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dairy cow mastitis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655563/laboratory-evaluation-of-a-novel-rapid-tube-test-system-for-differentiation-of-mastitis-causing-pathogen-groups
#1
S Leimbach, V Krömker
Because clinical mastitis, one of the most common diseases in dairy cows, is routinely treated with antimicrobial substances, it offers a high potential for future reduction of antimicrobial usage. In fact, intramammary antibiotic administration is not advisable in cases of clinical mastitis caused by coliform bacteria, yeasts, or protothecae or in cases with no detectable mastitis pathogen. To avoid unnecessary treatments with antimicrobials for the benefit of animal health and public welfare, the rapid identification of the mastitis-causing pathogens becomes necessary...
April 11, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650032/biosecurity-and-animal-disease-management-in-organic-and-conventional-swedish-dairy-herds-a-questionnaire-study
#2
Ulf Emanuelson, Karin Sjöström, Nils Fall
BACKGROUND: Good animal health is a notion that is germane to organic dairy production, and it is expected that such herds would pay significant attention on the health of their animals. However, it is not known if the applied animal disease management is actually more adequate in organic dairy cattle herds than in conventional dairy herds. A questionnaire study on biosecurity and animal disease management activities was therefore conducted among Swedish farmers with organic and conventional dairy cattle herds...
April 12, 2018: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620487/presence-of-classical-enterotoxin-genes-agr-typing-antimicrobial-resistance-and-genetic-diversity-of-staphylococcus-aureus-from-milk-of-cows-with-mastitis-in-southern-brazil
#3
Isabela S Kroning, Mariana A Iglesias, Karla S Mendonça, Graciela V Lopes, Wladimir P Silva
Staphylococcus aureus is a common causative agent of bovine mastitis in dairy cows and commonly associated with foodborne disease outbreaks. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of enterotoxin genes, agr typing, antimicrobial resistance, and genetic diversity of S. aureus isolated from milk of cows with mastitis in dairy farms from southern Brazil. Results showed that 7 (22.6%) of 31 S. aureus isolates were positive for enterotoxin genes. Specifically, the genes encoding for enterotoxins A ( n = 4), C ( n = 2), and B ( n = 1) were detected...
April 5, 2018: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615502/postgenomics-characterization-of-an-essential-genetic-determinant-of-mammary-pathogenic-escherichia-coli
#4
Shlomo E Blum, Robert J Goldstone, James P R Connolly, Maryline Répérant-Ferter, Pierre Germon, Neil F Inglis, Oleg Krifucks, Shubham Mathur, Erin Manson, Kevin Mclean, Pascal Rainard, Andrew J Roe, Gabriel Leitner, David G E Smith
Escherichia coli are major bacterial pathogens causing bovine mastitis, a disease of great economic impact on dairy production worldwide. This work aimed to study the virulence determinants of mammary pathogenic E. coli (MPEC). By whole-genome sequencing analysis of 40 MPEC and 22 environmental ("dairy-farm" E. coli [DFEC]) strains, we found that only the fec locus ( fecIRABCDE ) for ferric dicitrate uptake was present in the core genome of MPEC and that it was absent in DFEC genomes ( P < 0...
April 3, 2018: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29611639/validation-of-relationship-between-milk-resistance-and-daily-yield-of-dairy-cows
#5
A Burmańczuk, P Hola, B Wojciechowska, C Kowalski, T Grabowski
Purpose: The reduced value of resistance (R) of milk (<167Ω) or increased conductivity (EC) >6.0 mS/cm indicate the growing number of ions in milk during the initial phase of mastitis. The aim of this study is to demonstrate a linear (verified by a validation procedure) dependency between R and mean daily yield (MDY), which could be used for current monitoring and forecasting of milk yield in dairy cow herds. Although the topic has frequently been examined, a validated model for prediction of MDY based on R has still not been presented...
