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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217091/a-little-goes-a-long-way-low-working-memory-load-is-associated-with-optimal-distractor-inhibition-and-increased-vagal-control-under-anxiety
#1
Derek P Spangler, Bruce H Friedman
Anxiety impairs both inhibition of distraction and attentional focus. It is unclear whether these impairments are reduced or exacerbated when loading working memory with non-affective information. Cardiac vagal control has been related to top-down regulation of anxiety; therefore, vagal control may reflect load-related inhibition of distraction under anxiety. The present study examined whether: (1) the enhancing and impairing effects of load on inhibition exist together in a non-linear function, (2) there is a similar association between inhibition and concurrent vagal control under anxiety...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182494/dynamic-adjustments-of-attentional-control-in-healthy-aging
#2
Andrew J Aschenbrenner, David A Balota
In standard attentional control tasks, interference effects are reduced following incongruent trials compared to congruent trials, a phenomenon known as the congruency sequence effect (CSE). Typical explanations of this effect suggest the CSE is due to changes in levels of control across adjacent trials. This interpretation has been questioned by the finding that older adults, individuals with impaired attentional control systems, have been shown to produce larger CSEs in the Stroop task compared with younger adult controls...
February 2017: Psychology and Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182476/evolving-the-keys-to-visual-crowding
#3
Erik Van der Burg, Christian N L Olivers, John Cass
Peripheral vision can be severely impaired by nearby clutter. Decades of research using sparse displays have established that this phenomenon, known as visual crowding, follows Bouma's rule: Interference occurs for target-distractor separations up to half the target's eccentricity. Although considered a fundamental constraint on human vision, it is unclear whether Bouma's rule holds in dense heterogeneous visual environments. Using a genetic algorithm we investigated crowding in densely cluttered displays. Participants were instructed to identify the orientation of a target line (6° eccentricity) among 284 distractor lines...
February 9, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165364/inhibitory-control-under-threat-the-role-of-spontaneous-eye-blinks-in-post-traumatic-stress-disorder
#4
Mikael Rubin, Denise A Hien, Dipanjana Das, Robert D Melara
This study is the first to explore spontaneous eye blink rate (sEBR) in individuals with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). We investigated the connection between the magnitude of flanker interference in PTSD participants and sEBR during performance on a modified version of the Eriksen flanker task. As a peripheral measure of cognitive control and dopaminergic function, sEBR may illuminate the relationship between PTSD and executive function. Findings revealed a positive relationship between sEBR and flanker interference in participants diagnosed with PTSD, to both threat-related and neutral stimuli, whereas this relationship was negative in participants exposed to trauma but without PTSD and in healthy controls...
February 4, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160688/the-association-between-aerobic-fitness-and-congruency-sequence-effects-in-preadolescent-children
#5
Daniel R Westfall, Shih-Chun Kao, Mark R Scudder, Matthew B Pontifex, Charles H Hillman
Aerobic fitness has previously been related to cognitive control in preadolescents; however, these investigations have generally relied on global measures of performance. Thus, we have little understanding of how aerobic fitness may relate to trial-by-trial modulations in cognitive control. This study utilized congruency sequence effects (CSEs), which characterize how behavior on the current trial is influenced by the previous trial, to investigate the relation of aerobic fitness on varying levels of cognitive control...
February 2, 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159973/the-effect-of-aging-and-attention-on-visual-crowding-and-surround-suppression-of-perceived-contrast-threshold
#6
Menaka S Malavita, Trichur R Vidyasagar, Allison M McKendrick
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to study how, in midperipheral vision, aging affects visual processes that interfere with target detection (crowding and surround suppression) and to determine whether the performance on such tasks are related to visuospatial attention as measured by visual search. Methods: We investigated the effect of aging on crowding and suppression in detection of a target in peripheral vision, using different types of flanking stimuli...
February 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153494/individual-differences-in-the-dynamics-of-collinear-facilitation
#7
Stephen Jachim, Emma Gowen, Paul A Warren
Collinear facilitation refers to the increase in sensitivity found for a target when aligned between nearby, brighter flankers. Many studies have explored the spatial and temporal aspects of this arrangement, and there is a consensus that two mechanisms could be responsible for this phenomenon; lateral excitation within V1 and extra-striate feedback to V1. There is some debate as to whether facilitation can still occur if the target is presented before the flankers, a manipulation known as backward masking, which could rely on feedback to V1...
