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Joshua Snell, Daisy Bertrand, Martijn Meeter, Jonathan Grainger
Research has suggested that the word recognition process is influenced by the integration of orthographic information across words. The precise nature of this integration process may vary, however, depending on whether words are in temporal or spatial proximity. Here we present a lexical decision experiment, designed to compare temporal and spatial integration processes more directly. Masked priming was used to reveal effects of temporal integration, while the flanker paradigm was used to reveal effects of spatial integration...
January 2018: Experimental Psychology
Francesco Di Gregorio, Martin E Maier, Marco Steinhauser
Errors in human behavior elicit a cascade of brain activity related to performance monitoring and error detection. Whereas the early error-related negativity (Ne/ERN) has been assumed to reflect a fast mismatch or prediction error signal in the medial frontal cortex, the later error positivity (Pe) is viewed as a correlate of conscious error processing. A still open question is whether these components represent two independent systems of error monitoring that rely on different types of information to detect an error...
January 30, 2018: NeuroImage
Robert D Melara, Lesia M Ruglass, Eric A Fertuck, Denise A Hien
The current study investigated links between trauma exposure, Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) symptoms, and inhibitory control assessed using a modified version of the visual flanker task. The study had three aims: (1) specifically confirm general non-affective deficits in sustained attention in PTSD; (2) probe the influence of threatening and trauma-related stimuli on inhibitory control; and (3) explore neural correlates connecting PTSD, facets of dissociation, and inhibitory control. Participants with PTSD (n=16), trauma-exposed individuals without PTSD (TE; n=14), and healthy controls (n=15) discriminated line orientations while ignoring temporally flanking lines and images depicting threatening or non-threatening scenes or faces...
January 31, 2018: Biological Psychology
Ryan S Williams, Farrah Kudus, Benjamin J Dyson, Julia Spaniol
Preparing for upcoming events, separating task-relevant from task-irrelevant information and efficiently responding to stimuli all require cognitive control. The adaptive recruitment of cognitive control depends on activity in the dopaminergic reward system as well as the frontoparietal control network. In healthy aging, dopaminergic neuromodulation is reduced, resulting in altered incentive-based recruitment of control mechanisms. In the present study, younger adults (18-28 years) and healthy older adults (66-89 years) completed an incentivized flanker task that included gain, loss, and neutral trials...
February 1, 2018: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
Emma G Johnson, Sarah Skromanis, Raimondo Bruno, Jonathan Mond, Cynthia A Honan
RATIONALE: Alcohol intoxication is associated with socially disinhibited behaviours that may reflect impaired social cognitive abilities that guide social behaviour. The effects of alcohol on social cognition and how this may contribute to disinhibited behaviour are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to examine whether intoxicated individuals could inhibit automatic negative responses to negative social information, whether these difficulties were reliant on theory of mind (ToM) ability and whether intoxicated individuals were able to adjust verbal responses when provided with guidelines about how to respond...
February 1, 2018: Psychopharmacology
Matthew J C Crump, Bruce Milliken, Jason Leboe-McGowan, Launa Leboe-McGowan, Xiaoqing Gao
There are several independent demonstrations that attentional phenomena can be controlled in a context-dependent manner by cues associated with differing attentional control demands. The present set of experiments provide converging evidence that attention-capture phenomena can be modulated in a context-dependent fashion. We determined whether methods from the proportion congruent literature (listwide and item- and context-specific proportion congruent designs) that are known to modulate distractor interference effects in Stroop and flanker tasks are capable of modulating attention capture by salient feature singletons...
