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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865707/a-comprehensive-database-of-published-tdcs-clinical-trials-2005-2016
#1
REVIEW
Jean-Pascal Lefaucheur
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a technique of noninvasive cortical stimulation allowing significant modification of brain functions. Clinical application of this technique was reported for the first time in March 2005. This paper presents a detailed list of the 340 articles (excluding single case reports) which have assessed the clinical effect of tDCS in patients, at least when delivered to cortical targets. The reviewed conditions were: pain syndromes, Parkinson's disease, dystonia, cerebral palsy, post-stroke limb motor impairment, post-stroke neglect, post-stroke dysphagia, post-stroke aphasia, primary progressive aphasia, multiple sclerosis, epilepsy, consciousness disorders, Alzheimer's disease and other types of dementia, tinnitus, depression, auditory hallucinations and negative symptoms of schizophrenia, addiction and craving, autism, and attention disorders...
December 2016: Neurophysiologie Clinique, Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807088/shared-decision-making-for-people-living-with-dementia-in-extended-care-settings-protocol-for-a-systematic-review
#2
Rachel Daly, Frances Bunn, Claire Goodman
INTRODUCTION: Approximately 450 000 people in the UK are living in care homes, 70% of whom are thought to have dementia or significant memory problems. This means that they may need support with day-to-day decisions about their health and care. Shared decision-making interventions can have a positive impact on patient outcomes. They recognise an individual's rights to make decisions about their care or treatment and support person-centred approaches to care delivery. METHODS: A systematic review of studies designed to assess, implement, measure and/or explore shared decision-making with cognitively impaired adults in (or transferrable to) an extended care setting, with a view to answering the research question: How can people living with dementia and cognitive impairment be included in day-to-day decisions about their health and care in extended care settings? The systematic review will be started in May 2016...
November 2, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27717669/the-lgi1-adam22-protein-complex-in-synaptic-transmission-and-synaptic-disorders
#3
Yuko Fukata, Norihiko Yokoi, Yuri Miyazaki, Masaki Fukata
Physiological functioning of the brain requires fine-tuned synaptic transmission, and its dysfunction causes various brain disorders such as autism, dementia, and epilepsy. It is therefore extremely important to identify and characterize key regulators of synaptic function. In particular, disease-related synaptic proteins, such as autism-related neurexin-neuroligin and psychiatric disorder-related NMDA receptor, have attracted considerable attention. Recent basic and clinical research has highlighted critical roles of a ligand-receptor complex, LGI1-ADAM22, in synaptic transmission and brain function, as mutations in the LGI1 gene cause autosomal dominant lateral temporal lobe epilepsy and autoantibodies to LGI1 cause limbic encephalitis which is characterized by memory loss and seizures...
October 4, 2016: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27534322/interaction-design-in-the-built-environment-designing-for-the-universal-user
#4
Cathy Dalton
Concepts of responsive architecture have to date largely involved response to environmental context, in order to mediate ambient environmental factors and modify internal conditions for the comfort of users, with energy efficiency and sustainability as the main impetus. 'Smart' buildings often address little other than technically functional issues, with any ideas of 'design' as a unifying factor being disregarded. At the same time, music and performance art have been in the vanguard of creating digital interaction that intimately involves the user in aesthetic outcomes, in the creation of what Umberto Eco describes as an 'Open Work'...
2016: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27502797/massage-therapy-research-review
#5
REVIEW
Tiffany Field
In this review, massage therapy has been shown to have beneficial effects on varying conditions including prenatal depression, preterm infants, full-term infants, autism, skin conditions, pain syndromes including arthritis and fibromyalgia, hypertension, autoimmune conditions including asthma and multiple sclerosis, immune conditions including HIV and breast cancer and aging problems including Parkinson's and dementia. Although many of the studies have involved comparisons between massage therapy and standard treatment control groups, several have compared different forms of massage (e...
August 2016: Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27498241/adult-onset-stereotypical-motor-behaviors
#6
D Maltête
Stereotypies have been defined as non-goal-directed movement patterns repeated continuously for a period of time in the same form and on multiple occasions, and which are typically distractible. Stereotypical motor behaviors are a common clinical feature of a variety of neurological conditions that affect cortical and subcortical functions, including autism, tardive dyskinesia, excessive dopaminergic treatment of Parkinson's disease and frontotemporal dementia. The main differential diagnosis of stereotypies includes tic disorders, motor mannerisms, compulsion and habit...
August 2016: Revue Neurologique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27425218/vitamin-d-and-chronic-diseases-the-current-state-of-the-art
#7
Giovanna Muscogiuri, Barbara Altieri, Cedric Annweiler, Giancarlo Balercia, H B Pal, Barbara J Boucher, John J Cannell, Carlo Foresta, Martin R Grübler, Kalliopi Kotsa, Luca Mascitelli, Winfried März, Francesco Orio, Stefan Pilz, Giacomo Tirabassi, Annamaria Colao
The objective was to provide the current state of the art regarding the role of vitamin D in chronic diseases (osteoporosis, cancer, cardiovascular diseases, dementia, autism, type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus, male and female fertility). The document was drawn up by panelists that provided their contribution according to their own scientific expertise. Each scientific expert supplied a first draft manuscript on a specific aspect of the document's topic that was subjected to voting by all experts as "yes" (agreement with the content and/or wording) or "no" (disagreement)...
