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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752066/the-microglial-innate-immune-receptor-trem2-is-required-for-synapse-elimination-and-normal-brain-connectivity
#1
Fabia Filipello, Raffaella Morini, Irene Corradini, Valerio Zerbi, Alice Canzi, Bernadeta Michalski, Marco Erreni, Marija Markicevic, Chiara Starvaggi-Cucuzza, Karel Otero, Laura Piccio, Francesca Cignarella, Fabio Perrucci, Matteo Tamborini, Marco Genua, Lawrence Rajendran, Elisabetta Menna, Stefania Vetrano, Margaret Fahnestock, Rosa Chiara Paolicelli, Michela Matteoli
The triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 (TREM2) is a microglial innate immune receptor associated with a lethal form of early, progressive dementia, Nasu-Hakola disease, and with an increased risk of Alzheimer's disease. Microglial defects in phagocytosis of toxic aggregates or apoptotic membranes were proposed to be at the origin of the pathological processes in the presence of Trem2 inactivating mutations. Here, we show that TREM2 is essential for microglia-mediated synaptic refinement during the early stages of brain development...
May 3, 2018: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738432/neuroimmunology-research-a-report-from-the-cuban-network-of-neuroimmunology
#2
María de Los Angeles Robinson-Agramonte, Lourdes Lorigados Pedre, Orlando Ramón Serrano-Barrera
Neuroimmunology can be traced back to the XIX century through the descriptions of some of the disease’s models (e.g., multiple sclerosis and Guillain Barret syndrome, amongst others). The diagnostic tools are based in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis developed by Quincke or in the development of neuroimmunotherapy with the earlier expression in Pasteur’s vaccine for rabies. Nevertheless, this field, which began to become delineated as an independent research area in the 1940s, has evolved as an innovative and integrative field at the shared edges of neurosciences, immunology, and related clinical and research areas, which are currently becoming a major concern for neuroscience and indeed for all of the scientific community linked to it...
May 8, 2018: Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728258/ambient-ozone-exposure-and-mental-health-a-systematic-review-of-epidemiological-studies
#3
REVIEW
Tianyu Zhao, Iana Markevych, Marcel Romanos, Dennis Nowak, Joachim Heinrich
BACKGROUND: An increasing number of studies have suggested adverse effects of air pollution on mental health. Given the potentially negative impacts of ozone exposure on the immune and nervous system driven from animal experiments, ozone might also affect mental health. However, no systematic synthesis of the relevant literature has been conducted yet. This paper reviews the studies that assessed the link between ozone exposure and mental health thus far. METHODS: We followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-analysis (PRISMA)...
May 1, 2018: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29608131/do-patients-with-different-psychiatric-disorders-show-altered-social-decision-making-a-systematic-review-of-ultimatum-game-experiments-in-clinical-populations
#4
Barbara Hinterbuchinger, Alexander Kaltenboeck, Josef Severin Baumgartner, Nilufar Mossaheb, Fabian Friedrich
BACKGROUND: Impairments in social functioning are a common feature of psychiatric disorders. Game paradigms pose a unique way for studying how people make decisions in interpersonal contexts. In the last decade, researchers have started to use these paradigms to study social decision-making in patients with psychiatric disorders. PURPOSE: The aim of this systematic literature review is to summarise the currently available evidence on the behaviour of patients with psychiatric disorders in the commonly used Ultimatum Game (UG)...
April 2, 2018: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29575030/shifts-in-gut-microbiota-composition-in-an-app-pss1-transgenic-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease-during-lifespan
#5
Christine Bäuerl, M Carmen Collado, Ana Diaz Cuevas, José Viña, Gaspar Pérez Martínez
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia and one of the major causes of disability and dependency in older people. Accumulating evidences link gut microbiota with different diseases and its relationship with neurodegenerative diseases is becoming most intriguing. This study was aimed to compare the gut microbiota of transgenic APP/PS1 (TG) mice, a well-established deterministic mouse model of AD, with their C57BL/6 wild-type (WT) littermates. Faecal samples were collected from 3, 6 and 24 months old mice and analysed by pyrosequencing of the V1-V3 region of the bacterial 16S rRNA genes...
