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Michael A Gomez, Rafal M Skiba, Jacqueline C Snow
The opportunity an object presents for action is known as an affordance. A basic assumption in previous research was that images of objects, which do not afford physical action, elicit effects on attention and behavior comparable with those of real-world tangible objects. Using a flanker task, we compared interference effects between real graspable objects and matched 2-D or 3-D images of the items. Compared with both 2-D and 3-D images, real objects yielded slower response times overall and elicited greater flanker interference effects...
December 1, 2017: Psychological Science
Tamara E Rosen, Matthew D Lerner
Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often experience symptoms associated with generalized anxiety disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and social anxiety disorder. In other populations, these same symptoms are associated with a larger error-related negativity (ERN), an event-related potential that reflects endogenous threat sensitivity. As such, it is possible that the ERN may relate to the clinical presentation of anxiety in ASD. However, studies examining these associations in youth with ASD have yielded mixed results...
December 6, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
Ping Wang, Xing-Ting Zhu, Zhigang Qi, Silin Huang, Hui-Jie Li
Video games have been found to have positive influences on executive function in older adults; however, the underlying neural basis of the benefits from video games has been unclear. Adopting a task-based functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study targeted at the flanker task, the present study aims to explore the neural basis of the improved executive function in older adults with video game experiences. Twenty video game players (VGPs) and twenty non-video game players (NVGPs) of 60 years of age or older participated in the present study, and there are no significant differences in age (t = 0...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Sung Jun Joo
The response of V1 neurons to a stimulus placed inside the classical receptive field can be modulated by stimuli presented outside the classical receptive field. However, the specific nature of these contextual modulations is unknown. Both enhancement and suppression have been observed as well as variability across measurement methodologies. To assess whether the contextual effect is facilitative or suppressive, we measured neural responses to an oriented Gabor stimulus ("target") in three conditions: in isolation, with two Gabor flankers that were the same orientation as the target, and with two flankers that were orthogonal to the target orientation...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
Richard T Ward, Shelby L Smith, Brian T Kraus, Anna V Allen, Michael A Moses, Stephanie L Simon-Dack
Trait anxiety has been shown to cause significant impairments on attentional tasks. Current research has identified alpha band frequency differences between low-trait and high-trait anxious individuals. Here, we further investigated the underlying alpha band frequency differences between low-trait and high-trait anxious individuals during their resting state and the completion of an inhibition executive functioning task. Using human participants and quantitative electroencephalographic recordings, we measured alpha band frequency in individuals both high and low in trait anxiety during their resting state, and while they completed an Eriksen Flanker Task...
November 17, 2017: Neuroreport
Stephanie M Gorka, Katie L Burkhouse, Heide Klumpp, Amy E Kennedy, Kaveh Afshar, Jennifer Francis, Olusola Ajilore, Scott Mariouw, Michelle G Craske, Scott Langenecker, Stewart A Shankman, K Luan Phan
Increased neural error monitoring, as measured by the error-related negativity (ERN), is a transdiagnostic neurobiological marker of anxiety. To date, little is known about whether the ERN can inform the choice between first-line anxiety disorder treatments and whether the ERN changes following treatment completion. The aim of the study was to therefore assess whether the ERN is a treatment moderator and index of symptom change during cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) or selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)...
November 28, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
George A Buzzell, Sonya V Troller-Renfree, Tyson V Barker, Lindsay C Bowman, Andrea Chronis-Tuscano, Heather A Henderson, Jerome Kagan, Daniel S Pine, Nathan A Fox
OBJECTIVE: Behavioral inhibition (BI) is a temperament identified in early childhood that is a risk factor for later social anxiety. However, mechanisms underlying the development of social anxiety remain unclear. To better understand the emergence of social anxiety, longitudinal studies investigating changes at behavioral neural levels are needed. METHOD: BI was assessed in the laboratory at 2 and 3 years of age (N = 268). Children returned at 12 years, and an electroencephalogram was recorded while children performed a flanker task under 2 conditions: once while believing they were being observed by peers and once while not being observed...
