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dairy cow mastitis

Hanne Gro Olsen, Tim Martin Knutsen, Anna M Lewandowska-Sabat, Harald Grove, Torfinn Nome, Morten Svendsen, Mariann Arnyasi, Marte Sodeland, Kristil K Sundsaasen, Sandra Rinne Dahl, Bjørg Heringstad, Hanne H Hansen, Ingrid Olsaker, Matthew Peter Kent, Sigbjørn Lien
BACKGROUND: Clinical mastitis is an inflammation of the mammary gland and causes significant costs to dairy production. It is unfavourably genetically correlated to milk production, and, thus, knowledge of the mechanisms that underlie these traits would be valuable to improve both of them simultaneously through breeding. A quantitative trait locus (QTL) that affects both clinical mastitis and milk production has recently been fine-mapped to around 89 Mb on bovine chromosome 6 (BTA6), but identification of the gene that underlies this QTL was not possible due to the strong linkage disequilibrium between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within this region...
October 19, 2016: Genetics, Selection, Evolution: GSE
I Klimiene, M Virgailis, A Pavilonis, R Siugzdiniene, R Mockeliunas, M Ruzauskas
The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) isolated from dairy cows with subclinical mastitis. Antimicrobial resistance in staphylococci were evaluated by breakpoint values specific to the species (EU-CAST). The presence of resistance-encoding genes was detected by multiplex PCR. A total of 191 CNS isolates were obtained. The CNS isolates were typically resistant to penicillin (67.4%), tetracyc-line (18.9%), and erythromycin (13...
September 1, 2016: Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences
M X Rodrigues, S F Lima, C H Higgins, S G Canniatti-Brazaca, R C Bicalho
The bacterium Lactococcus lactis is widely used in food production and in medical applications, and is considered safe for human and animal use. However, studies have also linked Lactococcus bacteria to infection. For example, certain variants of Lactococcus species have been associated with bovine mastitis (e.g., Lactococcus lactis and Lactococcus garvieae). In this study, we investigated an outbreak of bovine mastitis thought to be associated with Lactococcus bacteria by using microbiological and molecular techniques...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
Motamed Elsayed Mahmoud, Fatma Ali Mahmoud, Adel Elsayed Ahmed
BACKGROUND: Improvement of dairy farms economics requires intensification, automatic milking, and artificial rearing methods. The ability to express normal behavior is one of the five freedoms to achieve animal welfare, whereas the display of abnormal behaviors is considered as an indicator of poor welfare. Cross-sucking is defined as sucking any body parts of pen-mate calves, whereas inter-sucking in cows is defined as sucking the udder or udder area. Previous studies showed that self- and cross-sucking during the calf-hood period could be a causal factor of milk sucking in adulthood...
September 2016: Veterinary World
P M Down, A J Bradley, J E Breen, W J Browne, T Kypraios, M J Green
Importance of the dry period with respect to mastitis control is now well established although the precise interventions that reduce the risk of acquiring intramammary infections during this time are not clearly understood. There are very few intervention studies that have measured the clinical efficacy of specific mastitis interventions within a cost-effectiveness framework so there remains a large degree of uncertainty about the impact of a specific intervention and its costeffectiveness. The aim of this study was to use a Bayesian framework to investigate the cost-effectiveness of mastitis controls during the dry period...
October 1, 2016: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
T Usman, Y Yu, L Zhai, C Liu, X Wang, Y Wang
Cluster of differentiation 4 gene (CD4) is well known for its role in immunity, but its effects on production traits remain to be elucidated. The present study was designed to explore single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the exons, flanking introns, and promoter of CD4, as well as to analyze their effects on milk production traits (percentage of protein, fat, and lactose; mastitis indicator traits somatic cell count; and somatic cell score). A total of 10 SNPs, including eight in the exon and two in the intron regions, were identified using pooled DNA sequencing...
September 16, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
Marguerite Cameron, Matthew Saab, Luke Heider, J Trenton McClure, Juan Carlos Rodriguez-Lecompte, Javier Sanchez
Determination of antimicrobial susceptibility of bovine mastitis pathogens is important for guiding antimicrobial treatment decisions and for the detection of emerging resistance. Environmental streptococci are ubiquitous in the farm environment and are a frequent cause of mastitis in dairy cows. The aim of the study was to determine patterns of antimicrobial susceptibility among species of environmental streptococci isolated from dairy cows in the Maritime Provinces of Canada. The collection consisted of 192 isolates identified in milk samples collected from 177 cows originating from 18 dairy herds...