March 25, 2018: Letters in Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29476951/current-status-of-vaccines-in-psychiatry-a-narrative-review
#6
REVIEW
Pooja Patnaik Kuppili, Harshini Manohar, Vikas Menon
INTRODUCTION: Vaccines are one of the newer therapeutic modalities being researched in psychiatric illnesses with limited role of pharmacological interventions. Preclinical studies on vaccines have shown favorable results in conditions like Substance use Disorders and Alzheimer's Dementia. However, the utility of Mumps Measles Rubella vaccine has been overshadowed by controversy linked to causation of Autism. With this background, the current narrative review aimed to comprehensively and critically evaluate the current status of vaccines in Psychiatric illnesses...
January 2018: Asian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29368117/beyond-v40-31-narrative-phenomenology-of-wandering-in-autism-and-dementia
#7
Olga Solomon, Mary C Lawlor
Research on autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and on Alzheimer's Disease (AD) and other types of dementia describes a behaviour called 'wandering', a term that denotes movement through space lacking intention or exact destination, as when a person is disoriented or not self-aware. In the U.S., 'wandering' in both ASD and AD has been examined mostly from a management and prevention perspective. It prioritizes safety while primarily overlooking personal experiences of those who 'wander' and their families, thus limiting the range of potentially effective strategies to address this issue...
January 24, 2018: Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310658/the-involvement-of-endoplasmic-reticulum-formation-and-protein-synthesis-efficiency-in-vcp-and-atl1-related-neurological-disorders
#8
REVIEW
Yu-Tzu Shih, Yi-Ping Hsueh
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the biggest organelle in cells and is involved in versatile cellular processes. Formation and maintenance of ER morphology are regulated by a series of proteins controlling membrane fusion and curvature. At least six different ER morphology regulators have been demonstrated to be involved in neurological disorders-including Valosin-containing protein (VCP), Atlastin-1 (ATL1), Spastin (SPAST), Reticulon 2 (RTN2), Receptor expression enhancing protein 1 (REEP1) and RAB10-suggesting a critical role of ER formation in neuronal activity and function...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298278/the-impact-of-air-pollution-to-central-nervous-system-in-children-and-adults
#9
Radim J Sram, Milos Veleminsky, Milos Veleminsky, Jana Stejskalová
The aim of this paper was to review studies analyzing the associations between air pollution and neurodevelopment in children as well as the effect on adult population. Effect of prenatal exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, benzo[a]pyrene, B[a]P) were already studied on cohorts from New York, Poland, China, and Spain. All results indicate changes of child behavior and neurodevelopment at the age of 3-9 years, decrease of IQ, increase of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), decrease of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), reduction of left hemisphere white matter...
December 2017: Neuro Endocrinology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238390/modulatory-effect-of-association-of-brain-stimulation-by-light-and-binaural-beats-in-specific-brain-waves
#10
Mauricio Rocha Calomeni, Vernon Furtado da Silva, Bruna Brandão Velasques, Olavo Guimarães Feijó, Juliana Marques Bittencourt, Alair Pedro Ribeiro de Souza E Silva
Introduction: One of the positive effects of brain stimulation is interhemispheric modulation as shown in some scientific studies. This study examined if a type of noninvasive stimulation using binaural beats with led-lights and sound would show different modulatory effects upon Alfa and SMR brain waves of elderlies and children with some disease types. Subjects: The sample included 75 individuals of both genders, being, randomly, divided in 6 groups. Groups were named elderly without dementia diagnosis (EWD), n=15, 76±8 years, elderly diagnosed with Parkinson's disease (EDP), n=15, 72±7 years, elderly diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease (EDA), n=15, 81±6 years...
