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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923496/neural-correlates-of-rdoc-reward-constructs-in-adolescents-with-diverse-psychiatric-symptoms-a-reward-flanker-task-pilot-study
#1
Kailyn A L Bradley, Julia A C Case, Rachel D Freed, Emily R Stern, Vilma Gabbay
BACKGROUND: There has been growing interest under the Research Domain Criteria initiative to investigate behavioral constructs and their underlying neural circuitry. Abnormalities in reward processes are salient across psychiatric conditions and may precede future psychopathology in youth. However, the neural circuitry underlying such deficits has not been well defined. Therefore, in this pilot, we studied youth with diverse psychiatric symptoms and examined the neural underpinnings of reward anticipation, attainment, and positive prediction error (PPE, unexpected reward gain)...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899887/saccadic-adaptation-alters-the-attentional-field
#2
Farahnaz A Wick, Tyler W Garaas, Marc Pomplun
It is currently unknown whether changes to the oculomotor system can induce changes to the distribution of spatial attention around a fixated target. Previous studies have used perceptual performance tasks to show that adaptation of saccadic eye movements affects dynamic properties of visual attention, in particular, attentional shifts to a cued location. In this study, we examined the effects of saccadic adaptation on the static distribution of visual attention around fixation (attentional field). We used the classic double step adaptation procedure and a flanker task to test for differences in the attentional field after forward and backward adaptation...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895564/neural-systems-underlying-emotional-and-non-emotional-interference-processing-an-ale-meta-analysis-of-functional-neuroimaging-studies
#3
Min Xu, Guiping Xu, Yang Yang
Understanding how the nature of interference might influence the recruitments of the neural systems is considered as the key to understanding cognitive control. Although, interference processing in the emotional domain has recently attracted great interest, the question of whether there are separable neural patterns for emotional and non-emotional interference processing remains open. Here, we performed an activation likelihood estimation meta-analysis of 78 neuroimaging experiments, and examined common and distinct neural systems for emotional and non-emotional interference processing...
2016: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892808/self-reported-impulsivity-in-huntington-s-disease-patients-and-relationship-to-executive-dysfunction-and-reward-responsiveness
#4
Patricia L Johnson, Geoffrey F Potts, Juan Sanchez-Ramos, Cynthia R Cimino
INTRODUCTION: Few studies have directly investigated impulsivity in Huntington's disease (HD) despite known changes in dopaminergic and frontal functioning, changes that have been associated with impulsivity in other disorders and in the normal population. This study sought to further categorize impulsivity in HD through examining differences in self-reported impulsivity between community controls and HD patients, the relationship between executive dysfunction and impulsivity, and the relationship of a reward/punishment behavioral inhibition task in relation to these self-report measures...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876508/a-behavioural-and-electrophysiological-investigation-of-the-effect-of-bilingualism-on-aging-and-cognitive-control
#5
Shanna Kousaie, Natalie A Phillips
Given previous, but inconsistent, findings of language group differences on cognitive control tasks the current investigation examined whether such differences could be demonstrated in a sample of older bilingual adults. Monolingual and bilingual older adults performed three cognitive control tasks that have previously been used in the literature (i.e., Stroop, Simon and flanker tasks) while brain electrophysiological recordings took place. Both behavioural (response time and accuracy) and event-related brain potentials (ERPs; N2 and P3 amplitude and latency) were compared across the two language groups...
November 20, 2016: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854456/stimulus-recognition-occurs-under-high-perceptual-load-evidence-from-correlated-flankers
#6
Joshua D Cosman, J Toby Mordkoff, Shaun P Vecera
A dominant account of selective attention, perceptual load theory, proposes that when attentional resources are exhausted, task-irrelevant information receives little attention and goes unrecognized. However, the flanker effect-typically used to assay stimulus identification-requires an arbitrary mapping between a stimulus and a response. We looked for failures of flanker identification by using a more-sensitive measure that does not require arbitrary stimulus-response mappings: the correlated flankers effect...
December 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27835807/acute-stress-impairs-frontocingulate-activation-during-error-monitoring-in-remitted-depression
#7
Alexis E Whitton, Ashlee Van't Veer, Pragya Kakani, Daniel G Dillon, Manon L Ironside, Anja Haile, David J Crowley, Diego A Pizzagalli
Deficits in cognitive control are a hallmark characteristic of depression, however less is known about the degree to which they persist beyond symptom remission and might contribute to symptom recurrence in remitted individuals (rMDD). Evidence indicates that stress interferes with cognitive control, highlighting a potential mechanism by which stress precipitates depression relapse. Therefore, this study examined whether stress exposure elicits deficits in error monitoring - a component of cognitive control thought to be particularly implicated in the ability to adaptively respond to negative feedback - in individuals with rMDD...