2016: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Robin A J Nicholas, Larry K Fox, Inna Lysnyansky
Bovine mastitis caused by mycoplasmas, in particular Mycoplasma bovis, is a major problem for milk production and animal welfare in large dairy herds in the USA and a serious, although sporadic, disease in Europe and the Middle East. It causes severe damage to the udder of cattle and is largely untreatable by chemotherapy. Mycoplasma mastitis has a distinct epidemiology and a unique set of risk factors, the most important of which is large herd size. The disease is often self-limiting, disappearing within months of outbreaks, sometimes without deliberate intervention...
October 2016: Veterinary Journal
J W Aleri, B C Hine, M F Pyman, P D Mansell, W J Wales, B Mallard, A D Fisher
Common health problems observed during peripartum include milk fever, mastitis, fatty liver disease, ketosis, dystocia, retained placenta, metritis, hypomagnesaemia and abomasal displacements. The increased incidence of health problems observed during the periparturient period can be partly attributed to suboptimal immune responses. Factors contributing to decreased periparturient immunity include the act of parturition itself, impaired leukocytic activity, effects of colostrogenesis and lactogenesis, and associated hypocalcemia and negative energy balance...
October 2016: Research in Veterinary Science
M A Gonggrijp, I M G A Santman-Berends, A E Heuvelink, G J Buter, G van Schaik, J J Hage, T J G M Lam
A cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate the prevalence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)- and plasmid-mediated AmpC-producing Escherichia coli and associated risk factors in dairy herds. One hundred dairy herds were randomly selected and sampled to study the presence of ESBL- and AmpC-producing E. coli in slurry samples. The sensitivity of testing slurry samples for ESBL/AmpC herd status is less than 100%, especially for detecting herds with a low ESBL/AmpC prevalence. Therefore, whereas herds that tested positive for ESBL/AmpC-producing E...
September 13, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
S J Son, M R Park, S D Ryu, B E Maburutse, N S Oh, J Park, S Oh, Y Kim
This study aimed to develop an in vivo screening platform using Caenorhabditis elegans to identify a novel bacteriocin for controlling the mastitis-causing pathogen Staphylococcus aureus strain RF122 in dairy cows. Using Bacillus spp. isolated from traditional Korean foods, we developed a direct in vivo screening platform that uses 96-well plates and fluorescence image analysis. We identified a novel bacteriocin produced by Bacillus licheniformis strain 146 (lichenicin 146) with a high in vivo antimicrobial activity using our liquid C...
September 13, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
S Paudyal, F Maunsell, J Richeson, C Risco, A Donovan, P Pinedo
Our objective was to evaluate the effect of season of calving, associated with variable levels of heat stress, on the dynamics of rumination during the prepartum period and early lactation of cows that were healthy or affected by peripartal health disorders. Three weeks before the estimated due date, 210 multiparous Holstein cows at the University of Florida Dairy Unit were affixed with a neck collar containing rumination loggers, providing rumination time (RT) in 2-h periods. One blood sample was collected in a subpopulation of cows (n = 76) at 12 to 48 h postcalving to assess metabolic status by determining serum calcium, nonesterified fatty acid, and β-hydroxybutyrate concentrations...
September 7, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
V Tsiamadis, G Banos, N Panousis, M Kritsepi-Konstantinou, G Arsenos, G E Valergakis
The main objective of this study was to assess the genetic parameters of subclinical disorders associated with subclinical hypocalcemia, hypophosphatemia, subclinical hypomagnesemia, hypokalemia, and hyperphosphatemia, as well as major clinical diseases after calving in Holstein cows. The secondary objective was to estimate the associated genetic and phenotypic correlations among these subclinical and clinical conditions after calving in Holstein cows. The study was conducted in 9 dairy herds located in Northern Greece...
