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dairy cow mastitis

Tiago Tomazi, Antonio Francisco de Souza Filho, Marcos Bryan Heinemann, Marcos Veiga Dos Santos
The objectives of this study were to: (a) genotypically characterize Streptococcus agalactiae isolates recovered from clinical mastitis (CM) cases in dairy cows and, (b) determine the association of antimicrobial susceptibility (AMS) and genotypes of Strep. agalactiae clustered according to the genetic similarity. A total of 89 Strep. agalactiae isolates recovered from bovine CM were genotyped using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis. In addition, the AMS of the isolates was determined using a commercial broth microdilution test composed of 10 antimicrobials (penicillin, ampicillin, oxacillin, cephalothin, ceftiofur, penicillin/novobiocin, erythromycin, pirlimycin, tetracycline, and sulfadimethoxine)...
2018: PloS One
Valentina Monistero, Hans Ulrich Graber, Claudia Pollera, Paola Cremonesi, Bianca Castiglioni, Enriqueta Bottini, Alejandro Ceballos-Marquez, Laura Lasso-Rojas, Volker Kroemker, Nicole Wente, Inge-Marie Petzer, Carlos Santisteban, Jeff Runyan, Marcos Veiga Dos Santos, Bruna Gomes Alves, Renata Piccinini, Valerio Bronzo, Mohamed Salah Abbassi, Meriam Ben Said, Paolo Moroni
Staphylococcus aureus is recognized worldwide as one of the major agents of dairy cow intra-mammary infections. This microorganism can express a wide spectrum of pathogenic factors used to attach, colonize, invade and infect the host. The present study evaluated 120 isolates from eight different countries that were genotyped by RS-PCR and investigated for 26 different virulence factors to increase the knowledge on the circulating genetic lineages among the cow population with mastitis. New genotypes were observed for South African strains while for all the other countries new variants of existing genotypes were detected...
June 17, 2018: Toxins
C Sartori, V Perreten, I Ivanovic, M C Härdi-Landerer, H U Graber
In Switzerland, sanitation programs of dairy herds infected with the contagious mastitis pathogen Staphylococcus aureus genotype B (GTB) have been established for several years. In recent years, Streptococcus uberis and non-aureus staphylococci have emerged as the bacteria most frequently isolated from bovine milk samples. The latter cause subclinical mastitis, and some species are more persistent or pathogenic than others. The present study aimed to investigate the developments in the intramammary colonization spectrum of 5 dairy herds undergoing a sanitation program for Staph...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Mahjoob Aghamohammadi, Denis Haine, David F Kelton, Herman W Barkema, Henk Hogeveen, Gregory P Keefe, Simon Dufour
Mastitis imposes considerable and recurring economic losses on the dairy industry worldwide. The main objective of this study was to estimate herd-level costs incurred by expenditures and production losses associated with mastitis on Canadian dairy farms in 2015, based on producer reports. Previously, published mastitis economic frameworks were used to develop an economic model with the most important cost components. Components investigated were divided between clinical mastitis (CM), subclinical mastitis (SCM), and other costs components (i...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Péter Hejel, Gerhard Zechner, Csaba Csorba, László Könyves
The aims of the survey were to determine the prevalence of ketosis in dairy herds by measuring the concentration of beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) in milk by Keto-Test (Sanwa Kagaku Kenkyusho, Nagoya, Japan); risk factors and the relationship with postpartum diseases were investigated. 1667 early lactating (days in milk 0-75) cows were tested in 52 dairy herds in 2013 and 2014 years. In total, 29.3 per cent of samples were positive (BHBAMILK ≥100 µmol/l), including 3.7 per cent high positives (BHBAMILK ≥500 µmol/l)...
2018: Veterinary Record Open
Lydia Siebert, Margaret E Staton, Susan Headrick, Mark Lewis, Barbara Gillespie, Charles Young, Raul A Almeida, Stephen P Oliver, Gina M Pighetti
Mastitis is a detrimental disease in the dairy industry that decreases milk quality and costs upwards of $2 billion annually. Often, mastitis results from bacteria entering the gland through the teat opening. Streptococcus uberis is responsible for a high percentage of subclinical and clinical mastitis. Following an intramammary experimental challenge with S. uberis on Holstein cows (n = 40), milk samples were collected and somatic cell counts (SCC) were determined by the Dairy Herd Improvement Association Laboratory...
