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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434107/early-life-obesity-prevention-critique-of-intervention-trials-during-the-first-one-thousand-days
#1
REVIEW
John J Reilly, Anne Martin, Adrienne R Hughes
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To critique the evidence from recent and ongoing obesity prevention interventions in the first 1000 days in order to identify evidence gaps and weaknesses, and to make suggestions for more informative future intervention trials. RECENT FINDINGS: Completed and ongoing intervention trials have had fairly modest effects, have been limited largely to high-income countries, and have used relatively short-term interventions and outcomes. Comparison of the evidence from completed prevention trials with the evidence from systematic reviews of behavioral risk factors shows that some life-course stages have been neglected (pre-conception and toddlerhood), and that interventions have neglected to target some important behavioral risk factors (maternal smoking during pregnancy, infant and child sleep)...
April 22, 2017: Current Obesity Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434087/hepatitis-b-during-pregnancy-in-endemic-areas-screening-treatment-and-prevention-of-mother-to-child-transmission
#2
Naichaya Chamroonkul, Teerha Piratvisuth
The proper management of pregnant women infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV) is necessary to prevent maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality and to protect the baby from HBV infection. In the majority of cases, vertical transmission can be prevented with a universal screening program, HBV vaccine immunoprophylaxis, and administration of hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIg) for babies born to mothers with HBV. However, in mothers with a high viral load (>200,000 or >1,000,000 IU/ml, depending on the guideline), the chance of immunoprophylaxis failure remains high...
April 22, 2017: Paediatric Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433733/factors-influencing-repeated-teenage-pregnancy-a-review-and-meta-analysis
#3
REVIEW
Joemer C Maravilla, Kim S Betts, Camila Couto E Cruz, Rosa Alati
OBJECTIVE: Existing evidence of predictors of repeated teenage pregnancy (RTP) has not been rigorously assessed. This systematic review provides a comprehensive evaluation of protective and risk factors associated with RTP through a meta-analytical consensus. DATA SOURCES: Pubmed, EMBASE, CINAHL, ProQuest, PsychINFO, ScienceDirect, Scopus and Web of Science databases, from 1997 to 2015; and reference list of other relevant research papers and related reviews. STUDY ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: Eligibility criteria included 1) epidemiological studies which analysed factors associated with repeated pregnancy or birth among adolescents under 20 years of age who were nulliparous or experienced at least one pregnancy; 2) experimental studies with an observational component adjusted for the intervention...
April 19, 2017: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433574/serodiagnosis-of-toxoplasmosis-the-effect-of-measurement-of-igg-avidity-in-pregnant-women-in-rabat-in-morocco
#4
Majda Laboudi, Abderrahim Sadak
BACKGROUND: The diagnosis of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women during the early first trimester of pregnancy is very important for preventing congenital infection of the fetus; it will not only prevent the risk of transmitting the infection to the fetus but it will also enable to give these women a preventive treatment. In this study, the avidity test was performed on pregnant women during their first prenatal visit at the National Institute of Hygiene in Rabat, Morocco. FINDINGS: One hundred and twenty-eight sera samples were collected from 128 pregnant women between august 2015 and June 2016; these women were chosen retrospectively and were in their first 4 months of pregnancy...
April 19, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433373/preimplantation-genetic-diagnosis-for-aneuploidy-testing-in-women-older-than-44-years-a-multicenter-experience
#5
Filippo Maria Ubaldi, Danilo Cimadomo, Antonio Capalbo, Alberto Vaiarelli, Laura Buffo, Elisabetta Trabucco, Susanna Ferrero, Elena Albani, Laura Rienzi, Paolo E Levi Setti
OBJECTIVE: To report laboratory and clinical outcomes in preimplantation genetic diagnosis for aneuploidies (PGD-A) cycles for women 44 to 47 years old. DESIGN: Multicenter, longitudinal, observational study. SETTING: In vitro fertilization (IVF) centers. PATIENT(S): One hundred and thirty-seven women aged 44.7 ± 0.7 years (range: 44.0-46.7) undergoing 150 PGD-A cycles during April 2013 to January 2016. INTERVENTION(S): Quantitative polymerase chain reaction-based PGD-A on trophectoderm biopsies and cryopreserved euploid single-embryo transfer (SET)...