2017: Clinical Practice and Epidemiology in Mental Health: CP & EMH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116905/epistemic-injustice-in-dementia-and-autism-patient-organizations-an-empirical-analysis
#11
Karin Jongsma, Elisabeth Spaeth, Silke Schicktanz
Patient organizations (POs) represent patient collectives in health care policy. The inclusion of people with a 'neuro-psychiatric' condition poses a particular challenge for the organizational processes and political representation of such collectives. In recent years, new POs (POs of) have been established in the field of autism spectrum disorder and dementia that advocate a different agenda and have a different organizational structure than traditional POs (POs for). The divide between these two types of POs indicates a different standpoint with regard to who should be included on an organizational level, which voices are accepted and who should represent these voices on the political level...
October 2017: AJOB Empirical Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107450/epilepsy-as-a-network-disorder-1-what-can-we-learn-from-other-network-disorders-such-as-autistic-spectrum-disorder-and-mood-disorders
#12
REVIEW
Andres M Kanner, Helen Scharfman, Nathalie Jette, Evdokia Anagnostou, Christophe Bernard, Carol Camfield, Peter Camfield, Karen Legg, Ilan Dinstein, Peter Giacobbe, Alon Friedman, Bernd Pohlmann-Eden
Epilepsy is a neurologic condition which often occurs with other neurologic and psychiatric disorders. The relation between epilepsy and these conditions is complex. Some population-based studies have identified a bidirectional relation, whereby not only patients with epilepsy are at increased risk of suffering from some of these neurologic and psychiatric disorders (migraine, stroke, dementia, autism, depression, anxiety disorders, Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and psychosis), but also patients with these conditions are at increased risk of suffering from epilepsy...
December 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097123/epilepsy-as-a-network-disorder-2-what-can-we-learn-from-other-network-disorders-such-as-dementia-and-schizophrenia-and-what-are-the-implications-for-translational-research
#13
REVIEW
Helen E Scharfman, Andres M Kanner, Alon Friedman, Ingmar Blümcke, Candice E Crocker, Fernando Cendes, Ramon Diaz-Arrastia, Hans Förstl, André A Fenton, Anthony A Grace, Jorge Palop, Jason Morrison, Astrid Nehlig, Asuri Prasad, Karen S Wilcox, Nathalie Jette, Bernd Pohlmann-Eden
There is common agreement that many disorders of the central nervous system are 'complex', that is, there are many potential factors that influence the development of the disease, underlying mechanisms, and successful treatment. Most of these disorders, unfortunately, have no cure at the present time, and therapeutic strategies often have debilitating side effects. Interestingly, some of the 'complexities' of one disorder are found in another, and the similarities are often network defects. It seems likely that more discussions of these commonalities could advance our understanding and, therefore, have clinical implications or translational impact...
January 2018: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072182/social-challenges-of-contemporary-psychiatry
#14
N Bouras
Psychiatry and society are interrelated and the biopsychosocial model continues to dominate the clinical psychiatric practice. Some doubts have been expressed in recent years about the value and the wide acceptance of the biopsychosocial model. Ghaemi (2009)1 considers it to be anti-humanistic and advocates the use of less eclectic, less generic, and less vague alternatives. The fundamental changes that have been witnessed in our times across the spectrum of biology, psychology and sociology have made necessary that a conceptual clarity should prevail...
July 2017: Psychiatrikē, Psychiatriki
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980151/epidemiology-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-cerebrotendinous-xanthomatosis-ctx
#15
REVIEW
Gerald Salen, Robert D Steiner
Cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis (CTX) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder of bile acid synthesis caused by mutations in the cytochrome P450 CYP27A1 gene that result in production of a defective sterol 27-hydroxylase enzyme. CTX is associated with abnormally high levels of cholestanol in the blood and accumulation of cholestanol and cholesterol in the brain, tendon xanthomas, and bile. Hallmark clinical manifestations of CTX include chronic diarrhea, bilateral cataracts, tendon xanthomas, and neurologic dysfunction...