June 3, 2018: Immunogenetics
Zhihua Ju, Jinming Huang, Qiang Jiang, Changfa Wang, Xiuge Wang, Shuhong Zhao
Bovine mastitis is an inflammation response of the mammary gland tissues caused mainly by pathogenic bacteria in cows. Previous studies showed that bta-miR-15a and bta-miR-16a modulate immunity and inflammation responses. In this study, we investigated the expression pattern and tissue localization of bta-miR-15a and bta-miR-16a. The expression levels of bta-miR-15a and bta-miR-16a were significantly upregulated in mammary tissues and blood neutrophils of mastitis-infected cows, compared with those of healthy cows (P < 0...
May 30, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Probes
Chunhe Yang, Gan Li, Xiaojun Zhang, Xianhong Gu
The objectives of the research reported in this Research Communication were to compare the variation of hind quarter skin surface temperature pre- and post- milking in dairy cows and to determine the optimal time to capture images by infrared thermography for improving the sensitivity and specificity of mastitis detection in dairy cows. Hind quarter infrared images of 102 Holstein dairy cows were captured from the caudal view by an infrared camera pre-milking and post-milking. The udder skin surface temperature was measured with the help of the image processing software...
May 2018: Journal of Dairy Research
Mathew D Littlejohn, Sally-Anne Turner, Caroline G Walker, Sarah D Berry, Kathryn Tiplady, Ric G Sherlock, Greg Sutherland, Simon Swift, Dorian Garrick, S Jane Lacy-Hulbert, Scott McDougall, Richard J Spelman, Russell G Snell, J Eric Hillerton
Inflammation of the mammary gland following bacterial infection, commonly known as mastitis, affects all mammalian species. Although the aetiology and epidemiology of mastitis in the dairy cow are well described, the genetic factors mediating resistance to mammary gland infection are not well known, due in part to the difficulty in obtaining robust phenotypic information from sufficiently large numbers of individuals. To address this problem, an experimental mammary gland infection experiment was undertaken, using a Friesian-Jersey cross breed F2 herd...
May 2018: Journal of Dairy Research
Joanne Karzis, Inge-Marie Petzer, Edward F Donkin, Vinny Naidoo
Antibiotic resistance of strains of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from bovine milk is of concern internationally. The objective of this study was to investigate trends of resistance of S. aureus to antibiotics administered to dairy cows in 19 South African and one Zambian dairy herds (participating in the South African proactive udder health management programme) and to identify possible contributing factors. The resistance of S. aureus strains to eight commonly used antibiotics in South Africa from 2001 to 2010 was evaluated...
May 7, 2018: Journal of the South African Veterinary Association
T Tomazi, T A F Lopes, V Masson, J M Swinkels, M V Santos
The general objective of this study was to evaluate whether cephapirin sodium is noninferior compared with a positive control broad-spectrum product formulated with a combination of antimicrobials for intramammary treatment of nonsevere clinical mastitis. In addition, we compared the efficacy of treatments on the cure risks of pathogen groups (gram-positive, gram-negative, and cultures with no growth) based on culture results. A total of 346 cows distributed in 31 commercial dairy herds were selected to participate in the study, although only 236 met the criteria for evaluation of microbiological cure...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Mette B Petersen, Jeanette Pedersen, Dinah L Holm, Matthew Denwood, Liza R Nielsen
Mycoplasma bovis is an important pathogen causing disease and substantial economic losses in cattle. However, knowledge of the dynamics of antibody responses in individual cows in the face of an outbreak is currently extremely limited. The use of commercial antibody tests to support clinical decision-making and for surveillance purposes is therefore challenging. Our objective was to describe the dynamics of M. bovis antibody responses in 4 Danish dairy herds experiencing an acute outbreak of M. bovis-associated disease, and to compare the antibody dynamics between dairy cows with different disease manifestations...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
S Ivemeyer, C Simantke, A Ebinghaus, P H Poulsen, J T Sorensen, T Rousing, R Palme, U Knierim
Impact patterns of human-animal relationship (HAR) and herd stress level on udder health were investigated in a cross-sectional study on 30 German and Danish organic dairy herds also taking into account influencing factors regarding housing and management. Cow behavior (avoidance distance, tolerance to tactile interaction, release behavior) was assessed in tests, milkers' behavior recorded during milking, and information about contacts with animals during routine work gathered by interview. Additionally, stockpersons' attitudes were recorded via questionnaires...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
John R Todd, Tadahiko Matsumoto, Ryohei Ueno, Jayaseelan Murugaiyan, Allan Britten, John W King, Yoshinobu Odaka, Arnold Oberle, Christoph Weise, Uwe Roesler, R Scott Pore
In 2014, ISHAM formed a new working group: "Medical Phycology: Protothecosis and Chlorellosis." The purpose of this working group is to help facilitate collaboration and communication among people interested in the pathogenic algae, to share ideas and work together. Here we present reports on recent work we have done in five areas. 1. The history of medical phycology as a branch of science. 2. Aspects of the genetics of Prototheca. 3. Aspects of the proteins of Prototheca. 4. Human infections caused by Prototheca...