April 19, 2017: Fertility and Sterility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432791/immediate-versus-delayed-postpartum-insertion-of-contraceptive-implant-for-contraception
#6
REVIEW
Jen Sothornwit, Yuthapong Werawatakul, Srinaree Kaewrudee, Pisake Lumbiganon, Malinee Laopaiboon
BACKGROUND: The spacing of pregnancies has a positive impact on maternal and newborn health. The progestin contraceptive implant, which is a long-acting, reversible method of contraception, has a well-established low failure rate that is compatible with tubal sterilization. The standard provision of contraceptive methods on the first postpartum visit may put some women at risk of unintended pregnancy, either due to loss to follow-up or having sexual intercourse prior to receiving contraception...
April 22, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432735/perinatal-outcomes-among-young-indigenous-australian-mothers-a-cross-sectional-study-and-comparison-with-adult-indigenous-mothers
#7
Malinda Steenkamp, Jacqueline Boyle, Sue Kildea, Vivienne Moore, Michael Davies, Alice Rumbold
BACKGROUND: The teenage pregnancy rate is high among Indigenous Australian women, yet little is known about their pregnancy outcomes. Moreover, against a background of extreme social disadvantage, the relative importance of age as a risk factor for adverse outcomes among Indigenous pregnancies is unclear. We compared perinatal outcomes for Indigenous teenagers (<20 years) with adult Indigenous women (20-34 years), and described outcomes in subgroups of teenagers. METHODS: Data were analyzed for 2421 singleton births to Indigenous women aged <35 years in Australia's Northern Territory from 2003 to 2005...
April 22, 2017: Birth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432715/complications-of-pregnancy-and-labor-in-women-with-klippel-trenaunay-syndrome-a-nationwide-cross-sectional-study
#8
S E R Horbach, M M Lokhorst, C E U Oduber, S Middeldorp, J A M van der Post, C M A M van der Horst
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate complications of pregnancy, including thromboembolism, in women with extensive vascular malformations associated with Klippel-Trenaunay Syndrome (KTS). DESIGN: Nationwide cross-sectional study. SETTING: Two tertiary expert centers and the Dutch Klippel-Trenaunay patient organization. SAMPLE: Adult women with KTS. METHODS: Patients with KTS were invited to participate in a comprehensive online survey about their obstetric history...
April 22, 2017: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430866/maternal-high-sucrose-diets-altered-vascular-large-conductance-ca2-activated-k-channels-via-reactive-oxygen-species-in-offspring-rats%C3%A2
#9
Xueqin Feng, Xiuwen Zhou, Wenna Zhang, Xiang Li, Axin He, Bailin Liu, Ruixiu Shi, Lei Wu, Jue Wu, Di Zhu, Na Li, Miao Sun, Zhice Xu
Overnutrition during pregnancy could increase risks of cardiovascular diseases in late life. This study investigated whether and how reactive oxygen species (ROS) may influence functions of large-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channels (BKCa) in the offspring exposed to prenatal high-sucrose (HS). We found that prenatal high-sucrose diets significantly increased phenylephrine (PE)-induced vessel contractions in mesenteric arteries of the adult offspring. Pretreatment with iberiotoxin (BKCa blocker, IBTX) significantly increased PE-mediated vascular contractions in the control, not in the HS group...
April 18, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428737/reducing-sexual-risk-behaviors-secondary-analyses-from-a-randomized-controlled-trial-of-a-brief-web-based-alcohol-intervention-for-underage-heavy-episodic-drinking-college-women
#10
Kaitlin E Bountress, Isha W Metzger, Jessica L Maples-Keller, Amanda K Gilmore
BACKGROUND: Alcohol use and sexual risk behaviors (SRBs) are significant problems on college campuses. College women are at particularly high risk for negative consequences associated with sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and unwanted pregnancy. METHODS: The current study (n = 160) examined the effect of a brief, web-based alcohol intervention (n = 53) for college women on reducing SRBs compared to an assessment only control (n = 107) with a randomized controlled trial...
