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Ashika Verghese, Jason B Mattingley, Phoebe E Palmer, Paul E Dux
Inhibition of irrelevant and conflicting information and responses is crucial for goal-directed behaviour and adaptive functioning. In the Simon task, for example, responses are slowed if their mappings are spatially incongruent with stimuli that must be discriminated on a nonspatial dimension. Previous work has shown that practice with incongruent spatial mappings can reduce or even reverse the Simon effect. We asked whether such practice transfers between the manual and oculomotor systems and if so to what extent this occurs across a range of behavioural tasks...
October 17, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Chia N Chiu, Chiao-Yun Chen, Neil G Muggleton
Sport participation, fitness, and expertise have been associated with a range of cognitive benefits in a range of populations but both the factors that confer such benefits and the nature of the resulting changes are relatively unclear. Additionally, the interactions between time pressure and cognitive performance for these groups is little studied. Using a flanker task, which measures the ability to selectively process information, and with different time limits for responding, we investigated the differences in performance for participants in (1) an unpredictable, open-skill sport (volleyball), (2) an exercise group engaged in predictable, closed-skill sports (running, swimming), and (3) nonsporting controls...
2017: Progress in Brain Research
Alodie Rey-Mermet, Miriam Gade
Aging has been assumed to go along with deficient inhibitory processes in cognitive performance. According to this inhibition deficit hypothesis, older adults are less able to suppress or ignore irrelevant thoughts and actions than young adults are. This hypothesis has been investigated in a large number of studies. We conducted a meta-analysis to determine whether there is an inhibition deficit in older age and whether this deficit is general or task-specific. We selected 176 studies in which young and older adults were tested on tasks commonly assumed to measure inhibition (i...
October 10, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Arnaud Cachia, Nicola Del Maschio, Gregoire Borst, Pasquale Anthony Della Rosa, Christophe Pallier, Albert Costa, Olivier Houdé, Jubin Abutalebi
The role of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) in modulating the effect of bilingual experience on cognitive control has been reported at both functional and structural neural levels. Individual differences in the ACC sulcal patterns have been recently correlated with cognitive control efficiency in monolinguals. We aimed to investigate whether differences of ACC sulcation mediate the effect of bilingualism on cognitive control efficiency. We contrasted the performance of bilinguals and monolinguals during a cognitive control task (i...
October 7, 2017: Brain and Language
Y Quidé, N O'Reilly, O J Watkeys, V J Carr, M J Green
BACKGROUND: Childhood trauma is a risk factor for psychosis. Deficits in response inhibition are common to psychosis and trauma-exposed populations, and associated brain functions may be affected by trauma exposure in psychotic disorders. We aimed to identify the influence of trauma-exposure on brain activation and functional connectivity during a response inhibition task. METHODS: We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine brain function within regions-of-interest [left and right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, right supplementary motor area, right inferior parietal lobule and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex], during the performance of a Go/No-Go Flanker task, in 112 clinical cases with psychotic disorders and 53 healthy controls (HCs)...
October 10, 2017: Psychological Medicine
Brennan R Payne, Kara D Federmeier
Normative aging is associated with deficits in visual acuity and cognitive control that impact the allocation of visual attention, but little is known about how those changes affect information extraction and integration during visual language comprehension in older adulthood. In the current study, we used a visual hemi-field flanker RSVP paradigm with event-related brain potentials to study how older readers process fine-grained aspects of semantic expectancy in parafoveal and foveal vision. Stimuli consisted of high constraint sentences with expected, unexpected but plausible, or anomalous parafoveal target words, as well as low constraint sentences with neutral but expected target words...
October 4, 2017: Neuropsychologia
Eric S Drollette, Matthew B Pontifex, Lauren B Raine, Mark R Scudder, R Davis Moore, Shih-Chun Kao, Daniel R Westfall, Chien-Ting Wu, Keita Kamijo, Darla M Castelli, Naiman A Khan, Arthur F Kramer, Charles H Hillman
The present study investigated the effect of a 9-month physical activity (PA) intervention on children's cardiorespiratory fitness levels and neuroelectric indices of conflict monitoring (i.e., error-related negativity, ERN). Four hundred twenty-eight preadolescent children (8-9 years old) were randomized into a PA intervention or wait-list control group, and completed a fitness and cognitive control assessment (i.e., modified flanker task) at pre- and posttest. Following exclusion criterion, 308 children were included in the analyses (PA intervention: n = 139; wait-list control: n = 169)...
October 4, 2017: Psychophysiology
Leo Yuk Ting Cheung, Sing-Hang Cheung
Crowding impedes the identification of flanked objects in peripheral vision. Prior studies have shown crowding strength decreases with target-flanker similarity. Research on crowding in Chinese-character recognition has been scarce in the literature. We aimed to fill the research gap by examining the effects of structural similarity on Chinese-character crowding. Regularity in within-character configuration, i.e., orthographic legality, of flankers was manipulated in Experiment 1. Target-flanker similarity in orthographic legality did not affect crowding strength, measured as contrast threshold elevation...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
Yingchen He, Gordon E Legge
The visual span is hypothesized to be a sensory bottleneck on reading speed with crowding thought to be the major sensory factor limiting the size of the visual span. This proposed linkage between crowding, visual span, and reading speed is challenged by the finding that training to read crowded letters reduced crowding but did not improve reading speed (Chung, 2007). Here, we examined two properties of letter-recognition training that may influence the transfer to improved reading: the spatial arrangement of training stimuli and the presence of flankers...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
Bilge Sayim, Johan Wagemans
Peripheral vision is strongly limited by crowding: Targets that are easily recognized in isolation are unrecognizable when flanked by close-by objects. Crowding does not only impair target recognition but also changes appearance. Here we investigated appearance changes and errors in crowding by letting observers draw crowded stimuli. Observers drew stimuli presented at 6° and 12° eccentricity. Stimuli consisted of characters and letter-like symbols. Targets were presented with either a flanker on each side or in isolation...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
Yossef Pirkner, Ruth Kimchi
In visual crowding, identification of a peripheral object is impaired by nearby objects. Recent studies have demonstrated that crowding is not limited only to interaction between low-level features or parts, as presumed by most models of crowding, but can also occur between high-level, configural representations of objects. In this study we show that the relative strength of crowding at the part level versus the configural level is dependent on the strength of the target's perceptual organization. The target's strength of organization was manipulated by presence or absence of closure and good continuation or by proximity between the target's parts...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
Elizabeth Heinrichs-Graham, Joslynn M Hoburg, Tony W Wilson
Movement execution generally occurs in an environment with numerous distractors, and requires the selection of a motor plan from multiple possible alternatives. However, the impact of such distractors on cortical motor function during movement remains largely unknown. Previous studies have identified two movement-related oscillatory responses that are critical to motor planning and execution, and these responses include the peri-movement beta event-related desynchronization (ERD) and the movement-related gamma synchronization (MRGS)...