April 1, 2018: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
M J Vilar, M Hovinen, H Simojoki, P J Rajala-Schultz
The objective of this study was to survey drying-off practices and use of dry cow therapy (DCT) in Finland through an online questionnaire. The questionnaire was accessible to all dairy farmers of the Finnish dairy herd recording system in 2016 (approximately 5,400 farms). In total, 715 dairy producers across the country, representative of the Finnish dairy industry, participated in the survey. Cows were dried off gradually in most of the farms. Most farms (78%) reported using selective DCT, whereas 9% of farms did not use any DCT, and 13% of farms applied blanket DCT...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
C Sartori, R Boss, M Bodmer, A Leuenberger, I Ivanovic, H U Graber
Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most widespread mastitis pathogens infecting dairy cattle worldwide. In Switzerland, different bovine genotypes of Staph. aureus have been identified, and genotype B (GTB) was demonstrated to be a highly contagious subtype, causing herd problems in cattle. As the efficacy of antibiotic therapy against Staph. aureus is not satisfactory, the most promising strategy for controlling this udder pathogen is the implementation of specific sanitation programs for affected farms. The aim of the present longitudinal study was the field evaluation of 2 analytical approaches for the sanitation of Staph...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
C P Ferris, P J Purcell, A W Gordon, T Larsen, M Vestergaard
This 2 × 2 factorial design experiment was conducted to compare the performance of spring-calving Holstein dairy cows (HOL, n = 34) with Swedish Red × Jersey/Holstein crossbred (SR × J/HOL, n = 34) dairy cows within low and medium concentrate input grassland-based dairy systems. The experiment commenced when cows calved and encompassed 1 full lactation. Cows were offered diets containing grass silage and concentrates [70:30 dry matter (DM) ratio, and 40:60 DM ratio, for low and medium, respectively] until turnout, grazed grass plus either 1...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Kathryn E Merriman, Jessi L Powell, Jose E P Santos, Corwin D Nelson
Vitamin D signaling in response to pathogen-associated molecules contributes to activation of innate immune responses of bovine monocytes. We hypothesized that lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of bacteria associated with mastitis in dairy cows activates the vitamin D pathway in innate immune cells of the udder and that increasing availability of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 [25(OH)D3 ] would augment expression of vitamin D-associated genes. The objective of this experiment was to determine the effects of intramammary LPS and 25(OH)D3 treatments on activation of the vitamin D pathway and innate immune responses of mammary immune cells...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
N Misra, T F Wines, C L Knopp, R Hermann, L Bond, B Mitchell, M A McGuire, J K Tinker
Staphylococcus aureus causes a chronic, contagious disease of the udder, or mastitis, in dairy cows. This infection is often refractory to antibiotic treatment, and has a significant economic impact on milk production worldwide. An effective vaccine to prevent S. aureus mastitis would improve animal health, reduce antibiotic dependence and inform human vaccine approaches. The iron-regulated surface determinant A (IsdA) and clumping factor A (ClfA) are conserved S. aureus extracellular-matrix adhesins and target vaccine antigens...
May 5, 2018: Vaccine
C M Scholte, D C Nelson, M Garcia, S B Linden, T H Elsasser, S Kahl, Y Qu, K M Moyes
Mastitis is the leading cause of antimicrobial use on dairy farms. The potential for antimicrobial resistance has led to the examination of alternative strategies for controlling mastitis. One such alternative is PlyC, a potent peptidoglycan hydrolase derived from the streptococcal C1 bacteriophage that causes targeted lysis of the cell wall of Streptococcus uberis. At a concentration of 1.0 μg/mL, recombinant PlyC can induce lytic activity, suggesting that a low dose may successfully eliminate infection. We evaluated the dose effect of PlyC (1-50 µg/mL) on cytotoxicity and oxidative response on bovine blood polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) obtained from 12 healthy, mid-lactation primiparous dairy cows...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
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