November 2017: Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28946588/changing-the-culture-of-neurodisability-through-language-and-sensitivity-of-providers-creating-a-safe-place-for-lgbtqia-people
#16
Alexander Moreno, Ari Laoch, Nathan D Zasler
BACKGROUND: There is an increasing interest in sexual and gender diversity in neurorehabilitation. Healthcare professionals wanting to improve their practice know the importance of understanding the needs and expectations of specific communities. OBJECTIVE: To critically review the literature about neurological disorders in people who identify as lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, intersex, asexual, and people with other sexual orientations and forms of gender expression (LGBTQIA+)...
2017: NeuroRehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798667/the-foxp2-driven-network-in-developmental-disorders-and-neurodegeneration
#17
Franz Oswald, Patricia Klöble, André Ruland, David Rosenkranz, Bastian Hinz, Falk Butter, Sanja Ramljak, Ulrich Zechner, Holger Herlyn
The transcription repressor FOXP2 is a crucial player in nervous system evolution and development of humans and songbirds. In order to provide an additional insight into its functional role we compared target gene expression levels between human neuroblastoma cells (SH-SY5Y) stably overexpressing FOXP2 cDNA of either humans or the common chimpanzee, Rhesus monkey, and marmoset, respectively. RNA-seq led to identification of 27 genes with differential regulation under the control of human FOXP2, which were previously reported to have FOXP2-driven and/or songbird song-related expression regulation...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729535/pld1-promotes-dendritic-spine-development-by-inhibiting-adam10-mediated-n-cadherin-cleavage
#18
Li-Da Luo, Gang Li, Yun Wang
Synapses are the basic units of information transmission, processing and integration in the nervous system. Dysfunction of the synaptic development has been recognized as one of the main reasons for mental dementia and psychiatric diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and autism. However, the underlying mechanisms of the synapse formation are far from clear. Here we report that phospholipase D1 (PLD1) promotes the development of dendritic spines in hippocampal neurons. We found that overexpressing PLD1 increases both the density and the area of dendritic spines...
July 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720486/loss-of-synaptic-zinc-transport-in-progranulin-deficient-mice-may-contribute-to-progranulin-associated-psychopathology-and-chronic-pain
#19
Stefanie Hardt, Juliana Heidler, Boris Albuquerque, Lucie Valek, Christine Altmann, Annett Wilken-Schmitz, Michael K E Schäfer, Ilka Wittig, Irmgard Tegeder
Affective and cognitive processing of nociception contributes to the development of chronic pain and vice versa, pain may precipitate psychopathologic symptoms. We hypothesized a higher risk for the latter with immanent neurologic diseases and studied this potential interrelationship in progranulin-deficient mice, which are a model for frontotemporal dementia, a disease dominated by behavioral abnormalities in humans. Young naïve progranulin deficient mice behaved normal in tests of short-term memory, anxiety, depression and nociception, but after peripheral nerve injury, they showed attention-deficit and depression-like behavior, over-activity, loss of shelter-seeking, reduced impulse control and compulsive feeding behavior, which did not occur in equally injured controls...
November 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697315/an-update-on-anesthetics-and-impact-on-the-brain
#20
REVIEW
Vincenzo Fodale, Vincenzo F Tripodi, Olivia Penna, Fausto Famà, Francesco Squadrito, Epifanio Mondello, Antonio David
While anesthetics are indispensable clinical tools and generally considered safe and effective, a growing concern over the potential neurotoxicity of anesthesia or specific anesthetic agents has called into question the safety of general anesthetics, especially when administered at extremes of age. Areas covered: This article reviews and updates research findings on the safety of anesthesia and anesthetics in terms of long-term neurotoxicity, with particular focus on postoperative cognitive dysfunctions, Alzheimer's disease and dementias, developing brain, post-operative depression and autism spectrum disorder...
September 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Safety
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