2017: Addiction Research & Theory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427432/anti-human-platelet-antigen-hpa-1a-antibodies-may-affect-trophoblast-functions-crucial-for-placental-development-a-laboratory-study-using-an-in-vitro-model
#11
Mariana Eksteen, Gøril Heide, Heidi Tiller, Yan Zhou, Nora Hersoug Nedberg, Inigo Martinez-Zubiaurre, Anne Husebekk, Bjørn R Skogen, Tor B Stuge, Mette Kjær
BACKGROUND: Fetal and neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (FNAIT) is a bleeding disorder caused by maternal antibodies against paternal human platelet antigens (HPAs) on fetal platelets. Antibodies against HPA-1a are accountable for the majority of FNAIT cases. We have previously shown that high levels of maternal anti-HPA-1a antibodies are associated with clinically significant reduced birth weight in newborn boys. Chronic inflammatory placental lesions are associated with increased risk of reduced birth weight and have previously been reported in connection with FNAIT pregnancies...
April 21, 2017: Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology: RB&E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427374/prenatal-determinants-of-physical-activity-and-cardiorespiratory-fitness-in-adolescence-northern-finland-birth-cohort-1986-study
#12
Marjaana Tikanmäki, Tuija Tammelin, Marja Vääräsmäki, Marika Sipola-Leppänen, Satu Miettola, Anneli Pouta, Marjo-Riitta Järvelin, Eero Kajantie
BACKGROUND: Lower levels of physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness are key risk factors of chronic adult diseases. Physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness are predicted by birth weight, but the underlying parental and pregnancy-related factors remain largely unknown. We examined how prenatal determinants are associated with physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness in adolescence. METHODS: Of the 16-year-old members of the population-based Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986 (NFBC 1986), 6682 singletons with no major physical disability reported their amount of physical activity outside school hours, and 4706 completed a submaximal cycle ergometer test assessing cardiorespiratory fitness...
April 20, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426943/how-strong-is-the-evidence-for-using-blood-biomarkers-alone-to-screen-for-alcohol-consumption-during-pregnancy-a-systematic-review
#13
Helen Howlett, Sarah Abernethy, Nigel W Brown, Judith Rankin, William K Gray
Accurate and early identification of women at risk from alcohol consumption during pregnancy allows education and support programmes to be targeted at those most in need. We aimed to conduct a systematic review to compare the efficacy of blood analysis and maternal self-report in detecting at risk women during pregnancy. This review investigated diagnostic accuracy. We searched four databases (Medline, Embase, Psychinfo and CINAHL) for relevant articles and conducted hand searches of recent issues of key journals in the field...
April 5, 2017: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426519/toward-a-universal-antiretroviral-regimen-special-considerations-of-pregnancy-and-breast-feeding
#14
Amy L Slogrove, Polly Clayden, Elaine J Abrams
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: As optimized antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimens are prepared for introduction in low-income and middle-income countries (LMIC), we consider the current evidence related to dosing, efficacy and safety during pregnancy and breastfeeding of next-generation first-line and second-line ART regimens proposed for imminent introduction in the global marketplace. RECENT FINDINGS: Pregnancy pharmacokinetic considerations include potentially insufficient efavirenz exposure if dosed at 400 mg/day, the need for twice daily darunavir dosing and the paucity of data related to tenofovir alafenamide and dolutegravir dosing, safety and efficacy...