February 1, 2018: Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, Revue Canadienne de Psychologie Expérimentale
M Simó, A Gurtubay-Antolin, L Vaquero, J Bruna, A Rodríguez-Fornells
No previous event-related potentials (ERPs) study has explored the error-related negativity (ERN) - an ERP component indexing performance monitoring - associated to cancer and chemotherapy-induced cognitive impairment in a lung cancer population. The aim of this study was to examine differences in performance monitoring in a small-cell lung cancer group (SCLC, C +) 1-month following chemotherapy and two control groups: a non-small cell lung cancer patient group (NSCLC, C -) prior to chemotherapy and a healthy control group (HC)...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Julia Siemann, Manfred Herrmann, Daniela Galashan
The present study examined whether feature-based cueing affects early or late stages of flanker conflict processing using EEG and fMRI. Feature cues either directed participants' attention to the upcoming colour of the target or were neutral. Validity-specific modulations during interference processing were investigated using the N200 event-related potential (ERP) component and BOLD signal differences. Additionally, both data sets were integrated using an fMRI-constrained source analysis. Finally, the results were compared with a previous study in which spatial instead of feature-based cueing was applied to an otherwise identical flanker task...
January 25, 2018: Scientific Reports
Manson Cheuk-Man Fong, Nga Yan Hui, Edith Sze Wan Fung, Patrick Chun Kau Chu, William Shi-Yuan Wang
The N2 component is a well-known neural correlate of conflict monitoring (CM), being more negative in the presence of conflicting information in visual conflict tasks. However, whether to-be-ignored auditory distractors can introduce additional conflict remains unknown. In the present work, subjects performed a visual (V) and audiovisual (AV) version of a Go/NoGo flanker task, and responded only if the target arrow pointed toward a pre-specified direction (e.g., left). In the AV task, in which to-be-ignored auditory distractors that were semantically associated with the flankers were concurrently presented, the congruency effect on both RT and N2 amplitude were enhanced, confirming that additional conflict can be brought about by cross-modal distractors at both behavioural and neural levels...
January 20, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Brad C Motter
Visual crowding is a fundamental constraint on our ability to identify peripheral objects in cluttered environments. This study proposes a descriptive model for understanding crowding based on the tuning selectivity for stimuli within the receptive field (RF) and examines potential neural correlates in cortical area V4. For V4 neurons, optimally sized, letter-like stimuli are much smaller than the RF. This permits stimulus conflation, the fusing of separate objects into a single identity, to occur within the RF of single neurons...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Vision
Blaire J Weidler, Abhishek Dey, Julie M Bugg
Much research has shown that humans can allocate attentional control differentially to multiple locations based on the amount of conflict historically associated with a given location. Additionally, once established, these control settings can transfer to nearby locations that themselves have no conflict bias. Here we examined if these control settings also extend to nearby locations that are presented outside of the original frame of reference of biased stimuli. During training, participants first responded to biased flanker stimuli that were likely high conflict in one location and low conflict in another location...
January 22, 2018: Psychological Research
Ryan L Olson, Christopher J Brush, Peter J Ehmann, Jennifer F Buckman, Brandon L Alderman
Previous research has demonstrated long-term deficits in neurocognitive function in individuals with a history of sport-related concussion. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between a history of concussion and behavioral and event-related potential (ERP) indices of pre- and post-response conflict and error monitoring. A secondary aim was to determine whether years of high risk sport participation were related to impairments in these cognitive control processes. Forty-seven former athletes (age = 20...
January 18, 2018: International Journal of Psychophysiology
Jasmine B Taylor, Troy A W Visser, Simone N Fueggle, Mark A Bellgrove, Allison M Fox
OBJECTIVES: Previous studies have postulated that the error-related negativity (ERN) may reflect individual differences in impulsivity; however, none have used a longitudinal framework or evaluated impulsivity as a multidimensional construct. The current study evaluated whether ERN amplitude, measured in childhood and adolescence, is predictive of impulsiveness during adolescence. METHODS: Seventy-five children participated in this study, initially at ages 7-9 years and again at 12-18 years...