September 28, 2017: NeuroImage
Curtis D Von Gunten, Hannah I Volpert-Esmond, Bruce D Bartholow
Reactive cognitive control refers to a complementary set of cognitive operations by which individuals monitor for and detect the presence of goal-interfering conflict (i.e., conflict monitoring/evaluation) and, subsequently, initiate attention-focusing and response selection processes to bolster goal-directed action in the face of such conflict (regulative control). The purpose of the current study was to characterize the nature of conflict adaptation in both components of this dynamic process across sequences of trials and, more broadly, across time as participants complete a cognitive control task...
September 28, 2017: Psychophysiology
Emilio A Valadez, Robert F Simons
Past studies utilizing cognitive control tasks have noted that trials following errors are characterized by slowed reaction time. Despite the assumption long held by researchers that this slowing is compensatory (in the service of post-error performance recovery), studies consistently show that post-error trials are no more accurate than post-correct trials. As a result, it has recently been proposed that post-error slowing (PES) is merely part of an orienting response that serves no task-relevant cognitive control purpose...
September 28, 2017: Psychophysiology
Alodie Rey-Mermet, Miriam Gade, Klaus Oberauer
Inhibition is often conceptualized as a unitary construct reflecting the ability to ignore and suppress irrelevant information. At the same time, it has been subdivided into inhibition of prepotent responses (i.e., the ability to stop dominant responses) and resistance to distracter interference (i.e., the ability to ignore distracting information). The present study investigated the unity and diversity of inhibition as a psychometric construct, and tested the hypothesis of an inhibition deficit in older age...
September 28, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
Rodrigo C Vergara, Cristóbal Moënne-Loccoz, Pedro E Maldonado
Thermal stress has been shown to increase the chances of unsafe behavior during industrial and driving performances due to reductions in mental and attentional resources. Nonetheless, establishing appropriate safety standards regarding environmental temperature has been a major problem, as modulations are also be affected by the task type, complexity, workload, duration, and previous experience with the task. To bypass this attentional and thermoregulatory problem, we focused on the body rather than environmental temperature...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Susan Vrijkotte, Romain Meeusen, Cloe Vandervaeren, Luk Buyse, Jeroen van Cutsem, Nathalie Pattyn, Bart Roelands
PURPOSE: The two bout exercise protocol has been developed to diagnose non-functional overreaching (NFO) and the 'Overtraining Syndrome' (OTS). It consists of two maximal exercise bouts separated by 4 hours. Mental fatigue negatively influences performance but the effects of its occurrence during the two bout exercise protocol have never been investigated. The aim of this study was to examine whether mental fatigue (induced during the rest period) influences physical and cognitive performance during/after the second exercise bout of the two bout exercise protocol...
September 27, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
Andrey Chetverikov, Polina Iamschinina, Alena Begler, Ivan Ivanchei, Margarita Filippova, Maria Kuvaldina
Preferences are determined not only by stimuli themselves but also by the way they are processed in the brain. The efficacy of cognitive processing during previous interactions with stimuli is particularly important. When observers make errors in simple tasks such as visual search, recognition, or categorization, they later dislike the stimuli associated with errors. Here we test whether this error-related devaluation exists in Erisken flanker task and whether it depends on the distribution of attention. We found that both attended stimuli (targets) and ignored ones (distractors) are devaluated after errors on compatible trials but not incompatible ones...
October 2017: Acta Psychologica
Brittany C Speed, Felicia Jackson, Brady D Nelson, Zachary P Infantolino, Greg Hajcak
The error-related negativity (ERN) is a response-locked component in the event-related potential observed asa negative deflection 50-100ms following the commission of an error. An unpredictable context has been shown to potentiate amygdala activity, attentional bias toward threat, and the ERN in adults. However, it is unclear whether the impact of unpredictability on the ERN is also observed in children and adolescents. In a sample of 32 9-17year-old participants, we examined the influence of a task-irrelevant unpredictable context on neural response to errors...
December 2017: Brain and Cognition
Eldad Yitzhak Hochman, Valery Milman, Liron Tal
Recent model suggests that error detection gives rise to defensive motivation prompting protective behavior. Models of active avoidance behavior predict it should grow larger with threat imminence and avoidance. We hypothesized that in a task requiring left or right key strikes, error detection would drive an avoidance reflex manifested by rapid withdrawal of an erring finger growing larger with threat imminence and avoidance. In experiment 1, three groups differing by error-related threat imminence and avoidance performed a flanker task requiring left or right force sensitive-key strikes...
October 2017: Acta Psychologica
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