February 17, 2017: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150023/effects-of-nicotine-on-response-inhibition-and-interference-control
#8
Ulrich Ettinger, Eliana Faiola, Anna-Maria Kasparbauer, Nadine Petrovsky, Raymond C K Chan, Roman Liepelt, Veena Kumari
Nicotine is a cholinergic agonist with known pro-cognitive effects in the domains of alerting and orienting attention. However, its effects on attentional top-down functions such as response inhibition and interference control are less well characterised. Here, we investigated the effects of 7 mg transdermal nicotine on performance on a battery of response inhibition and interference control tasks. A sample of N = 44 healthy adult non-smokers performed antisaccade, stop signal, Stroop, go/no-go, flanker, shape matching and Simon tasks, as well as the attentional network test (ANT) and a continuous performance task (CPT)...
February 1, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143802/conflict-and-performance-monitoring-throughout-the-lifespan-an-event-related-potential-erp-and-temporospatial-component-analysis
#9
Ann Clawson, Peter E Clayson, Cierra M Keith, Christina Catron, Michael J Larson
Cognitive control includes higher-level cognitive processes used to evaluate environmental conflict. Given the importance of cognitive control in regulating behavior, understanding the developmental course of these processes may contribute to a greater understanding of normal and abnormal development. We examined behavioral (response times [RTs], error rates) and event-related potential data (N2, error-related negativity [ERN], correct-response negativity [CRN], error positivity [Pe]) during a flanker task in cross-sectional groups of 45 youth (ages 8-18), 52 younger adults (ages 20-28), and 58 older adults (ages 56-91)...
January 28, 2017: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130191/the-norepinephrine-system-shows-information-content-specific-properties-during-cognitive-control-evidence-from-eeg-and-pupillary-responses
#10
Moritz Mückschel, Witold Chmielewski, Tjalf Ziemssen, Christian Beste
The ability to exert cognitive control is a major function of the prefrontal cortex, the efficiency of which depends on the phasic release of norepinephrine (NE) at particular time points. However, different aspects of information are simultaneously processed at any given moment. This raises the question of whether the norepinephrine system is also capable of specifically modulating selected aspects of all ongoing information processing, especially when several of those processes are carried out by the same functional neuroanatomical structure at the same time...
January 24, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28121803/the-influence-of-cognitive-impairment-on-the-fitness-cognition-relationship-in-ms
#11
Brian M Sandroff, Robert W Motl, John DeLuca
INTRODUCTION: Cognitive processing speed impairment (PSI) is common and debilitating in persons with multiple sclerosis (MS). Exercise training has been proposed as a behavioral approach for possibly managing MS-related processing speed dysfunction, largely based on cross-sectional studies of the relationship of cardiorespiratory fitness and cognitive processing speed. However, there is minimal evidence supporting exercise training as a treatment for MS-related PSI, as the vast majority of the existing studies have examined exercise and cardiorespiratory fitness effects on cognition in samples of non-cognitively impaired persons with MS...
January 23, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119105/a-single-aerobic-exercise-session-accelerates-movement-execution-but-not-central-processing
#12
Kit B Beyer, Michael D Sage, W Richard Staines, Laura E Middleton, William E McIlroy
Previous research has demonstrated that aerobic exercise has disparate effects on speed of processing and movement execution. In simple and choice reaction tasks, aerobic exercise appears to increase speed of movement execution while speed of processing is unaffected. In the flanker task, aerobic exercise has been shown to reduce response time on incongruent trials more than congruent trials, purportedly reflecting a selective influence on speed of processing related to cognitive control. However, it is unclear how changes in speed of processing and movement execution contribute to these exercise-induced changes in response time during the flanker task...
January 22, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117420/dopaminergic-modulation-of-performance-monitoring-in-parkinson-s-disease-an-event-related-potential-study
#13
Caroline Seer, Florian Lange, Sebastian Loens, Florian Wegner, Christoph Schrader, Dirk Dressler, Reinhard Dengler, Bruno Kopp
Monitoring one's actions is essential for goal-directed performance. In the event-related potential (ERP), errors are followed by fronto-centrally distributed negativities. These error(-related) negativity (Ne/ERN) amplitudes are often found to be attenuated in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) compared to healthy controls (HC). Although Ne/ERN has been proposed to be related to dopaminergic neuronal activity, previous research did not find evidence for effects of dopaminergic medication on Ne/ERN amplitudes in PD...
January 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101830/getting-ahead-of-yourself-parafoveal-word-expectancy-modulates-the-n400-during-sentence-reading
#14
Mallory C Stites, Brennan R Payne, Kara D Federmeier
An important question in the reading literature regards the nature of the semantic information readers can extract from the parafovea (i.e., the next word in a sentence). Recent eye-tracking findings have found a semantic parafoveal preview benefit under many circumstances, and findings from event-related brain potentials (ERPs) also suggest that readers can at least detect semantic anomalies parafoveally (Barber, Van der Meij, & Kutas, Psychophysiology, 50(1), 48-59, 2013). We use ERPs to ask whether fine-grained aspects of semantic expectancy can affect the N400 elicited by a word appearing in the parafovea...