January 10, 2018: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
Zhenjie Ni, Huanli Dong, Hanlin Wang, Shang Ding, Ye Zou, Qiang Zhao, Yonggang Zhen, Feng Liu, Lang Jiang, Wenping Hu
Herein, the design and synthesis of novel π-extended quinoline-flanked diketopyrrolopyrrole (DPP) [abbreviated as QDPP] motifs and corresponding copolymers named PQDPP-T and PQDPP-2FT for high performing n-type organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) in flexible organic thin film devices are reported. Serving as DPP-flankers in backbones, quinoline is found to effectively tune copolymer optoelectric properties. Compared with TDPP and pyridine-flanked DPP (PyDPP) analogs, widened bandgaps and strengthened electron deficiency are achieved...
January 18, 2018: Advanced Materials
Lauren E Beaton, Sheeva Azma, Ksenija Marinkovic
Despite the subjective experience of being in full and deliberate control of our actions, our daily routines rely on a continuous and interactive engagement of sensory evaluation and response preparation streams. They unfold automatically and unconsciously and are seamlessly integrated with cognitive control which is mobilized by stimuli that evoke ambiguity or response conflict. Methods with high spatio-temporal sensitivity are needed to provide insight into the interplay between automatic and controlled processing...
2018: PloS One
Lize Van der Linden, Nele Verreyt, Miet De Letter, Dimitri Hemelsoet, Peter Mariën, Patrick Santens, Michaël Stevens, Arnaud Szmalec, Wouter Duyck
BACKGROUND: Until today, there is no satisfying explanation for why one language may recover worse than another in differential bilingual aphasia. One potential explanation that has been largely unexplored is that differential aphasia is the consequence of a loss of language control rather than a loss of linguistic representations. Language control is part of a general control mechanism that also manages non-linguistic cognitive control. If this system is impaired, patients with differential aphasia could still show bilingual language activation, but they may be unable to manage activation in non-target languages, so that performance in another language is hindered...
January 4, 2018: International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders
Joshua Snell, Daisy Bertrand, Jonathan Grainger
The masked-priming lexical decision task has been the paradigm of choice for investigating how readers code for letter identity and position. Insight into the temporal integration of information between prime and target words has pointed out, among other things, that readers do not code for the absolute position of letters. This conception has spurred various accounts of the word recognition process, but the results at present do not favor one account in particular. Thus, employing a new strategy, the present study moves out of the arena of temporal- and into the arena of spatial information integration...
January 8, 2018: Memory & Cognition
Marcello Maniglia, Vincent Soler, Benoit Cottereau, Yves Trotter
Macular degeneration (MD) affects central vision and represents the leading cause of visual diseases in elderly population worldwide. As a consequence of central vision loss, MD patients develop a preferred retinal locus (PRL), an eccentric fixation point that replaces the fovea. Here, our aim was to determine whether and to what extent spontaneous plasticity takes place in the cortical regions formerly responding to central vision and whether a visual training based on perceptual learning (PL) can boost this plasticity within the PRL area...
January 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
Morgan R Chojnacki, Lauren B Raine, Eric S Drollette, Mark R Scudder, Arthur F Kramer, Charles H Hillman, Naiman A Khan
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between adiposity and cognition by using mean accuracy, mean reaction time, and intraindividual variability (IIV) among preadolescents. METHODS: Children 7 to 9 years old (N = 233, 133 females) underwent dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and a maximal oxygen consumption test to assess whole-body adiposity and aerobic fitness relative to fat-free mass (VO2 FF), respectively. Attentional inhibition was assessed by using a modified flanker task...
December 27, 2017: Obesity
Jeroen Van Cutsem, Kevin De Pauw, Samuele Marcora, Romain Meeusen, Bart Roelands
INTRODUCTION: Mental fatigue is a psychobiological state caused by prolonged periods of demanding cognitive activity that has negative implications on many aspects in daily life. Caffeine and carbohydrate ingestion have been shown to be able to reduce these negative effects of mental fatigue. Intake of these substances might however be less desirable in some situations (e.g., restricted caloric intake, Ramadan). Rinsing caffeine or glucose within the mouth has already been shown to improve exercise performance...
December 15, 2017: Psychopharmacology
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