December 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
Sebastian Dummel, Ronald Hübner
Recent research has shown that even non-salient stimuli (colored circles) can gain attentional weight, when they have been loaded with some value through previous reward learning. The present study examined such value-based attentional weighting with intrinsically rewarding food stimuli. Different snacks were assumed to have different values for people due to individual food preferences. Participants indicated their preferences toward various snacks and then performed a flanker task with these snacks: they had to categorize a target snack as either sweet or salty; irrelevant flanker snacks were either compatible or incompatible with the target category...
September 2017: Experimental Psychology
Taotao Ru, Qingwei Chen, Jianing You, Guofu Zhou
This study examines whether the benefits of a short midday nap on habitual nappers' mental performance depend on the cognitive domain and the task difficulty. Eighteen healthy college students with the long-term habit of a midday nap (13:00-14:00 hours) participated in a nap-deprivation study. On two separate days with at least 3 days in between, participants either took a nap or remained awake, and were subsequently tested on a simple sustained attention task (Psychomotor Vigilance Test), two more complex attention tasks (Go/No-Go and Flanker task) and one working memory task (2-back)...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Sleep Research
Darryl W Schneider
Previous research has revealed a peculiar interaction between alertness and cognitive control in selective-attention tasks: Congruency effects are larger on alert trials (on which an alerting cue is presented briefly in advance of the imperative stimulus) than on no-alert trials, despite shorter response times (RTs) on alert trials. One explanation for this finding is the early onset hypothesis, which is based on the assumptions that increased alertness shortens stimulus-encoding time and that cognitive control involves gradually focusing attention during a trial...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
Carolin Dudschig, Barbara Kaup
Human thought and language is traditionally considered as abstract, amodal, and symbolic. However, recent theories propose that high-level human cognition is directly linked to basic, modal biological systems such as sensorimotor areas. Despite this influential representational debate very little is known regarding whether the mechanisms involved in sensorimotor control are also shared with higher-level cognitive processes, such as language comprehension. We investigated negation as a universal of human language, addressing two key questions: (a) Does negation result in a conflict-like representation? (b) Does negation trigger executive control adjustments in a similar manner as standard information processing conflicts do (e...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
Scott R Schroeder, Viorica Marian
Aims and Objectives: The objectives of the present research were to examine the cognitive consequences of trilingualism and explain them relative to the cognitive consequences of bilingualism. Approach: A comparison of cognitive abilities in trilinguals and bilinguals was conducted. In addition, we proposed a cognitive plasticity framework to account for cognitive differences and similarities between trilinguals and bilinguals. Data and Analysis: Three aspects of cognition were analyzed: (1) cognitive reserve in older adults, as measured by age of onset of Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment; (2) inhibitory control in children and younger adults, as measured by response times on behavioral Simon and flanker tasks; and (3) memory generalization in infants and toddlers, as measured by accuracy on behavioral deferred imitation tasks...
2017: International Journal of Bilingualism: Cross-disciplinary, Cross-linguistic Studies of Language Behavior
Rolf Voegler, Jutta Peterburs, Hannah Lemke, Sebastian Ocklenburg, Roman Liepelt, Thomas Straube
Previous research suggests that electrophysiological correlates of performance monitoring, in particular the error-related negativity (ERN), vary according to psychopathology and context factors. The present study examined the effect of social context on behavioral and electrophysiological correlates of performance monitoring in healthy adult subjects and in patients with social anxiety disorder (SAD). Participants performed two runs of a Go/NoGo flanker task in different social conditions: in the observation condition, they were observed by a confederate while performing the task, whereas there was no observation in the control condition...
November 11, 2017: Biological Psychology
Jutta Peterburs, Roman Liepelt, Rolf Voegler, Sebastian Ocklenburg, Thomas Straube
This EEG study used a joint flanker task to investigate differences in processing of social and non-social nogo cues, i.e., between cues indicating that a co-actor should respond and cues signaling that neither actor nor co-actor should respond, using event-related potentials (ERPs) and trial-to-trial response time (RT) effects. It was hypothesized that a social co-actor's response should be reflected in stronger modulation (slower RTs on subsequent trials; augmented neural responses) for social compared to non-social nogo...
