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dairy cow mastitis

Jie Yu, Yan Ren, XiaoXia Xi, Weiqiang Huang, Heping Zhang
Teat disinfection pre- and post-milking is important for the overall health and hygiene of dairy cows. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a novel probiotic lactobacilli-based teat disinfectant based on changes in somatic cell count (SCC) and profiling of the bacterial community. A total of 69 raw milk samples were obtained from eleven Holstein-Friesian dairy cows over 12 days of teat dipping in China. Single molecule, real-time sequencing technology (SMRT) was employed to profile changes in the bacterial community during the cleaning protocol and to compare the efficacy of probiotic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and commercial teat disinfectants...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
A Poizat, F Bonnet-Beaugrand, A Rault, C Fourichon, N Bareille
Mastitis is a bacterial disease common in dairy farms. Although knowledge about mastitis and its optimal technical management and treatment is now available, some dairy farmers still use antibiotics in inappropriate ways. Antibiotic use by farmers can be influenced by personal restraints and motivations, but it can be assumed that external drivers are also influential. The main purpose of this article is thus to analyse the choices of antibiotic and alternative medicine use for mastitis treatment and investigate the possible influence of two unexplored external drivers in dairy farms: (i) the health advice offered to farmers by farm advisors and veterinarians, (ii) the dairy farming system, as defined by combining the market valuation chosen for the milk, the level of intensification, and the perceived pressure related to investments...
October 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
L K Whitfield, R A Laven
AIM: To compare, in cows treated with an internal teat sealant, the effect of short-acting and long-acting cloxacillin-based dry-cow therapy on somatic cell counts (SCC) after calving. METHODS: Cows from a spring-calving, pasture-based dairy farm in the Manawatu-Whanganui region of New Zealand were randomly allocated to receive either a short-acting cloxacillin and ampicillin dry-cow therapy and internal teat sealant (n=291) or a long-acting cloxacillin and ampicillin dry-cow therapy and internal teat sealant (n=288) at the end of lactation...
October 8, 2017: New Zealand Veterinary Journal
G E Shook, R L Bamber Kirk, F L Welcome, Y H Schukken, P L Ruegg
We examined consistency of the relationship between intramammary infection (IMI) and somatic cell score (SCS) across several classes of cow, herd, and sampling time variables. Microbial cultures of composite milk samples were performed by New York Quality Milk Production Services from 1992 to 2004. SCS was from the most recent Dairy Herd Improvement test before IMI sampling. Records were analyzed from 79,308 cows in 1,124 commercial dairy herds representing a broad range of production systems. Three binary dependent variables were presence or absence of contagious IMI, environmental IMI, and all IMI...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
Diego B Nobrega, Jeroen De Buck, S Ali Naqvi, Gang Liu, Sohail Naushad, Vineet Saini, Herman W Barkema
Assessment of antimicrobial use (AMU) is vital for interpreting the origin of changes in antimicrobial resistance (AMR). The objectives of the present study were to estimate the association between AMU determined using on-farm treatment records (TR) and inventory of empty drug containers (INV). Herds were selected to represent Canadian dairy farms. Producers were asked to record animal health events and treatments on a standard General Health Event form. For inventory data, 40-L receptacles were placed at various locations considered convenient to deposit all empty drug containers...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
M Abdelsayed, M Haile-Mariam, J E Pryce
As with many other countries, data availability has been a limitation in Australia for developing breeding values for health traits. A genomic information nucleus of approximately 100 herds across the country, selected on the basis of their record keeping, has recently been established in Australia and is known as Ginfo. The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of developing genomic breeding values for health traits using farmer-collected data from Ginfo herds. Having this genotyped population opens up opportunities to develop new genomic breeding values, such as dairy health traits...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
P Rainard, G Foucras, J R Fitzgerald, J L Watts, G Koop, J R Middleton
This study assessed knowledge gaps and suggested research priorities in the field of Staphylococcus aureus mastitis. Staphylococcus aureus infecting the mammary gland remains a major problem to the dairy industry worldwide because of its pathogenicity, contagiousness, persistence in the cow environment, colonization of skin or mucosal epithelia, and the poor curing efficacy of treatments. Staphylococcus aureus also constitutes a threat to public health due to food safety and antibiotic usage issues and the potential for bidirectional transmission of strains between humans and dairy animals (cows and small ruminants)...