January 18, 2017: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095945/conflict-monitoring-and-adaptation-as-reflected-by-n2-amplitude-in-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#15
A Riesel, J Klawohn, N Kathmann, T Endrass
BACKGROUND: Feelings of doubt and perseverative behaviours are key symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and have been linked to hyperactive error and conflict signals in the brain. While enhanced neural correlates of error monitoring have been robustly shown, far less is known about conflict processing and adaptation in OCD. METHOD: We examined event-related potentials during conflict processing in 70 patients with OCD and 70 matched healthy comparison participants, focusing on the stimulus-locked N2 elicited in a flanker task...
January 18, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080112/beyond-trial-by-trial-adaptation-a-quantification-of-the-time-scale-of-cognitive-control
#16
Bart Aben, Tom Verguts, Eva Van den Bussche
The idea that adaptation to stimulus or response conflict can operate over different time scales takes a prominent position in various theories and models of cognitive control. The mechanisms underlying temporal variations in control are nevertheless poorly understood, which is partly due to a lack of appropriate empirical measures. Inspired by reinforcement learning models, we developed a method to quantify the time scale of control behaviorally, by computing trial-by-trial effects that go beyond the preceding trial...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072701/pathophysiology-of-refractory-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-a-study-of-visual-search-combined-with-overactive-performance-monitoring
#17
Qingxiao Liu, Bo Tan, Jing Zhou, Zhong Zheng, Ling Li, Yanchun Yang
Based on both functional and structural studies of excessive activity, fronto-striatal-thalamic-cortical and cortico-striatal circuits have been hypothesized to underlie the pathophysiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). However, the neurobiological underpinnings of OCD refractory to medication and therapy remain controversial. This study aimed to evaluate neuroanatomical abnormalities of the whole brain and to evaluate visual processing in patients with refractory OCD.This study was comprised of 2 experiments...
January 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059473/striosomal-dysfunction-affects-behavioral-adaptation-but-not-impulsivity-evidence-from-x-linked-dystonia-parkinsonism
#18
Christian Beste, Moritz Mückschel, Raymond Rosales, Aloysius Domingo, Lillian Lee, Arlene Ng, Christine Klein, Alexander Münchau
BACKGROUND: Executive functions including behavioral adaptation and impulse control are commonly impaired in movement disorders caused by striatal pathology. However, as yet it is unclear what aspects of behavioral abnormalities are related to pathology in which striatal subcomponent, that is, the matrix and the striosomes. We therefore studied cognitive control in X-linked dystonia-parkinsonism, a model disease of striosomal degeneration, using behavioral paradigms and EEG. METHODS: We studied genetically confirmed X-linked dystonia-parkinsonism patients (N = 21) in their early disease stages and healthy matched controls...
January 6, 2017: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054276/detecting-distortions-of-peripherally-presented-letter-stimuli-under-crowded-conditions
#19
Thomas S A Wallis, Saskia Tobias, Matthias Bethge, Felix A Wichmann
When visual features in the periphery are close together they become difficult to recognize: something is present but it is unclear what. This is called "crowding". Here we investigated sensitivity to features in highly familiar shapes (letters) by applying spatial distortions. In Experiment 6, observers detected which of four peripherally presented (8 deg of retinal eccentricity) target letters was distorted (spatial 4AFC). The letters were presented either isolated or surrounded by four undistorted flanking letters, and distorted with one of two types of distortion at a range of distortion frequencies and amplitudes...
January 4, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28044450/caffeine-and-theanine-exert-opposite-effects-on-attention-under-emotional-arousal
#20
Grace E Giles, Caroline R Mahoney, Tad T Brunyé, Holly A Taylor, Robin B Kanarek
Tea is perceived as more relaxing than coffee, even though both contain caffeine. L-theanine in tea may account for the difference. Consumed together, caffeine and theanine exert similar cognitive effects to that of caffeine alone, but exert opposite effects on arousal, in that caffeine accentuates and theanine mitigates physiological and felt stress responses. We evaluated whether caffeine and theanine influenced cognition under emotional arousal. Using a double-blind, repeated-measures design, 36 participants received 4 treatments (200 mg caffeine + 0 mg theanine, 0 mg caffeine + 200 mg theanine, 200 mg caffeine + 200 mg theanine, 0 mg caffeine + 0 mg theanine) on separate days...
January 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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