July 18, 2016: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27355274/fragile-x-associated-tremor-ataxia-syndrome-another-phenotype-of-the-fragile-x-gene
#8
David Hessl, Jim Grigsby
OBJECTIVE: Neuropsychologists have an important role in evaluating patients with fragile X-associated disorders, but most practitioners are unaware of the recently identified neurodegenerative movement disorder known as fragile X-associated tremor ataxia syndrome (FXTAS). The objective of this editorial is to orient the reader to FXTAS and highlight the importance of clinical neuropsychology in describing the fragile X premutation phenotype and the role practitioners may have in assessing and monitoring patients with or at risk for neurodegeneration...
August 2016: Clinical Neuropsychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27340022/the-mtor-signalling-cascade-paving-new-roads-to-cure-neurological-disease
#9
REVIEW
Peter B Crino
Defining the multiple roles of the mechanistic (formerly 'mammalian') target of rapamycin (mTOR) signalling pathway in neurological diseases has been an exciting and rapidly evolving story of bench-to-bedside translational research that has spanned gene mutation discovery, functional experimental validation of mutations, pharmacological pathway manipulation, and clinical trials. Alterations in the dual contributions of mTOR - regulation of cell growth and proliferation, as well as autophagy and cell death - have been found in developmental brain malformations, epilepsy, autism and intellectual disability, hypoxic-ischaemic and traumatic brain injuries, brain tumours, and neurodegenerative disorders...
July 2016: Nature Reviews. Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27229658/assessment-of-hearing-threshold-in-adults-with-hearing-loss-using-an-automated-system-of-cortical-auditory-evoked-potential-detection
#10
Alessandra Spada Durante, Margarita Bernal Wieselberg, Nayara Roque, Sheila Carvalho, Beatriz Pucci, Nicolly Gudayol, Kátia de Almeida
INTRODUCTION: The use of hearing aids by individuals with hearing loss brings a better quality of life. Access to and benefit from these devices may be compromised in patients who present difficulties or limitations in traditional behavioral audiological evaluation, such as newborns and small children, individuals with auditory neuropathy spectrum, autism, and intellectual deficits, and in adults and the elderly with dementia. These populations (or individuals) are unable to undergo a behavioral assessment, and generate a growing demand for objective methods to assess hearing...
April 29, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27136748/preparation-of-human-formalin-fixed-brain-slices-for-electron-microscopic-investigations
#11
Martin Krause, Martin Brüne, Carsten Theiss
Ultra-structural analysis of human post-mortem brain tissue is important for investigations into the pathomechanism of neuropsychiatric disorders, especially those lacking alternative models of studying human-specific morphological features. For example, Von Economo Neurons (VENs) mainly located in the anterior cingulate cortex and in the anterior part of the insula, which seem to play a role in a variety of neuropsychiatric conditions, including frontotemporal dementia, autism and schizophrenia, can hardly be studied in nonhuman animals...
July 2016: Annals of Anatomy, Anatomischer Anzeiger: Official Organ of the Anatomische Gesellschaft
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27130326/the-social-context-network-model-in-psychiatric-and-neurological-diseases
#12
Sandra Baez, Adolfo M García, Agustín Ibanez
The role of contextual modulations has been extensively studied in basic sensory and cognitive processes. However, little is known about their impact on social cognition, let alone their disruption in disorders compromising such a domain. In this chapter, we flesh out the social context network model (SCNM), a neuroscientific proposal devised to address the issue. In SCNM terms, social context effects rely on a fronto-temporo-insular network in charge of (a) updating context cues to make predictions, (b) consolidating context-target associative learning, and (c) coordinating internal and external milieus...
April 30, 2016: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27113569/prevalence-of-people-who-could-benefit-from-augmentative-and-alternative-communication-aac-in-the-uk-determining-the-need
#13
Sarah Creer, Pamela Enderby, Simon Judge, Alex John
BACKGROUND: Commissioners and providers require information relating to the number of people requiring a service in order to ensure provision is appropriate and equitable for the population they serve. There is little epidemiological evidence available regarding the prevalence of people who could benefit from augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) in the UK. AIM: To determine the prevalence of people who could benefit from AAC in the UK. METHODS & PROCEDURES: An epidemiological approach was taken to create a new estimate of need: the prevalence of the main medical conditions and specific symptoms leading to the requirement for AAC were identified from the literature and AAC specialists were consulted to estimate the number of people who may require AAC...
April 26, 2016: International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27071791/effects-of-yokukansan-a-japanese-kampo-medicine-for-symptoms-associated-autism-spectrum-disorder
#14
Rei Wake, Tsuyoshi Miyaoka, Motohide Furuya, Sadayuki Hashioka, Jun Horiguchi
A neuropsychiatric syndrome, Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is qualified via impairments in qualitative communication, social interaction, and stereotyped or restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior, interests, or activities. While all ASDs are considered to have qualitative deficits in social relatedness to others, many people with ASDs have other symptoms, including irritability (which includes aggression, self-injurious behavior, and severe tantrums). In order to decrease these behaviors, it is often helpful to make use of behavioral therapy...
