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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116905/epistemic-injustice-in-dementia-and-autism-patient-organizations-an-empirical-analysis
#1
Karin Jongsma, Elisabeth Spaeth, Silke Schicktanz
Patient organizations (POs) represent patient collectives in health care policy. The inclusion of people with a 'neuro-psychiatric' condition poses a particular challenge for the organizational processes and political representation of such collectives. In recent years, new POs (POs of) have been established in the field of autism spectrum disorder and dementia that advocate a different agenda and have a different organizational structure than traditional POs (POs for). The divide between these two types of POs indicates a different standpoint with regard to who should be included on an organizational level, which voices are accepted and who should represent these voices on the political level...
November 8, 2017: AJOB Empirical Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107450/epilepsy-as-a-network-disorder-1-what-can-we-learn-from-other-network-disorders-such-as-autistic-spectrum-disorder-and-mood-disorders
#2
REVIEW
Andres M Kanner, Helen Scharfman, Nathalie Jette, Evdokia Anagnostou, Christophe Bernard, Carol Camfield, Peter Camfield, Karen Legg, Ilan Dinstein, Peter Giacobe, Alon Friedman, Bernd Pohlmann-Eden
Epilepsy is a neurologic condition which often occurs with other neurologic and psychiatric disorders. The relation between epilepsy and these conditions is complex. Some population-based studies have identified a bidirectional relation, whereby not only patients with epilepsy are at increased risk of suffering from some of these neurologic and psychiatric disorders (migraine, stroke, dementia, autism, depression, anxiety disorders, Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and psychosis), but also patients with these conditions are at increased risk of suffering from epilepsy...
October 26, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097123/epilepsy-as-a-network-disorder-2-what-can-we-learn-from-other-network-disorders-such-as-dementia-and-schizophrenia-and-what-are-the-implications-for-translational-research
#3
REVIEW
Helen E Scharfman, Andres M Kanner, Alon Friedman, Ingmar Blümcke, Candice E Crocker, Fernando Cendes, Ramon Diaz-Arrastia, Hans Förstl, André A Fenton, Anthony A Grace, Jorge Palop, Jason Morrison, Astrid Nehlig, Asuri Prasad, Karen S Wilcox, Nathalie Jette, Bernd Pohlmann-Eden
There is common agreement that many disorders of the central nervous system are 'complex', that is, there are many potential factors that influence the development of the disease, underlying mechanisms, and successful treatment. Most of these disorders, unfortunately, have no cure at the present time, and therapeutic strategies often have debilitating side effects. Interestingly, some of the 'complexities' of one disorder are found in another, and the similarities are often network defects. It seems likely that more discussions of these commonalities could advance our understanding and, therefore, have clinical implications or translational impact...
October 30, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072182/social-challenges-of-contemporary-psychiatry
#4
N Bouras
Psychiatry and society are interrelated and the biopsychosocial model continues to dominate the clinical psychiatric practice. Some doubts have been expressed in recent years about the value and the wide acceptance of the biopsychosocial model. Ghaemi (2009)1 considers it to be anti-humanistic and advocates the use of less eclectic, less generic, and less vague alternatives. The fundamental changes that have been witnessed in our times across the spectrum of biology, psychology and sociology have made necessary that a conceptual clarity should prevail...
July 2017: Psychiatrikē, Psychiatriki
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980151/epidemiology-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-cerebrotendinous-xanthomatosis-ctx
#5
REVIEW
Gerald Salen, Robert D Steiner
Cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis (CTX) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder of bile acid synthesis caused by mutations in the cytochrome P450 CYP27A1 gene that result in production of a defective sterol 27-hydroxylase enzyme. CTX is associated with abnormally high levels of cholestanol in the blood and accumulation of cholestanol and cholesterol in the brain, tendon xanthomas, and bile. Hallmark clinical manifestations of CTX include chronic diarrhea, bilateral cataracts, tendon xanthomas, and neurologic dysfunction...
November 2017: Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28946588/changing-the-culture-of-neurodisability-through-language-and-sensitivity-of-providers-creating-a-safe-place-for-lgbtqia-people
#6
Alexander Moreno, Ari Laoch, Nathan D Zasler
BACKGROUND: There is an increasing interest in sexual and gender diversity in neurorehabilitation. Healthcare professionals wanting to improve their practice know the importance of understanding the needs and expectations of specific communities. OBJECTIVE: To critically review the literature about neurological disorders in people who identify as lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, intersex, asexual, and people with other sexual orientations and forms of gender expression (LGBTQIA+)...
