly
Recently published work as described by the authors highlighted the extent of Complement activity in bovine milk. Localised mastitis infection occurring in the mammary glands of dairy cows is readily detectable by the levels of somatic cells in milk. Thus, it is opportune to monitor Complement activity in milks in association with the animal's innate immune response to mammary infection. Preliminary screening of milk samples taken randomly showed that milk with a high somatic cell count (SCC) reduced growth of the Complement-sensitive strain E...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Dairy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624278/estimation-of-prevalence-and-incidence-of-subclinical-mastitis-in-a-large-population-of-brazilian-dairy-herds
#4
Marcos Busanello, Rodolfo S Rossi, Laerte D Cassoli, José C F Pantoja, Paulo F Machado
The objectives of this study were to estimate the prevalence and incidence of subclinical mastitis (SM) in a large population of Brazilian dairy herds and to describe how these indices changed over time. A data set comprising individual cow somatic cell counts (SCC) from 18,316 test days (TD) of 1,809 herds that participated in a Dairy Herd Improvement Association (DHIA) program between January 2011 and May 2015 was available for analysis. Only tests that had ≥10 lactating cows and that were performed at 30 ± 10-d intervals were used for analysis...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622786/dairy-cow-disability-weights
#5
Craig S McConnel, Ashleigh A McNeil, Joleen C Hadrich, Jason E Lombard, Franklyn B Garry, Jane Heller
Over the past 175 years, data related to human disease and death have progressed to a summary measure of population health, the Disability-Adjusted Life Year (DALY). As dairies have intensified there has been no equivalent measure of the impact of disease on the productive life and well-being of animals. The development of a disease-adjusted metric requires a consistent set of disability weights that reflect the relative severity of important diseases. The objective of this study was to use an international survey of dairy authorities to derive disability weights for primary disease categories recorded on dairies...
August 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615128/17%C3%AE-estradiol-and-progesterone-decrease-mdp-induced-nod2-expression-in-bovine-mammary-epithelial-cells
#6
Dan-Dan Xu, Gang Wang, Xian-Jing He, Jian-Fa Wang, Bin Yang, Zhi-Peng Sun, Dong-Bo Sun, Qian-Yu He, Xu Zhang, Rui Wu
During the periparturient period, many neuroendocrine changes develop in cows. Periparturient hormone fluxes may adversely affect mammary gland immunity and mastitis susceptibility. 17β-Estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4) have been reported to function on immune regulation, and their concentration fluctuates dramatically during the perinatal period. Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptors (NLRs) mediate numerous aspects of innate immunity in humans and experimental animals. This study aimed to explore the effects of E2 and P4 on NOD2 expression in bovine mammary epithelial cells (BMECs)...
June 2017: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615028/experimentally-induced-subclinical-mastitis-are-lipopolysaccharide-and-lipoteichoic-acid-eliciting-similar-pain-responses
#7
Annalisa Elena Jolanda Giovannini, Bart Henricus Philippus van den Borne, Samantha Kay Wall, Olga Wellnitz, Rupert Max Bruckmaier, Claudia Spadavecchia
BACKGROUND: Pain accompanying mastitis has gained attention recently as a relevant welfare compromising aspect of disease. Adequate pain recognition and therapy are necessary in the context of a modern and ethically acceptable dairy care. For research purposes mastitis is often induced by intramammary infusion of immunogenic bacterial cell wall components. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Escherichia coli and lipoteichoic acid (LTA) from Staphylococcus aureus are commonly administered to this end...
June 14, 2017: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611405/local-immunization-impacts-the-response-of-dairy-cows-to-escherichia-coli-mastitis
#8
Vincent Herry, Christophe Gitton, Guillaume Tabouret, Maryline Répérant, Laurine Forge, Christian Tasca, Florence B Gilbert, Edouard Guitton, Céline Barc, Christophe Staub, David G E Smith, Pierre Germon, Gilles Foucras, Pascal Rainard
Current vaccines to Escherichia coli mastitis have shown some albeit limited efficacy. Their mode of action has not been documented, and immune responses protecting the mammary gland against E. coli are not completely understood. To improve our knowledge of mammary gland immune protection, cows immunized either intramuscularly or intramammarily with the E. coli P4 were submitted to a homologous mastitis challenge. A third group of mock-immunized cows serve as challenge controls. Local immunization modified favorably the course of infection, by improving bacterial clearance while limiting inflammation...