December 2017: Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29605332/use-of-a-culture-independent-on-farm-algorithm-to-guide-the-use-of-selective-dry-cow-antibiotic-therapy
#6
A K Vasquez, D V Nydam, C Foditsch, M Wieland, R Lynch, S Eicker, P D Virkler
An algorithm using only computer-based records to guide selective dry-cow therapy was evaluated at a New York State dairy farm via a randomized field trial. DairyComp 305 (Valley Ag Software, Tulare, CA) and Dairy Herd Improvement Association test-day data were used to identify cows as low risk (cows that might not benefit from dry-cow antibiotics) or high risk (cows that will likely benefit). Low-risk cows were those that had all of the following: somatic cell count (SCC) ≤200,000 cells/mL at last test, an average SCC ≤200,000 cells/mL over the last 3 tests, no signs of clinical mastitis at dry-off, and no more than 1 clinical mastitis event in the current lactation...
March 28, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29595974/pathologic-features-of-staphylococcus-aureus-induced-mastitis-in-dairy-cows-and-isobaric-tags-for-relative-and-absolute-quantitation-proteomics-analyses
#7
Zhi Chen, Hailei Xia, Hongliang Shen, Xin Xu, Abdelaziz Adam Idriss Arbab, Mingxun Li, Huimin Zhang, Yongjiang Mao, Zhangping Yang
Due in part to production of an enterotoxin, S. aureus is a highly infectious pathogen and is a considerable threat to food hygiene and safety. The clinical mastitis models were established by S. aureus nipple tube perfusion. The influence of mastitis on the mammary gland tissue proteomic profile was investigated using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation. In this study, healthy and mastitis tissues from different mammary gland areas of the same dairy cows were screened, and differentially expressed proteins were identified...
March 29, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29573801/elimination-of-experimentally-induced-bovine-intramammary-infection-assessed-by-multiplex-real-time-pcr-and-bacterial-culture
#8
Heidi Hiitiö, Satu Pyörälä, Suvi Taponen, Päivi Rajala-Schultz, Heli Simojoki
Diagnosis of bovine intramammary infection (IMI) has traditionally been based on bacterial culture, but currently IMI can also be detected with DNA based methods, such as multiplex real-time PCR. The aim of this study was to describe the elimination of bacteria in experimentally induced IMI on the quarter level, using conventional bacterial culture (BC) and multiplex real-time PCR. Two coagulase-negative staphylococcal species, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus simulans, were experimentally inoculated into 14 healthy quarters of 8 dairy cows during 4 consecutive study periods...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29573799/metabotypes-with-elevated-protein-and-lipid-catabolism-and-inflammation-precede-clinical-mastitis-in-prepartal-transition-dairy-cows
#9
F Zandkarimi, J Vanegas, X Fern, C S Maier, G Bobe
Clinical mastitis (CM), the most prevalent and costly disease in dairy cows, is diagnosed most commonly shortly after calving. Current indicators do not satisfactorily predict CM. This study aimed to develop a robust and comprehensive mass spectrometry-based metabolomic and lipidomic workflow using untargeted ultra-performance liquid chromatography high-resolution mass spectrometry for predictive biomarker detection. Using a nested case-control design, we measured weekly during the prepartal transition period differences in serum metabolites, lipids, inflammation markers, and minerals between clinically healthy Holstein dairy cows diagnosed with mastitis postcalving (CMP; n = 8; CM diagnosis d 1 = 3 cows, d 2 = 2 cows, d 4 = 1 cow; d 25 = 1 cow, and d 43 = 1 cow that had subclinical mastitis since d 3) or not (control; n = 9)...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29572457/chitosan-and-cloxacillin-combination-improve-antibiotic-efficacy-against-different-lifestyle-of-coagulase-negative-staphylococcus-isolates-from-chronic-bovine-mastitis
#10
María L Breser, Verónica Felipe, Luciana P Bohl, María S Orellano, Paula Isaac, Agustín Conesa, Virginia E Rivero, Silvia G Correa, Ismael D Bianco, Carina Porporatto
Bovine mastitis affects the health of dairy cows and the profitability of herds worldwide. Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) are the most frequently isolated pathogens in bovine intramammary infection. Based on the wide range of antimicrobial, mucoadhesive and immunostimulant properties demonstrated by chitosan, we have evaluated therapy efficiency of chitosan incorporation to cloxacillin antibiotic as well as its effect against different bacterial lifestyles of seven CNS isolates from chronic intramammary infections...