January 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832732/learned-irrelevance-and-cue-competition-using-an-eriksen-flanker-task
#8
Melissa Tapia, Kirkwood Meyers, Rachel Richardson, Rodica Ghinescu, Todd R Schachtman
Many studies have examined competition between cues for learning. Research examining cue competition has used cues that predict the occurrence of an outcome, or, in some rare cases, competition between cues that predict the absence of an outcome (predicting that an outcome explicitly will not occur). Alternatively, learned irrelevance occurs when a cue lacks the ability to predict the occurrence or absence of an outcome. Using an Eriksen flanker task, the present study evaluated competition among cues that do not have predictive value, that is, competition for learning that an outcome is unpredictable...
September 2016: Experimental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826628/perceptual-interference-processing-in-preschool-children-with-and-without-prenatal-exposure-to-selective-serotonin-reuptake-inhibitors
#9
Tone Kristine Hermansen, Santeri Yrttiaho, Espen Røysamb, Annika Melinder
BACKGROUND: Prenatal exposure to maternal depression, with or without maternal medical antidepressant treatment, may pose a risk to the child's cognitive and behavioral development. Targeting one of the core functions of behavioral regulation, we investigated both behavioral and neural indices of interference suppression in both exposed and control participants at preschool age. METHODS: Children (N = 80, M = 68.60 months, SD = 5.57) with prenatal exposure to maternal depression with (SSRI, N = 21) and without (DEP, N = 33) antidepressant treatment were tested together with unexposed children (CON, N = 26) on a behavioral flanker task while recording event-related potentials (ERPs)...
November 8, 2016: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825750/neural-and-behavioral-suppression-of-interfering-flankers-by-children-with-and-without-autism-spectrum-disorder
#10
Susan Faja, Tessa Clarkson, Sara Jane Webb
Electrophysiological responses, accuracy and reaction time were recorded while 7-11-year-olds with typical development (TYP; N=30) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD; N=19) inhibited conflicting information. Relative to the TYP group, children with ASD had larger decrements in accuracy for incongruent trials and were slower. In terms of neural responses, N2 mean amplitude was greater overall for children with ASD relative to TYP children. N2 neural responses related to a behavioral measure of inhibition and cognitive flexibility for TYP children, whereas it related to suppression of interfering information and maintenance of accurate responding for the children with ASD...
December 2016: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824865/movement-demands-of-elite-under-20s-and-senior-international-rugby-union-players
#11
Daniel J Cunningham, David A Shearer, Scott Drawer, Ben Pollard, Robin Eager, Neil Taylor, Christian J Cook, Liam P Kilduff
This study compared the movement demands of elite international Under-20 age grade (U20s) and senior international rugby union players during competitive tournament match play. Forty elite professional players from an U20 and 27 elite professional senior players from international performance squads were monitored using 10Hz global positioning systems (GPS) during 15 (U20s) and 8 (senior) international tournament matches during the 2014 and 2015 seasons. Data on distances, velocities, accelerations, decelerations, high metabolic load (HML) distance and efforts, and number of sprints were derived...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809874/effect-of-frequent-interruptions-of-prolonged-sitting-on-self-perceived-levels-of-energy-mood-food-cravings-and-cognitive-function
#12
Audrey Bergouignan, Kristina T Legget, Nathan De Jong, Elizabeth Kealey, Janet Nikolovski, Jack L Groppel, Chris Jordan, Raphaela O'Day, James O Hill, Daniel H Bessesen
BACKGROUND: While physical activity has been shown to improve cognitive performance and well-being, office workers are essentially sedentary. We compared the effects of physical activity performed as (i) one bout in the morning or (ii) as microbouts spread out across the day to (iii) a day spent sitting, on mood and energy levels and cognitive function. METHODS: In a randomized crossover trial, 30 sedentary adults completed each of three conditions: 6 h of uninterrupted sitting (SIT), SIT plus 30 min of moderate-intensity treadmill walking in the morning (ONE), and SIT plus six hourly 5-min microbouts of moderate-intensity treadmill walking (MICRO)...
November 3, 2016: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797009/comparing-the-effects-of-implicit-and-explicit-temporal-expectation-on-choice-response-time-and-response-conflict
#13
Melisa Menceloglu, Marcia Grabowecky, Satoru Suzuki
People can use temporally structured sensory information to anticipate future events. Temporal information can be presented implicitly through probability manipulation without participants' awareness of the manipulation, or explicitly conveyed through instructions. We examined how implicit and explicit temporal information established temporal expectations that influenced choice response times and response conflict (measured as flanker effects). We implicitly manipulated temporal structure by block-wise varying the likely timing of a target...