September 7, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
Funmilola C Thomas, Mary Waterston, Peter Hastie, Hayley Haining, P David Eckersall
The periparturient period is one of the most critical periods in the productive life of a dairy cow, and is the period when dairy cows are most susceptible to developing new intramammary infections (IMI) leading to mastitis. Acute phase proteins (APP) such as haptoglobin (Hp), mammary associated serum amyloid A3 (M-SAA3) and C-reactive protein (CRP) have been detected in milk during mastitis but their presence in colostrum and milk in the immediate postpartum period has had limited investigation. The hypothesis was tested that APP are a constituent of colostrum and milk during this period...
August 2016: Journal of Dairy Research
Karin Artursson, Robert Söderlund, Lihong Liu, Stefan Monecke, Jenny Schelin
Reducing the prevalence of mastitis caused by Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is essential to improve animal health and reduce economic losses for farmers. The clinical outcome of acute mastitis and risk of progression to persistent mastitis can, at least to some extent, be related to genetic variants of the strain causing the infection. In the present study we have used microarrays to investigate the presence of virulence genes in S. aureus isolates from dairy cows with acute clinical mastitis (n=70) and correlated the findings to other genotypic and phenotypic characteristics...
September 25, 2016: Veterinary Microbiology
Samantha K Wall, Olga Wellnitz, Lorenzo E Hernández-Castellano, Amir Ahmadpour, Rupert M Bruckmaier
Bacterial mastitis causes pathogen-dependent changes of the blood-milk barrier, and these changes can influence the differential transfer of blood components to milk. It is well known that gram-negative pathogens such as Escherichia coli can cause a greater activation of the immune system and thus a more comprehensive transfer of blood components including IgG than gram-positive pathogens such as Staphylococcus aureus. Supraphysiological doses of oxytocin (OT) have been shown to increase the permeability of the blood-milk barrier; however, the effect of OT during experimentally induced mastitis has not been investigated...
August 31, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
M Durán Aguilar, S I Román Ponce, F J Ruiz López, E González Padilla, C G Vásquez Peláez, A Bagnato, M G Strillacci
Mastitis, the most common and expensive disease in dairy cows, implies significant losses in the dairy industry worldwide. Many efforts have been made to improve genetic mastitis resistance in dairy populations, but low heritability of this trait made this process not as effective as desired. The purpose of this study was to identify genomic regions explaining genetic variation of somatic cell count using copy number variations (CNVs) as markers in the Holstein population, genotyped with the Illumina BovineHD BeadChip...
August 30, 2016: Journal of Animal Breeding and Genetics, Zeitschrift Für Tierzüchtung und Züchtungsbiologie
A Karthikeyan, G Radhika, T V Aravindhakshan, K Anilkumar
Innate immune mechanism plays a key role in mammary defense, from recognition of pathogens to activation of nonspecific and specific immunity involved in elimination of pathogens. Expression profiles of innate immune response genes namely Toll like receptor 2 (TLR-2), Peptidoglycan recognition protein 1 (PGLYRP-1), Interleukin 8 receptor (IL-8 R), L-Selectin (SELL), and Osteopontin (OPN) in milk somatic cells of subclinical mastitis (SCM) affected crossbred cows were investigated under this study at transcript level using quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR)...
October 2016: Animal Biotechnology
Amit Sharma, Sanjita Sharma, Navav Singh, Vishnu Sharma, Rahul Singh Pal
Prevention of subclinical mastitis (SCM) is an important tool for sustainable dairying and implementing higher production level in animals. The present investigation involved a total of 397 quarters of milk examination of 105 indigenous Tharparkar cows at Livestock Research Centre, Chandan located in the Jaisalmer district of Rajasthan in Thar Desert to study the impact of udder and teat morphometry on udder health. Udder health was examined by somatic cell count to check the status of subclinical mastitis while udder and teat morphometry of 90 udder and 386 quarters, i...
August 24, 2016: Tropical Animal Health and Production
R Jashari, S Piepers, S De Vliegher
The objectives of this study were (1) to evaluate the test characteristics and predictive values of quarter-composite milk somatic cell count (quarter-cSCC) values based on either a single observation or the geometric mean of multiple recordings as a predictor of intramammary infection (IMI) in lactating dairy cows; and (2) to explore to what extent herd prevalence of IMI and cow factors such as parity and stage of lactation affect them. A total of 780 single-quarter milk samples were collected from 195 dairy cows for bacteriologic culture at a single cross-sectional herd screening performed at 21 different dairy herds as part of different research projects...
August 17, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
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