March 23, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29550141/differential-somatic-cell-count-in-milk-before-during-and-after-lipopolysaccharide-and-lipoteichoic-acid-induced-mastitis-in-dairy-cows
#11
Samantha K Wall, Olga Wellnitz, Rupert M Bruckmaier, Daniel Schwarz
Intramammary infections induce the initiation of the inflammatory response, resulting in an increase in somatic cell count (SCC) in milk. The SCC includes several different types of cells but does not differentiate between them. On the contrary, the new differential somatic cell count (DSCC) parameter allows for the differentiation between 2 groups of cells: polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) and lymphocytes versus macrophages. Therefore, the aim of this paper was to describe the changes of both DSCC and SCC during mastitis induced by cell wall components from typical mastitis-causing pathogens [lipopolysaccharide (LPS), Escherichia coli; lipoteichoic acid (LTA), Staphylococcus aureus] known to trigger different severities of mastitis...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29543852/comparative-analysis-of-four-commercial-on-farm-culture-methods-to-identify-bacteria-associated-with-clinical-mastitis-in-dairy-cattle
#12
Jair C Ferreira, Marilia S Gomes, Erika C R Bonsaglia, Igor F Canisso, Edgar F Garrett, Jamie L Stewart, Ziyao Zhou, Fabio S Lima
Several multiple-media culture systems have become commercially available for on-farm identification of mastitis-associated pathogens. However, the accuracy of these systems has not been thoroughly and independently validated against microbiological evaluations performed by referral laboratories. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to evaluate the performance of commercially available culture plates (Accumast, Minnesota Easy System, SSGN and SSGNC Quad plates) to identify pathogens associated with clinical mastitis in dairy cows...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29538352/first-evaluation-of-infrared-thermography-as-a-tool-for-the-monitoring-of-udder-health-status-in-farms-of-dairy-cows
#13
Mauro Zaninelli, Veronica Redaelli, Fabio Luzi, Valerio Bronzo, Malcolm Mitchell, Vittorio Dell'Orto, Valentino Bontempo, Donata Cattaneo, Giovanni Savoini
The aim of the present study was to test infrared thermography (IRT), under field conditions, as a possible tool for the evaluation of cow udder health status. Thermographic images (n. 310) from different farms (n. 3) were collected and evaluated using a dedicated software application to calculate automatically and in a standardized way, thermographic indices of each udder. Results obtained have confirmed a significant relationship between udder surface skin temperature (USST) and classes of somatic cell count in collected milk samples...
March 14, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29525302/invited-review-incidence-risk-factors-and-effects-of-clinical-mastitis-recurrence-in-dairy-cows
#14
REVIEW
Hossein Jamali, Herman W Barkema, Mario Jacques, Eve-Marie Lavallée-Bourget, François Malouin, Vineet Saini, Henrik Stryhn, Simon Dufour
Clinical mastitis (CM) is one of the most frequent and costly diseases in dairy cows. A frustrating aspect of CM is its recurrent nature. This review was conducted to synthesize knowledge on risk of repeated cases of CM, effects of recurrent CM cases, and risk factors for CM recurrence. A systematic review methodology was used to identify articles for this narrative review. Searches were performed to identify relevant scientific literature published after 1989 in English or French from 2 databases (PubMed and CAB Abstracts) and 1 search platform (Web of Science)...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29525300/invited-review-effectiveness-of-precalving-treatment-on-postcalving-udder-health-in-nulliparous-dairy-heifers-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#15
REVIEW
S Ali Naqvi, Diego B Nobrega, Paul E Ronksley, Herman W Barkema
Clinical mastitis affects 3% of primiparous dairy cattle (heifers) in the first month after calving. Additionally, the prevalence of intramammary infection (IMI) in the months before first calving is high, resulting in a high prevalence of heifers calving with IMI. Precalving therapy is an accepted recommendation for reducing mastitis in multiparous cows, but prophylactic treatment for heifers is uncommon in North America. Objectives of this study were to (1) quantify changes in postcalving udder health in heifers following application of a precalving treatment; (2) compare effectiveness among various types of treatments; and (3) compare effectiveness of various types of treatments against specific pathogens...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29524866/feasibility-and-preliminary-safety-of-nitric-oxide-releasing-solution-as-a-treatment-for-bovine-mastitis
#16
Gilly Regev, James Martins, Michael P Sheridan, Jonathan Leemhuis, James Thompson, Christopher Miller
Nitric oxide-releasing solution (NORS) is a liquid formulation that releases nitric oxide, a broad spectrum antimicrobial, single electron nitroxide radical. This solution was investigated as a potential antimicrobial treatment for bovine mastitis (BM). Three experiments were performed: a) NORS' effect on Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli in an in vitro model; b) NORS' effect on milk obtained from dairy cows showing symptoms of clinical mastitis; and c) the consequences of administering NORS to healthy milking cattle using a dose-escalating in vivo study...
