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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29694347/rational-metareasoning-and-the-plasticity-of-cognitive-control
#1
Falk Lieder, Amitai Shenhav, Sebastian Musslick, Thomas L Griffiths
The human brain has the impressive capacity to adapt how it processes information to high-level goals. While it is known that these cognitive control skills are malleable and can be improved through training, the underlying plasticity mechanisms are not well understood. Here, we develop and evaluate a model of how people learn when to exert cognitive control, which controlled process to use, and how much effort to exert. We derive this model from a general theory according to which the function of cognitive control is to select and configure neural pathways so as to make optimal use of finite time and limited computational resources...
April 25, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689518/characterizing-anxiety-subtypes-and-the-relationship-to-behavioral-phenotyping-in-major-depression-results-from-the-embarc-study
#2
Joseph M Trombello, Diego A Pizzagalli, Myrna M Weissman, Bruce D Grannemann, Crystal M Cooper, Tracy L Greer, Ashley L Malchow, Manish K Jha, Thomas J Carmody, Benji T Kurian, Christian A Webb, Daniel G Dillon, Patrick J McGrath, Gerard Bruder, Maurizio Fava, Ramin V Parsey, Melvin G McInnis, Phil Adams, Madhukar H Trivedi
The current study aimed to characterize the multifaceted nature of anxiety in patients with major depression by evaluating distinct anxiety factors. We then related these derived anxiety factors to performance on a Flanker Task of cognitive control, in order to further validate these factors. Data were collected from 195 patients with nonpsychotic chronic or recurrent major depression or dysthymic disorder. At baseline, participants completed self-report measures of anxiety, depression, and other related symptoms (mania, suicidality) and clinicians administered a structured diagnostic interview and the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, including anxiety/somatization items...
April 6, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683918/detection-of-persisting-concussion-effects-on-neuromechanical-responsiveness
#3
Gary B Wilkerson, Dustin C Nabhan, Chad J Prusmack, William J Moreau
PURPOSE: Assessment of various indices of neuromechanical responsiveness for association with concussion history. METHODS: An observational cohort study included 48 elite athletes (34 males: 23.8 ±4.4 years; 14 females: 25.4 ±4.5 years) who performed visuomotor reaction time (VMRT) tests involving rapid manual contact with illuminated target buttons that included 2 dual-task conditions: 1) simultaneous oral recitation of scrolling text (VMRT+ST) and 2) simultaneous verbal responses to identify the right or left direction indicated by the center arrow of the Eriksen flanker test (VMRT+FT)...
April 21, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682751/social-influences-of-error-monitoring-in-adolescent-girls
#4
Tyson V Barker, Sonya V Troller-Renfree, Lindsay C Bowman, Daniel S Pine, Nathan A Fox
Adolescence is a developmental period characterized by increased social motivation and a heightened concern of peer evaluation. However, little research has examined social influences on neural functioning in adolescence. One psychophysiological measure of motivation, the error-related negativity (ERN), is an ERP following an error. In adults, the ERN is enhanced by contextual factors that influence motivation, such as social observation and evaluation. The current study examined relations among age and neural responses in social contexts in adolescence...
April 22, 2018: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681868/impaired-cognitive-control-of-emotional-conflict-in-trait-anxiety-a-preliminary-study-based-on-clinical-and-non-clinical-individuals
#5
Yongju Yu, Chenggang Jiang, Haiyan Xu, Qian Yang, Jiawen Li, Yuanyuan Xu, Wenjun Xiang, Li Peng, Botao Liu, Fang Lv, Min Li
Background: It has been observed that trait anxiety easily leads to conflict maladaptation under conflict circumstances. However, it remains unclear whether the precise neural mechanisms underlying the effects of high trait anxiety (HTA) on cognitive control are consistent in high trait anxious individuals, with and without anxiety disorders. Methods: The present study recruited 29 healthy volunteers with low trait anxiety (LTA), 37 healthy volunteers with HTA, and 23 patients with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD)...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677319/focusing-and-orienting-spatial-attention-differently-modulate-crowding-in-central-and-peripheral-vision
#6
Andrea Albonico, Marialuisa Martelli, Emanuela Bricolo, Eleonora Frasson, Roberta Daini
The allocation of attentional resources to a particular location or object in space involves two distinct processes: an orienting process and a focusing process. Indeed, it has been demonstrated that performance of different visual tasks can be improved when a cue, such as a dot, anticipates the position of the target (orienting), or when its dimensions (as in the case of a small square) inform about the size of the attentional window (focusing). Here, we examine the role of these two components of visuo-spatial attention (orienting and focusing) in modulating crowding in peripheral (Experiment 1 and Experiment 3a) and foveal (Experiment 2 and Experiment 3b) vision...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668394/it-s-the-other-way-around-early-modulation-of-sensory-distractor-processing-induced-by-late-response-conflict
#7
Bernhard Pastötter, Christian Frings
Understanding the neural processes that maintain goal-directed behavior is a major challenge for the study of attentional control. Although much of the previous work on the issue has focused on prefrontal brain areas, little is known about the contribution of sensory brain processes to the regulation of attentional control. The present EEG study examined brain oscillatory activities invoked in the processing of response conflict in a lateralized Eriksen single-flanker task, in which target letters were presented at fixation and single distractor letters were presented either left or right to the targets...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665432/moderate-intensity-exercise-boosts-the-n2-neural-inhibition-marker-a-randomized-and-counterbalanced-erp-study-with-precisely-controlled-exercise-intensity
#8
Tomasz S Ligeza, Marcin Maciejczyk, Patrycja Kałamała, Zbigniew Szygula, Miroslaw Wyczesany
A prior session of moderate intensity continuous exercise (MCE) benefits performance during tasks requiring conflict resolution but the specific cognitive process that underlies this improvement remains unknown. Many studies postulate that MCE increases inhibition, but ERP evidence is ambiguous due to significant differences across past procedures. Most importantly, exercise intensity, which modulates the relationship between acute exercise and cognitive processes, might have varied across past ERP studies...