October 6, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
T S Suleiman, E D Karimuribo, R H Mdegela
A cross-sectional study was conducted between January and July 2014 in Unguja island of Zanzibar to establish prevalence of subclinical mastitis (SCM) in smallholder dairy cows and patterns of antibacterial susceptibility of major mastitis pathogens isolated. A total of 416 dairy cows from 201 farmers were randomly selected from three districts of Unguja Island to participate in the study. Questionnaire interview, field observation, individual cow examination, California Mastitis Test (CMT) and bacteriological examination were carried out...
October 4, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
David Eisenberger, Anja Carl, Joachim Balsliemke, Peter Kämpf, Silke Nickel, Gesine Schulze, Giuseppe Valenza
The aim of this study was to determine the rate of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing microorganisms among Escherichia coli isolates causing bovine mastitis, including molecular characterization of these isolates. Therefore, a total of 490 bovine E. coli isolates from milk samples of dairy cows with mastitis were investigated for ESBL production by antimicrobial susceptibility testing, PCR-based detection, and sequencing of ESBL encoding genes, which were identified in 22 isolates (4.5%). Moreover, resistance to the fluoroquinolones enrofloxacin and marbofloxacin occurred in 15 of 22 ESBL-producing isolates (68...
September 27, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
Margit Bak Jensen, Kathryn L Proudfoot
Dairy cows in early lactation are often housed in a large group, where they may have to compete for access to feed and space. However, a cow's ability to compete may be impaired due to production disease, and housing in a small group with minimal competition may be beneficial for cow welfare. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of group size and health on social and feeding behavior of cows during the first 3 d after introduction to a new group. Data included 54 multiparous Holstein-Friesian cows that were moved from an individual maternity pen and individually joined an existing group pen for 6 (N6) or 24 cows (N24) on d 4 after calving...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
Befikadu Seyoum, Hailemariam Kefyalew, Birhanu Abera, Nejash Abdela
A cross sectional study was undertaken from November 2016 to March 2017 in and around Asella town, Oromia regional state, southern Ethiopia, to determine the prevalence, associated risk factors and antimicrobial susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus, in Bovine cross breed mastitis milk. A total of 384 lactating dairy cows were screened for mastitis based on clinical examinations and California mastitis test (CMT). Out of 230 lactating crossbred cows with either clinical or subclinical mastitis examined for the involvement of Staphylococcus aureus...
September 19, 2017: Acta Tropica
C M M R Martins, E S C Pinheiro, M Gentilini, M Lopez Benavides, M V Santos
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
J Reyes, M Chaffer, Juan Carlos Rodriguez-Lecompte, Javier Sánchez, Ruth N Zadoks, Natasha Robinson, Ximena Cardona, N Ramírez, G P Keefe
Group B Streptococcus or Streptococcus agalactiae continue to be challenging for milk quality programs in countries with emerging dairy industries, such as Colombia, where high prevalence has been reported. Molecular typing of isolates is needed to understand the variability and epidemiology of this pathogen and to develop effective control and eradication programs. We characterized the molecular profile of Strep. agalactiae isolated from cows with subclinical mastitis in 21 Colombian dairy herds and measured diversity within and between herds using multilocus sequence typing...
November 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
P M Down, A J Bradley, J E Breen, M J Green
The objective of this study was to use probabilistic sensitivity analysis to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of using an on-farm culture (OFC) approach to the treatment of clinical mastitis in dairy cows and compare this to a 'standard' treatment approach. A specific aim was to identify the herd circumstances under which an OFC approach would be most likely to be cost-effective. A stochastic Monte Carlo model was developed to simulate 5000 cases of clinical mastitis at the cow level and to calculate the associated costs simultaneously when treated according to 2 different treatment protocols; i) a 'conventional' approach (3 tubes of intramammary antibiotic) and ii) an OFC programme, whereby cows are treated according to the results of OFC...