June 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606365/estimate-of-the-economic-impact-of-mastitis-a-case-study-in-a-holstein-dairy-herd-under-tropical-conditions
#9
Juliana L B Guimarães, Maria A V P Brito, Carla C Lange, Márcio R Silva, João B Ribeiro, Letícia C Mendonça, Juliana F M Mendonça, Guilherme N Souza
The aim of this study was to estimate the economic impact of mastitis at the herd level and the weight (percent) of the components of this impact in a Holstein dairy herd under tropical conditions. Three estimates of the economic impact of mastitis were performed. In estimates 1 and 2 the real production and economic indices from February 2011 to January 2012 were considered. In the estimate 1, indices for mastitis classified as ideal were considered, whereas in the estimate 2, the mastitis indices used were those recorded at the farm and at Holstein Cattle Association of Minas Gerais State database (real indices)...
July 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601457/short-communication-weak-associations-between-mastitis-control-measures-and-bulk-milk-somatic-cell-counts-in-swedish-dairy-herds
#10
U Emanuelson, C Nielsen
Despite the fact that control programs have been available for several decades, mastitis remains an important problem in dairy herds around the world. Possible reasons for this include poor uptake and application of recommended mastitis control measures; poor or variable compliance; or variability in the effects of these measures. The objective of this study was to evaluate the associations between implemented mastitis control measures and bulk milk somatic cell count (BMSCC) in Swedish dairy herds. Data for this study were collected primarily from an extensive self-administered postal questionnaire about the herds, the people responsible for udder health, and details of udder health and mastitis management...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601455/within-herd-prevalence-of-intramammary-infection-caused-by-mycoplasma-bovis-and-associations-between-cow-udder-health-milk-yield-and-composition
#11
Anri A E Timonen, Jørgen Katholm, Anders Petersen, Kerli Mõtus, Piret Kalmus
Subclinical mastitis is one of the major health problems in dairy herds due to decreased milk production and reduced milk quality. The aim of this study was to examine the within-herd prevalence of subclinical intramammary infection caused by Mycoplasma bovis and to evaluate associations between M. bovis and cow daily milk yield, udder health, and milk composition. Individual cow composite milk samples (n = 522) were collected from all lactating dairy cows in 1 Estonian dairy farm in November 2014. Daily milk yield, days in milk, and parity were recorded...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601453/efficacy-and-clinical-safety-of-pegbovigrastim-for-preventing-naturally-occurring-clinical-mastitis-in-periparturient-primiparous-and-multiparous-cows-on-us-commercial-dairies
#12
Peter Canning, Renee Hassfurther, Terry TerHune, Karen Rogers, Scott Abbott, David Kolb
Periparturient dairy cows experience impaired immune function, exhibited as a transient decrease in neutrophil function and neutropenia. This decrease in immune competence is associated with an increase in susceptibility to bacterial infections, including mastitis and metritis. Bovine granulocyte colony stimulating factor (bG-CSF) is an endogenous protein that enhances neutrophil bactericidal functions and increases the production of neutrophils from bone marrow precursors. Administration of pegbovigrastim (recombinant bG-CSF covalently bound to polyethylene glycol) around the time of calving has been shown to reduce the incidence of new clinical mastitis cases in a natural disease model system...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601196/pilot-study-into-milk-haptoglobin-as-an-indicator-of-udder-health-in-heifers-after-calving
#13
P B A Simões, M Campbell, L Viora, J Gibbons, T E Geraghty, P D Eckersall, R N Zadoks
Mastitis, inflammation of the mammary gland, is often caused by intramammary infection with bacterial organisms. It impacts on dairy cattle welfare, production, udder health and longevity in the herd. Current detection methods for mammary inflammation and infection all have limitations, particularly for on-farm diagnosis of non-clinical mastitis after calving. Acute phase proteins have been suggested as alternative early indicators of the disease and can potentially be used as cow-side test with results in real time...
May 23, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596409/draft-genome-sequence-of-a-sequence-type-398-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-isolate-from-a-danish-dairy-cow-with-mastitis
#14
Troels Ronco, Marc Stegger, Karl Pedersen
Livestock-associated (LA) methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains of sequence type 398 (ST398) colonize both humans and various livestock species. In 2016, an ST398 LA-MRSA isolate (Sa52) was collected from a Danish dairy cow with mastitis, and here, we report the draft genome sequence of strain Sa52.