April 14, 2018: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665048/a-neural-biomarker-the-error-related-negativity-predicts-the-first-onset-of-generalized-anxiety-disorder-in-a-large-sample-of-adolescent-females
#9
Alexandria Meyer, Brady Nelson, Greg Perlman, Daniel N Klein, Roman Kotov
OBJECTIVE: An increased neural response to making mistakes has emerged as a potential biomarker of anxiety across development. The error-related negativity (ERN) is an event-related potential elicited when people make mistakes on simple laboratory-based reaction time tasks that has been associated with risk for anxiety. This study examined whether the ERN prospectively predicted the first onset of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) over 1.5 years in adolescent girls. METHODS: The sample included 457 girls between the ages of 13...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663286/how-holistic-processing-of-faces-relates-to-cognitive-control-and-intelligence
#10
Isabel Gauthier, Kao-Wei Chua, Jennifer J Richler
The Vanderbilt Holistic Processing Test for faces (VHPT-F) is the first standard test designed to measure individual differences in holistic processing. The test measures failures of selective attention to face parts through congruency effects, an operational definition of holistic processing. However, this conception of holistic processing has been challenged by the suggestion that it may tap into the same selective attention or cognitive control mechanisms that yield congruency effects in Stroop and Flanker paradigms...
April 16, 2018: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660215/polygenic-risk-for-psychiatric-disorders-correlates-with-executive-function-in-typical-development
#11
Andrew J Schork, Timothy T Brown, Donald J Hagler, Wesley K Thompson, Chi-Hua Chen, Anders M Dale, Terry L Jernigan, Natacha Akshoomoff
Executive functions are a diverse and critical suite of cognitive abilities that are often disrupted in individuals with psychiatric disorders. Despite their moderate to high heritability, little is known about the molecular genetic factors that contribute to variability in executive function and how these factors may be related to those that predispose to psychiatric illness. We examined the relationship between polygenic risk scores built from large genome-wide association studies of psychiatric illness and executive functioning in typically developing children...
April 16, 2018: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627273/neural-functional-correlates-of-the-impact-of-socio-emotional-stimuli-on-performances-on-a-flanker-task-in-children-aged-9-11-years
#12
Morgane Réveillon, François Lazeyras, Laurens Van Calster, Yann Cojan, David Sander, Petra S Hüppi, Koviljka Barrisnikov
Immature cognition is susceptible to interference from competing information, and particularly in affectively charged situations. Several studies have reported activation in the anterior cingulate cortex, prefrontal cortex and amygdala associated with emotional conflict processing in adults but literature is lacking regarding children. Moreover, studies in children and adolescents still disagree regarding the functional activation of amygdala related to facial stimuli. In the purpose of investigating both the effect of socio-emotional stimuli and its interaction with interference control, we designed a flanker task associated with an event-related fMRI paradigm in 30 healthy children ages 9-11...
April 5, 2018: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621386/trans-saccadic-integration-of-orientation-information
#13
Michele Fornaciai, Paola Binda, Guido Marco Cicchini
Does visual processing start anew after each eye movement, or is information integrated across saccades? Here we test a strong prediction of the integration hypothesis: that information acquired after a saccade interferes with the perception of images acquired before the saccade. We investigate perception of a basic visual feature, grating orientation, and we take advantage of a delayed interference phenomenon-in human participants, the reported orientation of a target grating, briefly presented at an eccentric location, is strongly biased toward the orientation of flanker gratings that are flashed shortly after the target...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29603969/remote-controls-illusion-strange-interactions-across-space-cannot-be-explained-by-simple-contrast-filters
#14
Laysa Hedjar, Venice Cowardin, Arthur G Shapiro
The visual system has separable visual encoding for luminance and for contrast modulation [J. Vis.8(1), B152 (2008)1534-736210.1167/8.6.1]; the two dimensions can be represented with a luminance contrast versus luminance plane. Here we use a contrast asynchrony paradigm to explore contextual effects on luminance contrast modulation: two identical rectangular bars (0.5°×2.5°) have luminance levels that modulate at 2 Hz; when one bar is placed on a bright field and the other bar on a dark field, observers perceive the bars modulating in antiphase with each other and yet becoming light and dark at the same time...