September 15, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
S A Mekonnen, G Koop, S T Melkie, C D Getahun, H Hogeveen, T J G M Lam
Knowledge of mastitis pathogens and their predominance as well as understanding of risk factors are prerequisites to improve udder health in a herd, region or country. In Ethiopia, such information is scarce, despite the fact that mastitis is an important cattle disease in the country. A cross-sectional study that describes prevalence and causative agents of subclinical mastitis (SCM) as well as risk factors at cow and herd level was conducted on 167 dairy farms in North-West Ethiopia. On average, 33% of the quarters and 62% of the cows were California Mastitis Test (CMT) positive, but the within herd quarter level prevalence ranged between 0 and 100%...
September 15, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Mohanned Naif Alhussien, Ajay Kumar Dang
Mastitis is a highly prevalent and one of the costliest diseases of dairy cows affecting the mammary gland. Milk neutrophils present in the mammary gland serve as an integral part of the mammary immunity, and their performance is influenced by different environmental conditions and lactation stages. To investigate the combined effects of seasons and lactation stages on the mammary immunity, milk and blood samples were collected from three groups of high producing indigenous Sahiwal cows. Function and receptor expression of milk neutrophils together with cortisol and inflammatory interleukins concentration in blood were studied...
September 2017: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
Keena Ae Mullen, Erin Beasley, Julio Q Rizzo, Steven P Washburn, Ronald E Baynes, Sharon E Mason, Kevin L Anderson
Mastitis is a costly disease for dairy farmers. Some dairy farmers use herbal products, or phytoceuticals, to treat mastitis. Phytoceuticals have not been approved for this use by the United States Food and Drug Administration, and have not been tested to determine how they impact antibiotic residue detection testing. The current study tested the potential for phytoceuticals to cause positive results on two milk antibiotic residue screening tests, the Delvotest P and Charm SL Beta-lactam test, or to interfere with the detection of antibiotics by these tests...
2017: Veterinary Record Open
T L Evink, M I Endres
Recent trends in dairy farm structure in the United States have included a decreasing number of farms, although farm size has increased, especially the share of milk production from very large herds (>2,500 cows). The objectives of this observational study were to describe common management practices; to characterize labor and operational structure; to measure some aspects of animal health, including lameness, hock lesions, mortality, and mastitis incidence; and to summarize cost of production on farms with more than 2,500 cows in 4 states in the Upper Midwest of the United States...
November 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
N A Villa-Arcila, J Sanchez, M H Ratto, J C Rodriguez-Lecompte, P C Duque-Madrid, S Sanchez-Arias, A Ceballos-Marquez
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of subclinical mastitis (SCM) on calving-to-first-service interval (CFS), calving-to-conception interval (CC), and on the number of services per conception (S/C) in grazing Holstein and Normande cows. Primiparous (n=43) and multiparous (n=165) cows were selected from five dairy herds. Two composite milk samples were aseptically collected from each cow at drying-off, and then every week during the first postpartum month. One sample was used for somatic cell count (SCC), and the other one for bacteriological analysis...
October 2017: Animal Reproduction Science
Karen L DeLong, Dayton M Lambert, Susan Schexnayder, Peter Krawczel, Mark Fly, Lorraine Garkovich, Steve Oliver
Mastitis is a worldwide problem in dairy cows and results in reduced milk production, the culling of cows, and other economic losses. Bulk tank somatic cell count (BTSCC) over 200,000 cells/mL often indicates underlying subclinical mastitis in dairy herds. Several preventative measures that can be implemented to help improve the incidence of mastitis exist, but surveys find these practices not fully adopted by producers. The goal of this research was to analyze the farm and operator characteristics associated with BTSCC in dairy herds by analyzing a survey of dairy producers in the southeastern United States...
November 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
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