October 28, 2016: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27786513/impact-of-alcohol-use-disorder-comorbidity-on-defensive-reactivity-to-errors-in-veterans-with-posttraumatic-stress-disorder
#14
Stephanie M Gorka, Annmarie MacNamara, Darrin M Aase, Eric Proescher, Justin E Greenstein, Robert Walters, Holly Passi, Joseph M Babione, David M Levy, Amy E Kennedy, Julia A DiGangi, Christine A Rabinak, Christopher Schroth, Kaveh Afshar, Jacklynn Fitzgerald, Greg Hajcak, K Luan Phan
Converging lines of evidence suggest that individuals with comorbid posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and alcohol use disorder (AUD) may be characterized by heightened defensive reactivity, which serves to maintain drinking behaviors and anxiety/hyperarousal symptoms. However, it is important to note that very few studies have directly tested whether individuals with PTSD and AUD exhibit greater defensive reactivity compared with individuals with PTSD without AUD. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to test this emerging hypothesis by examining individual differences in error-related negativity (ERN), an event-related component that is larger among anxious individuals and is thought to reflect defensive reactivity to errors...
November 2016: Psychology of Addictive Behaviors: Journal of the Society of Psychologists in Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27737782/how-effortful-is-cognitive-control-insights-from-a-novel-method-measuring-single-trial-evoked-beta-adrenergic-cardiac-reactivity
#15
Mithras Kuipers, Michael Richter, Daan Scheepers, Maarten A Immink, Elio Sjak-Shie, Henk van Steenbergen
The ability to adjust attentional focus to varying levels of task demands depends on the adaptive recruitment of cognitive control processes. The present study investigated for the first time whether the mobilization of cognitive control during response-conflict trials in a flanker task is associated with effort-related sympathetic activity as measured by changes in the RZ-interval at a single-trial level, thus providing an alternative to the pre-ejection period (PEP) which can only be reliably measured in ensemble-averaged data...
October 10, 2016: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27732019/strategic-control-over-extent-and-timing-of-distractor-based-response-activation
#16
Kerstin Jost, Mike Wendt, Aquiles Luna-Rodriguez, Andreas Löw, Thomas Jacobsen
In choice reaction time (RT) tasks, performance is often influenced by the presence of nominally irrelevant stimuli, referred to as distractors. Recent research provided evidence that distractor processing can be adjusted to the utility of the distractors: Distractors predictive of the upcoming target/response were more attended to and also elicited stronger motor responses. In an event-related potential (ERP) study, we investigated whether not only the extent of distractor processing (as suggested by these previous results), but also the timing of distractor-based response activation is subject to strategic control...
October 10, 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27729889/misaligned-and-polarity-reversed-faces-determine-face-specific-capacity-limits
#17
Volker Thoma, Neil Ward, Jan W de Fockert
Previous research using flanker paradigms suggests that peripheral distracter faces are automatically processed when participants have to classify a single central familiar target face. These distracter interference effects disappear when the central task contains additional anonymous (non-target) faces that load the search for the face target, but not when the central task contains additional non-face stimuli, suggesting there are face-specific capacity limits in visual processing. Here we tested whether manipulating the format of non-target faces in the search task affected face-specific capacity limits...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27720867/the-role-of-test-retest-reliability-in-measuring-individual-and-group-differences-in-executive-functioning
#18
Kenneth R Paap, Oliver Sawi
BACKGROUND: Studies testing for individual or group differences in executive functioning can be compromised by unknown test-retest reliability. NEW METHOD: Test-retest reliabilities across an interval of about one week were obtained from performance in the antisaccade, flanker, Simon, and color-shape switching tasks. There is a general trade-off between the greater reliability of single mean RT measures, and the greater process purity of measures based on contrasts between mean RTs in two conditions...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27715503/aerobic-fitness-is-associated-with-cognitive-control-strategy-in-preadolescent-children
#19
Shih-Chun Kao, Eric S Drollette, Mark R Scudder, Lauren B Raine, Daniel R Westfall, Matthew B Pontifex, Charles H Hillman
The authors used a conditional accuracy function (CAF) method to compute the mean accuracy of multiple reaction time ranges, to investigate the association between aerobic fitness and the utilization of cognitive control strategy during preadolescence. Thirty-eight higher- and lower-fit children were grouped according to their cardiorespiratory capacity (VO2max) and completed a modified flanker task. Seventeen young adults were recruited as a reference group of maturation. The results showed that higher-fit children exhibited an adult-like performance pattern, and demonstrated increased overall response accuracy compared to lower-fit children, with a disproportionally larger increase in individual responses when the time allowed for discriminative processing was constrained...
August 11, 2016: Journal of Motor Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27695385/the-functional-overlap-of-executive-control-and-language-processing-in-bilinguals
#20
Emily L Coderre, Jason F Smith, Walter J B van Heuven, Barry Horwitz
The need to control multiple languages is thought to require domain-general executive control (EC) in bilinguals such that the EC and language systems become interdependent. However, there has been no systematic investigation into how and where EC and language processes overlap in the bilingual brain. If the concurrent recruitment of EC during bilingual language processing is domain-general and extends to non-linguistic EC, we hypothesize that regions commonly involvement in language processing, linguistic EC, and non-linguistic EC may be selectively altered in bilinguals compared to monolinguals...
May 2016: Bilingualism: Language and Cognition
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