April 1, 2018: Journal of the Optical Society of America. A, Optics, Image Science, and Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29596523/autistic-traits-and-social-anxiety-predict-differential-performance-on-social-cognitive-tasks-in-typically-developing-young-adults
#15
Cheryl L Dickter, Joshua A Burk, Katarina Fleckenstein, C Teal Kozikowski
The current work examined the unique contribution that autistic traits and social anxiety have on tasks examining attention and emotion processing. In Study 1, 119 typically-developing college students completed a flanker task assessing the control of attention to target faces and away from distracting faces during emotion identification. In Study 2, 208 typically-developing college students performed a visual search task which required identification of whether a series of 8 or 16 emotional faces depicted the same or different emotions...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593516/online-adaptation-to-altered-auditory-feedback-is-predicted-by-auditory-acuity-and-not-by-domain-general-executive-control-resources
#16
Clara D Martin, Caroline A Niziolek, Jon A Duñabeitia, Alejandro Perez, Doris Hernandez, Manuel Carreiras, John F Houde
When a speaker's auditory feedback is altered, he adapts for the perturbation by altering his own production, which demonstrates the role of auditory feedback in speech motor control. In the present study, we explored the role of auditory acuity and executive control in this process. Based on the DIVA model and the major cognitive control models, we expected that higher auditory acuity, and better executive control skills would predict larger adaptation to the alteration. Thirty-six Spanish native speakers performed an altered auditory feedback experiment, executive control (numerical Stroop, Simon and Flanker) tasks, and auditory acuity tasks (loudness, pitch, and melody pattern discrimination)...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29583015/effects-of-90-days-of-resveratrol-supplementation-on-cognitive-function-in-elders-a-pilot-study
#17
Stephen D Anton, Natalie Ebner, Joseph M Dzierzewski, Zvinka Z Zlatar, Matthew J Gurka, Vonetta M Dotson, Joshua Kirton, Robert T Mankowski, Michael Marsiske, Todd M Manini
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this trial was to study the effects of chronic resveratrol use on cognitive function in humans. DESIGN: The authors conducted a double-blind, Phase IIa randomized, placebo-controlled trial to obtain preliminary estimates of the effects of resveratrol supplementation on cognitive function over a 90-day period in older adults. LOCATION: University of Florida in Gainesville, FL. SUBJECTS: Sedentary, overweight older adults (N = 32; age range: 65-93 years, M age = 73...
March 27, 2018: Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine: Research on Paradigm, Practice, and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29574234/reduced-distractor-interference-during-vagus-nerve-stimulation
#18
Marlies E van Bochove, Leen De Taeye, Robrecht Raedt, Kristl Vonck, Alfred Meurs, Paul Boon, Ine Dauwe, Wim Notebaert, Tom Verguts
Suppressing irrelevant information in decision making is an essential everyday skill. We studied whether this ability could be improved in epileptic patients during vagus nerve stimulation (VNS). VNS is known to increase norepinephrine (NE) in the brain. NE is thought to improve several aspects of cognitive control, including the suppression of irrelevant information. Nineteen epileptic VNS patients executed the Eriksen flanker task twice, both during on and off stimulation. Distractor interference was indexed by the congruency effect, a standard empirical marker of cognitive control...
March 21, 2018: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29559674/executive-control-processes-are-associated-with-individual-fitness-outcomes-following-regular-exercise-training-blood-lactate-profile-curves-and-neuroimaging-findings
#19
M C Pensel, M Daamen, L Scheef, H U Knigge, S Rojas Vega, J A Martin, H H Schild, H K Strüder, H Boecker
Cardiovascular training has been associated with neuroimaging correlates of executive control functions (ECF) in seniors and children/adolescents, while complementary studies in middle-aged populations are lacking. Ascribing a prominent role to cardiorespiratory fitness improvements, most studies concentrated on training-induced gains in maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max), although other fitness indices may provide complementary information. Here, we investigated the impact of long-term sub-maximal exercise training on interference control, considering individual training-induced shifts in blood lactate profile curves (BLC) and VO2 max...
March 20, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29551364/ipsilesional-deficit-of-selective-attention-in-left-homonymous-hemianopia-and-left-unilateral-spatial-neglect
#20
Sylvie Chokron, Carole Peyrin, Céline Perez
AIMS: Patients with homonymous hemianopia may present a subtle ipsilesional deficit, recently referred to as 'sightblindness' in addition to the contralesional visual field defect. We recently demonstrated that this deficit could be worse in right brain-damaged patients with left hemianopia than in left brain-damaged patients with right hemianopia, confirming right hemisphere dominance for visuo-spatial and attentional capacities. In the present study we investigate whether this ipsilesional deficit could be attentional in nature and to what extent it is comparable in right brain-damaged (RBD) patients with left hemianopia and in RBD patients with left neglect...
March 15, 2018: Neuropsychologia
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