2017: NeuroRehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798667/the-foxp2-driven-network-in-developmental-disorders-and-neurodegeneration
#7
Franz Oswald, Patricia Klöble, André Ruland, David Rosenkranz, Bastian Hinz, Falk Butter, Sanja Ramljak, Ulrich Zechner, Holger Herlyn
The transcription repressor FOXP2 is a crucial player in nervous system evolution and development of humans and songbirds. In order to provide an additional insight into its functional role we compared target gene expression levels between human neuroblastoma cells (SH-SY5Y) stably overexpressing FOXP2 cDNA of either humans or the common chimpanzee, Rhesus monkey, and marmoset, respectively. RNA-seq led to identification of 27 genes with differential regulation under the control of human FOXP2, which were previously reported to have FOXP2-driven and/or songbird song-related expression regulation...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729535/pld1-promotes-dendritic-spine-development-by-inhibiting-adam10-mediated-n-cadherin-cleavage
#8
Li-Da Luo, Gang Li, Yun Wang
Synapses are the basic units of information transmission, processing and integration in the nervous system. Dysfunction of the synaptic development has been recognized as one of the main reasons for mental dementia and psychiatric diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and autism. However, the underlying mechanisms of the synapse formation are far from clear. Here we report that phospholipase D1 (PLD1) promotes the development of dendritic spines in hippocampal neurons. We found that overexpressing PLD1 increases both the density and the area of dendritic spines...
July 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720486/loss-of-synaptic-zinc-transport-in-progranulin-deficient-mice-may-contribute-to-progranulin-associated-psychopathology-and-chronic-pain
#9
Stefanie Hardt, Juliana Heidler, Boris Albuquerque, Lucie Valek, Christine Altmann, Annett Wilken-Schmitz, Michael K E Schäfer, Ilka Wittig, Irmgard Tegeder
Affective and cognitive processing of nociception contributes to the development of chronic pain and vice versa, pain may precipitate psychopathologic symptoms. We hypothesized a higher risk for the latter with immanent neurologic diseases and studied this potential interrelationship in progranulin-deficient mice, which are a model for frontotemporal dementia, a disease dominated by behavioral abnormalities in humans. Young naïve progranulin deficient mice behaved normal in tests of short-term memory, anxiety, depression and nociception, but after peripheral nerve injury, they showed attention-deficit and depression-like behavior, over-activity, loss of shelter-seeking, reduced impulse control and compulsive feeding behavior, which did not occur in equally injured controls...
November 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697315/an-update-on-anesthetics-and-impact-on-the-brain
#10
REVIEW
Vincenzo Fodale, Vincenzo F Tripodi, Olivia Penna, Fausto Famà, Francesco Squadrito, Epifanio Mondello, Antonio David
While anesthetics are indispensable clinical tools and generally considered safe and effective, a growing concern over the potential neurotoxicity of anesthesia or specific anesthetic agents has called into question the safety of general anesthetics, especially when administered at extremes of age. Areas covered: This article reviews and updates research findings on the safety of anesthesia and anesthetics in terms of long-term neurotoxicity, with particular focus on postoperative cognitive dysfunctions, Alzheimer's disease and dementias, developing brain, post-operative depression and autism spectrum disorder...
September 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469589/experiences-of-loneliness-associated-with-being-an-informal-caregiver-a-qualitative-investigation
#11
Konstantina Vasileiou, Julie Barnett, Manuela Barreto, John Vines, Mark Atkinson, Shaun Lawson, Michael Wilson
Although providing care to a family member or friend may provide psychological benefits, informal (i.e., unpaid) caregivers also encounter difficulties which may negatively affect their quality of life as well as their mental and physical health. Loneliness is one important challenge that caregivers face, with this psychological state being associated with morbidity and premature mortality. Although previous research has identified loneliness as an issue associated with being an informal caregiver, there is a paucity of evidence that attempts to understand this phenomenon in depth...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467893/meta-analysis-of-the-effects-of-intranasal-oxytocin-on-interpretation-and-expression-of-emotions
#12
REVIEW
Jenni Leppanen, Kah Wee Ng, Kate Tchanturia, Janet Treasure
Accurate interpretation and appropriate expression of emotions are key aspects of social-cognition. Several mental disorders are characterised by transdiagnostic difficulties in these areas and, recently, there has been increasing interest in exploring the effects of oxytocin on social-emotional functioning. This review consists of 33 studies. Fifteen of the studies included people with autism spectrum disorder, schizophrenia, borderline personality disorder, frontotemporal dementia, anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, post-traumatic stress disorder, depression, and opioid and alcohol dependence...
July 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452080/autism-a-transdiagnostic-dimensional-construct-of-reasoning
#13
REVIEW
Bodil Aggernaes
The concept of autism has changed across time, from the Bleulerian concept, which defined it as one of several symptoms of dementia praecox, to the present-day concept representing a pervasive development disorder. The present theoretical contribution to this special issue of EJN on autism introduces new theoretical ideas and discusses them in light of selected prior theories, clinical examples, and recent empirical evidence. The overall aim is to identify some present challenges of diagnostic practice and autism research and to suggest new pathways that may help direct future research...