June 8, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589129/whole-genome-sequence-analysis-of-antimicrobial-resistance-genes-in-streptococcus-uberis-and-streptococcus-dysgalactiae-isolates-from-canadian-dairy-herds
#15
Julián Reyes Vélez, Marguerite Cameron, Juan Carlos Rodríguez-Lecompte, Fangfang Xia, Luke C Heider, Matthew Saab, J Trenton McClure, Javier Sánchez
The objectives of this study are to determine the occurrence of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) genes using whole-genome sequence (WGS) of Streptococcus uberis (S. uberis) and Streptococcus dysgalactiae (S. dysgalactiae) isolates, recovered from dairy cows in the Canadian Maritime Provinces. A secondary objective included the exploration of the association between phenotypic AMR and the genomic characteristics (genome size, guanine-cytosine content, and occurrence of unique gene sequences). Initially, 91 isolates were sequenced, and of these isolates, 89 were assembled...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574304/quantitative-risk-assessment-of-antimicrobial-resistant-foodborne-infections-in-humans-due-to-recombinant-bovine-somatotropin-usage-in-dairy-cows
#16
Randall S Singer, Pamela L Ruegg, Dale E Bauman
Recombinant bovine somatotropin (rbST) is a production-enhancing technology that allows the dairy industry to produce milk more efficiently. Concern has been raised that cows supplemented with rbST are at an increased risk of developing clinical mastitis, which would potentially increase the use of antimicrobial agents and increase human illnesses associated with antimicrobial-resistant bacterial pathogens delivered through the dairy beef supply. The purpose of this study was to conduct a quantitative risk assessment to estimate the potential increased risk of human infection with antimicrobial-resistant bacteria and subsequent adverse health outcomes as a result of rbST usage in dairy cattle...
June 2, 2017: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28561264/virulence-markers-associated-with-trueperella-pyogenes-infections-in-livestock-and-companion-animals
#17
R M Risseti, E Zastempowska, M Twarużek, H Lassa, J C F Pantoja, A P C de Vargas, S T Guerra, C A D Bolaños, C L de Paula, A C Alves, B S Colhado, F V R Portilho, C Tasca, G H B Lara, M G Ribeiro
Trueperella pyogenes is an opportunistic pathogen that causes diverse pyogenic infections in livestock. The genes that encode the exotoxin pyolysin (plo) and other putative factors that promote adhesion of pathogen to host cells (fimbriae fimA, fimC, fimE, fimG, neuraminidases nanH, nanP, and collagen-binding protein cbpA) have been associated with virulence, particularly in mastitis and uterus infections of dairy cows. However, the role of these virulence markers in the pathogenicity of the agent in domestic animals infections still is incompletely understood...
May 31, 2017: Letters in Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545485/bacteriological-etiology-and-treatment-of-mastitis-in-finnish-dairy-herds
#18
Johanna Vakkamäki, Suvi Taponen, Anna-Maija Heikkilä, Satu Pyörälä
BACKGROUND: The Finnish dairy herd recording system maintains production and health records of cows and herds. Veterinarians and farmers register veterinary treatments in the system. Milk samples for microbiological analysis are routinely taken from mastitic cows. The laboratory of the largest dairy company in Finland, Valio Ltd., analyzes most samples using real-time PCR. This study addressed pathogen-specific microbiological data and treatment and culling records, in combination with cow and herd characteristics, from the Finnish dairy herd recording system during 2010-2012...
May 25, 2017: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539833/sdf-1-in-mammary-fibroblasts-of-bovine-with-mastitis-induces-emt-and-inflammatory-response-of-epithelial-cells
#19
Guiliang He, Mengru Ma, Wei Yang, Hao Wang, Yong Zhang, Ming-Qing Gao
Fibroblasts constitute the majority of the stromal cells within bovine mammary gland, yet the functional contributions of these cells to mastitis and fibrosis and the mechanism are poorly understood. In this study, we demonstrate that inflammation-associated fibroblasts (INFs) extracted from bovine mammary glands with clinical mastitis had different expression pattern regarding to several extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, chemokines and cytokines compared to normal fibroblasts (NFs) from dairy cows during lactation...
2017: International Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532808/immune-response-of-staphylococcus-aureus-strains-in-a-mouse-mastitis-model-is-linked-to-adaptive-capacity-and-genotypic-profiles
#20
Elizabet A L Pereyra, Sofía C Sacco, Andrea Duré, Celina Baravalle, María S Renna, Carolina S Andreotti, Stefan Monecke, Luis F Calvinho, Bibiana E Dallard
Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most frequently isolated major pathogens from intramammary infections (IMI) worldwide. The mechanisms by which S. aureus IMI are established and maintained in dairy cows involve both bacterial escape strategies and modulation of the host immune response. Moreover, it was shown that different S. aureus strains have varying effects on the immune response. The aim of this study was to investigate the immune response in a mouse mastitis model of two S. aureus strains isolated from bovine IMI with different clinical manifestation (persistent-P or non-persistent-NP), phenotypic and genotypic profile...
May 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
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