February 22, 2018: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29522489/bovine-vaccinia-insights-into-the-disease-in-cattle
#17
REVIEW
Ana Carolina Diniz Matos, Izabelle Silva Rehfeld, Maria Isabel Maldonado Coelho Guedes, Zélia Inês Portela Lobato
Bovine vaccinia (BV), caused by Vaccinia virus (VACV), is a zoonosis characterized by exanthematous lesions in the teats of dairy cows and the hands of milkers and is an important public health issue. Severe VACV-induced lesions in the teats and udder of cows and buffaloes could lead to mastitis and other secondary infections, thereby reducing productivity and resulting in economic losses to the dairy industry. In Brazil, BV re-emerged in the late 1990s and is now endemic in most of the Brazilian territory...
March 9, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29519526/semen-as-a-source-of-mycoplasma-bovis-mastitis-in-dairy-herds
#18
Vera Haapala, Tarja Pohjanvirta, Nella Vähänikkilä, Jani Halkilahti, Henri Simonen, Sinikka Pelkonen, Timo Soveri, Heli Simojoki, Tiina Autio
Mycoplasma bovis infections are responsible for substantial economic losses in the cattle industry, have significant welfare effects and increase antibiotic use. The pathogen is often introduced into naive herds through healthy carrier animals. In countries with a low prevalence of M. bovis, transmission from less common sources can be better explored as the pathogen has limited circulation compared to high prevalence populations. In this study, we describe how M. bovis was introduced into two closed and adequately biosecure dairy herds through the use of contaminated semen during artificial insemination (AI), leading to mastitis outbreak in both herds...
March 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29518709/metabolic-predictors-of-peri-partum-diseases-and-their-association-with-parity-in-dairy-cows
#19
Gretel Ruprechter, Maria de Lourdes Adrien, Alejandro Larriestra, Otavio Meotti, Chester Batista, Ana Meikle, Mirela Noro
The predictive values of plasma non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA), beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), cholesterol, albumin and calcium to predict risk of peripartum diseases in primiparous (PP) and multiparous (MP) Holstein cows was investigated. Besides it was assessed if the health status interacted with parity on body condition score and metabolic profiles during the transition period. Dairy cows (126 PP and 182 MP) from a commercial dairy free stall herd (loose-housing system) were weekly body condition scored and tail bled for metabolites determination from -3 to +4 weeks relative to calving...
February 19, 2018: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29508436/cd117-and-vimentin-positive-telocytes-in-the-bovine-teat-sphincter
#20
M G Wagener, S Leonhard-Marek, J-D Häger, C Pfarrer
Mastitis is a common economically relevant problem in dairy farming. As the major entry for pathogens is the papillary duct, one of the first defence mechanisms is the teat sphincter. This sphincter shows a rhythmic contractility of yet unknown origin. Searching for possible modulatory pacemaker cells, teat sphincters of eight cows were stained immunohistochemically with antibodies against CD117 and vimentin and evaluated microscopically for the presence of telocytes. CD117- and vimentin-positive telocytes with telopodes were found in close contact with smooth muscle cells...
March 5, 2018: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
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