2016: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26983548/glutamatergic-medication-in-the-treatment-of-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-ocd-and-autism-spectrum-disorder-asd-study-protocol-for-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#15
Alexander Häge, Tobias Banaschewski, Jan K Buitelaar, Rick M Dijkhuizen, Barbara Franke, David J Lythgoe, Konstantin Mechler, Steven C R Williams, Ralf W Dittmann
BACKGROUND: Compulsivity is a cross-disorder trait underlying phenotypically distinct psychiatric disorders that emerge in childhood or adolescence. Despite the effectiveness of serotonergic compounds in the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder, treatment-resistant symptoms remaining in 40 to 60 % of patients present a pressing clinical problem. There are currently no medications that effectively treat the core impairments of autism spectrum disorder. There is an urgent need for the development of conceptually novel pharmacological strategies...
2016: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26819769/the-involvement-of-neuron-specific-factors-in-dendritic-spinogenesis-molecular-regulation-and-association-with-neurological-disorders
#16
REVIEW
Hsiao-Tang Hu, Pu-Yun Shih, Yu-Tzu Shih, Yi-Ping Hsueh
Dendritic spines are the location of excitatory synapses in the mammalian nervous system and are neuron-specific subcellular structures essential for neural circuitry and function. Dendritic spine morphology is determined by the F-actin cytoskeleton. F-actin remodeling must coordinate with different stages of dendritic spinogenesis, starting from dendritic filopodia formation to the filopodia-spines transition and dendritic spine maturation and maintenance. Hundreds of genes, including F-actin cytoskeleton regulators, membrane proteins, adaptor proteins, and signaling molecules, are known to be involved in regulating synapse formation...
2016: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26755882/gut-microbiota-in-autism-and-mood-disorders
#17
REVIEW
Francesca Mangiola, Gianluca Ianiro, Francesco Franceschi, Stefano Fagiuoli, Giovanni Gasbarrini, Antonio Gasbarrini
The hypothesis of an important role of gut microbiota in the maintenance of physiological state into the gastrointestinal (GI) system is supported by several studies that have shown a qualitative and quantitative alteration of the intestinal flora in a number of gastrointestinal and extra-gastrointestinal diseases. In the last few years, the importance of gut microbiota impairment in the etiopathogenesis of pathology such as autism, dementia and mood disorder, has been raised. The evidence of the inflammatory state alteration, highlighted in disorders such as schizophrenia, major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder, strongly recalls the microbiota alteration, highly suggesting an important role of the alteration of GI system also in neuropsychiatric disorders...
January 7, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26731557/updated-findings-on-neurodevelopmental-disorders-in-taiwan-impact-of-the-institutionalized-national-healthcare-system-on-prevalence-and-health-outcomes
#18
REVIEW
Kuo Yu Wang
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim of this study is to review articles published between June 2014 and 2015 that report research on neurodevelopmental disorders in both children and adults living in Taiwan. The most common of the major neurodevelopmental disorders that cause neuropsychiatric or various behavior problems in children are attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, autism spectrum disorder (ASD), Asperger syndrome, and cerebral palsy. RECENT FINDINGS: The review examines articles written by authors from Taiwan and published in professional journals from June 2014 to 2015...
March 2016: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26620495/how-does-environmental-enrichment-reduce-repetitive-motor-behaviors-neuronal-activation-and-dendritic-morphology-in-the-indirect-basal-ganglia-pathway-of-a-mouse-model
#19
Allison R Bechard, Nadia Cacodcar, Michael A King, Mark H Lewis
Repetitive motor behaviors are observed in many neurodevelopmental and neurological disorders (e.g., autism spectrum disorders, Tourette syndrome, fronto-temporal dementia). Despite their clinical importance, the neurobiology underlying these highly stereotyped, apparently functionless behaviors is poorly understood. Identification of mechanisms that mediate the development of repetitive behaviors will aid in the discovery of new therapeutic targets and treatment development. Using a deer mouse model, we have shown that decreased indirect basal ganglia pathway activity is associated with high levels of repetitive behavior...
February 15, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26578950/adnp-in-search-for-molecular-mechanisms-and-innovative-therapeutic-strategies-for-frontotemporal-degeneration
#20
REVIEW
Illana Gozes, Yanina Ivashko-Pachima
Activity-dependent neuroprotective protein (ADNP) is deregulated in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and in schizophrenia and mutated in autism. In mice, ADNP is essential for brain formation and ADNP haploinsufficiency is associated with cognitive and social deficits and tauopathy. Tauopathy, a major pathology in AD, is also found in ~45% of frontotemporal dementias (FTDs). Tau transcript, a product of a single gene, undergoes alternative splicing. Tau splicing seems to be altered in FTD brain. In transgenic mice overexpressing a mutated tau in the cerebral cortex, significant increases in ADNP transcript expression were observed in the cerebral cortex of young transgenic mice (~disease onset) and a marked decrease with aging as compared to control littermates...
2015: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
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