April 19, 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426160/assessment-and-support-during-early-labour-for-improving-birth-outcomes
#15
REVIEW
Shinobu Kobayashi, Nobutsugu Hanada, Masayo Matsuzaki, Kenji Takehara, Erika Ota, Hatoko Sasaki, Chie Nagata, Rintaro Mori
BACKGROUND: The progress of labour in the early or latent phase is usually slow and may include painful uterine contractions. Women may feel distressed and lose their confidence during this phase. Support and assessment interventions have been assessed in two previous Cochrane Reviews. This review updates and replaces these two reviews, which have become out of date. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effectiveness of assessment and support interventions for women during early labour...
April 20, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425765/the-prevention-and-treatment-of-venous-thromboembolism-in-pregnancy
#16
Michela Villani, Walter Ageno, Elvira Grandone, Francesco Dentali
Venous thromboembolism (VTE) in pregnancy represents an important cause of maternal morbidity and mortality in developed countries, with an incidence of 0.5-2.2 per 1000 pregnancies. In addition to haemostatic occurring during normal pregnancy, several risk factors have been identified. Thus, a variety of clinical conditions as well as fetal and maternal risks linked to a possible anticoagulant therapy should be considered for the management of VTE during pregnancy. Unfortunately, there is a paucity of high-quality evidence from randomized trials in this field, and current recommendations are based on observational studies or evidence gathered from studies in the non-pregnant population...
April 20, 2017: Expert Review of Cardiovascular Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425750/modeling-alloantibody-formation-to-high-incidence-red-blood-cell-antigens-in-immune-responders-using-genotypic-data
#17
Patricia A R Brunker, Keerthana Ravindran, R S Shirey
Alloimmunization to red blood cell antigens is unpredictable and poorly understood. Patients who are negative for high-incidence antigens (HIAs) are at risk for developing the corresponding antibodies. Molecular methods can easily predict the lack of an antigen and thus, the risk of an individual to become immunized. We examined the prevalence and risk factors for HIA alloimmunization in patients at risk based on genotyping results. Genotyping using a molecular method (HEA BeadChip™, Immucor, Warren, NJ) was performed on all patient specimens referred for molecular testing over 45 months; serologic and clinical data were analyzed...
January 2017: Immunohematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425156/universal-versus-selective-ultrasonography-to-screen-for-large-for-gestational-age-infants-and-associated-morbidity
#18
Ulla Sovio, Alexandros A Moraitis, Hilary S Wong, Gordon C S Smith
OBJECTIVE: To compare the diagnostic effectiveness of selective versus universal ultrasonography as a screening test for large for gestational age (LGA) infants, and to determine whether previously described ultrasonic markers of excessive fetal growth could identify which suspected LGA fetuses were at increased risk of neonatal morbidity. METHODS: We analysed data from a prospective cohort study of nulliparous women, the Pregnancy Outcome Prediction study. All women had clinically indicated scans as per routine care...
April 20, 2017: Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425011/pregnancy-related-myocardial-infarction
#19
H Lameijer, M C Lont, H Buter, A J van Boven, P W Boonstra, P G Pieper
INTRODUCTION: The risk of acute myocardial infarction in young women is low, but increases during pregnancy due to the physiological changes in pregnancy, including hypercoagulability. Ischaemic heart disease during pregnancy is not only associated with increased maternal morbidity and mortality, but also with high neonatal complications. Advancing maternal age and other risk factors for cardiovascular diseases may further increase the risk of ischaemic heart disease in young women. METHODS: We searched the coronary angiography database of a Dutch teaching hospital to identify women with acute myocardial infarction who presented during pregnancy or postpartum between 2011 and 2013...
April 19, 2017: Netherlands Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423981/post-partum-follow-up-of-women-with-gestational-diabetes-mellitus-effectiveness-determinants-and-barriers
#20
Saleha Aziz, Tazeen Fatima Munim, Syeda Sadia Fatima
BACKGROUND: Despite the recommendations for postpartum blood glucose monitoring post gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM); scientific evidence reveals that these recommendations may not be fully complied to. This study aimed to follow-up women up to two years post-delivery with pregnancies complicated by GDM and healthy controls to assess this fact. METHODS: Women with GDM (n = 78) and normal glucose tolerant (n = 89) delivered in 2014 were followed up for two years...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
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