November 8, 2017: Social Neuroscience
Yvonne Norgett, John Siderov
Foveal vision in strabismic amblyopia can show increased levels of crowding, akin to typical peripheral vision. Target-flanker similarity and visual-acuity test configuration may cause the magnitude of crowding to vary in strabismic amblyopia. We used custom-designed visual acuity tests to investigate crowding in observers with strabismic amblyopia. LogMAR was measured monocularly in both eyes of 11 adults with strabismic or mixed strabismic/anisometropic amblyopia using custom-designed letter tests. The tests used single-letter and linear formats with either bar or letter flankers to introduce crowding...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
Matthew Hotton, Nazanin Derakshan, Elaine Fox
The process of worry has been associated with reductions in working memory capacity and availability of resources necessary for efficient attentional control. This, in turn, can lead to escalating worry. Recent investigations into working memory training have shown improvements in attentional control and cognitive performance in high trait-anxious individuals and individuals with sub-clinical depression. The current randomised controlled trial investigated the effects of 15 days of adaptive n-back working memory training, or an active control task, on working memory capacity, attentional control and worry in a sample of high worriers...
November 3, 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
Jun Panee, Mariana Gerschenson, Linda Chang
Marijuana (MJ) use is associated with cognitive deficits. Both mitochondrial (mt) dysfunction and gut dysbiosis also affect cognition. We examined whether cognition is related to peripheral blood mononuclear cells' (PBMCs) mt function and fecal microbiota in chronic MJ users. Nineteen chronic MJ users and 20 non-users were evaluated using the Cognition Battery in NIH Toolbox, their mt function for ATP production, and basal and maximal respirations were measured in PBMCs using the Seahorse XFe96 Analyzer, and the abundances of Prevotella and Bacteroides (associated with plant-based and animal product-based diet, respectively) were calculated from stool microbiota analysis...
November 4, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology: the Official Journal of the Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology
Sebastian Ludyga, Serge Brand, Markus Gerber, Peter Weber, Mark Brotzmann, Fahimeh Habibifar, Uwe Pühse
The current body of evidence suggests that an aerobic exercise session has a beneficial effect on inhibitory control, whereas the impact of coordinative exercise on this executive function has not yet been examined in children with ADHD. Therefore, the present study aims to investigate the acute effects of aerobic and coordinative exercise on behavioral performance and the allocation of attentional resources in an inhibitory control task. Using a cross-over design, children with ADHD-combined type and healthy comparisons completed a Flanker task before and after 20min moderately-intense cycling exercise, coordinative exercise and an inactive control condition...
October 27, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
Xiaohui Yang, Zhe Chen, Zhenhong Wang, Liqi Zhu
The present study examined the relations between preschoolers' television exposure and executive functions (EF). One hundred and nineteen 3- to 6-year-old children and their parents participated. Parents filled in a questionnaire regarding children's television viewing time, television content and parental mediation behaviors about their child's television viewing. The children were asked to finish six EF tasks, including the backward digit span task, the spatial span task, the boy-girl Stroop, the Simon task, the flanker task and the Tower of Hanoi task that assessed working memory, inhibition and planning, respectively...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
Peng Liu, Yang Yu, Shudan Gao, Jinbo Sun, Xuejuan Yang, Peng Liu, Wei Qin
Studies using the flanker task have reported that response conflict is detected by the medial frontal cortex (MFC). As a conflict alert system, the MFC shows enhanced functional communication with task-related regions. Previous studies have revealed individual differences in functional connectivity during cognitive task performance. However, the mechanisms underlying these individual differences remain unclear. In the current study, electroencephalography (EEG) was recorded while 30 subjects performed a flanker task that was modified to exclude feature integration and contingency learning...
October 31, 2017: Neuroscience
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