April 27, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430672/lamotrigine-uses-in-psychiatric-practice-beyond-bipolar-prophylaxis-a-hope-or-hype
#14
Ahmed Naguy, Najah Al-Enezi
BACKGROUND: Lamotrigine (LAM), an antiepileptic, with panoply of indications and uses in neurology, is FDA approved, in psychiatry, for bipolar prophylaxis. Apart from this indication, trend of its use in psychiatry is on the rise addressing a multitude of disorders. STUDY QUESTION: LAM remains one of only few psychotropic drugs with antiglutamate activity. This might render LAM a potential therapeutic option in treatment-resistant major psychiatric disorders. We reviewed LAM pharmacology and its diverse indications while examining the extant evidence...
April 19, 2017: American Journal of Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424797/magnetoencephalography-as-a-tool-in-psychiatric-research-current-status-and-perspective
#15
REVIEW
Peter J Uhlhaas, Peter Liddle, David E J Linden, Anna C Nobre, Krish D Singh, Joachim Gross
The application of neuroimaging to provide mechanistic insights into circuit dysfunctions in major psychiatric conditions and the development of biomarkers are core challenges in current psychiatric research. We propose that recent technological and analytic advances in magnetoencephalography (MEG), a technique that allows measurement of neuronal events directly and noninvasively with millisecond resolution, provides novel opportunities to address these fundamental questions. Because of its potential in delineating normal and abnormal brain dynamics, we propose that MEG provides a crucial tool to advance our understanding of pathophysiological mechanisms of major neuropsychiatric conditions, such as schizophrenia, autism spectrum disorders, and the dementias...
April 2017: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256379/outcome-of-childhood-onset-epilepsy-from-adolescence-to-adulthood-transition-issues
#16
REVIEW
R Nabbout, D M Andrade, N Bahi-Buisson, H Cross, I Desquerre, O Dulac, T Granata, E Hirsch, V Navarro, L Ouss, P L Pearl, D Schmidt, E Thiele, P R Camfield, C S Camfield
This is the second of three papers that summarize the second symposium on Transition in Epilepsies held in Paris in June 2016. This paper addresses the outcome for some particularly challenging childhood-onset epileptic disorders with the goal of recommending the best approach to transition. We have grouped these disorders in five categories with a few examples for each. The first group includes disorders presenting in childhood that may have late- or adult-onset epilepsy (metabolic and mitochondrial disorders)...
April 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110116/use-of-antipsychotics-benzodiazepine-derivatives-and-dementia-medication-among-older-people-with-intellectual-disability-and-or-autism-spectrum-disorder-and-dementia
#17
Anna Axmon, Jimmie Kristensson, Gerd Ahlström, Patrik Midlöv
BACKGROUND: Although people with intellectual disability (ID) and people with dementia have high drug prescription rates, there is a lack of studies investigating drug use among those with concurrent diagnoses of ID and dementia. AIM: To investigate the use of antipsychotics, benzodiazepine derivatives, and drugs recommended for dementia treatment (anticholinesterases [AChEIs] and memantine) among people with ID and dementia. METHODS AND PROCEDURES: Having received support available for people with ID and/or autism spectrum disorder (ASD) was used as a proxy for ID...
March 2017: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093058/off-label-prescribing-of-psychotropic-medication-2005-2013-an-examination-of-potential-influences
#18
Peggy L O'Brien, Nicholas Cummings, Tami L Mark
OBJECTIVE: This study examined rates of psychotropic prescriptions for various on- and off-label uses in 2005 and 2013 in the context of changes in labeled indications. METHODS: The National Disease and Therapeutic Index, a survey of nationally representative office-based physicians that identifies the diagnosis attached to each prescription, was used to capture the number of psychiatric medications prescribed for a particular diagnosis in 2005 (N=4,120) and 2013 (N=4,140)...
January 17, 2017: Psychiatric Services: a Journal of the American Psychiatric Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088536/targeting-sonic-hedgehog-signaling-in-neurological-disorders
#19
REVIEW
Sita Sharan Patel, Sunil Tomar, Diksha Sharma, Neeraj Mahindroo, Malairaman Udayabanu
Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling influences neurogenesis and neural patterning during the development of central nervous system. Dysregulation of Shh signaling in brain leads to neurological disorders like autism spectrum disorder, depression, dementia, stroke, Parkinson's diseases, Huntington's disease, locomotor deficit, epilepsy, demyelinating disease, neuropathies as well as brain tumors. The synthesis, processing and transport of Shh ligand as well as the localization of its receptors and signal transduction in the central nervous system has been carefully reviewed...
March 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27977375/-tis-the-season-to-be-jolly
#20
Jane Bates
Our local theatre is putting on 'relaxed performances' of its pantomime this season, for people with conditions such as dementia and autism.
December 14, 2016: Nursing Standard
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