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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893147/update-on-the-pharmacology-and-legal-status-of-kratom
#1
Walter C Prozialeck
Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) is a plant indigenous to Southeast Asia. Its leaves and the teas brewed from them have long been used by people in that region to stave off fatigue and to manage pain and opioid withdrawal. In a comprehensive review published in 2012, Prozialeck et al presented evidence that kratom had been increasingly used for the self-management of opioid withdrawal and pain in the United States. At the time, kratom was classified as a legal herbal product by the US Drug Enforcement Administration...
December 1, 2016: Journal of the American Osteopathic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27851548/1913-kratom-induced-alveolar-hemorrhage
#2
Jelena Arnautovic, Britni Souther, Stela Tereziu, Niluka Weerakoon
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27768072/rapid-high-throughput-species-identification-of-botanical-material-using-direct-analysis-in-real-time-high-resolution-mass-spectrometry
#3
Ashton D Lesiak, Rabi A Musah
We demonstrate that direct analysis in real time-high resolution mass spectrometry can be used to produce mass spectral profiles of botanical material, and that these chemical fingerprints can be used for plant species identification. The mass spectral data can be acquired rapidly and in a high throughput manner without the need for sample extraction, derivatization or pH adjustment steps. The use of this technique bypasses challenges presented by more conventional techniques including lengthy chromatography analysis times and resource intensive methods...
October 2, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27752985/suspected-adulteration-of-commercial-kratom-products-with-7-hydroxymitragynine
#4
Alicia G Lydecker, Abhisheak Sharma, Christopher R McCurdy, Bonnie A Avery, Kavita M Babu, Edward W Boyer
INTRODUCTION: Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa), a plant native to Southeast Asia, has been used for centuries for its stimulant and opium-like effects. Mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine, exclusive to M. speciosa, are the alkaloids primary responsible for Kratom's biologic and psychoactive profile, and likely contribute to its problematic use. We purchased several commercially available Kratom analogs for analysis and through our results, present evidence of probable adulteration with the highly potent and addictive plant alkaloid, 7-hydroxymitragynine...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Medical Toxicology: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27725074/determination-of-mitragynine-in-mitragyna-speciosa-raw-materials-and-finished-products-by-liquid-chromatography-with-uv-detection-single-laboratory-validation
#5
Elizabeth M Mudge, Paula N Brown
Mitragyna speciosa (kratom) is a tree indigenous to Southeast Asia, and its leaves are used in herbal formulations because they contain indole alkaloids mitragynine and 7-hydroxy (7-OH) mitragynine. An HPLC method was developed, optimized, and validated using single-laboratory validation guidelines to quantify mitragynine in kratom raw materials and finished products. The method optimization evaluated several extraction parameters including solvent type, solvent volume, time, and extraction method. The separation of the mitragynine alkaloids was achieved in 18 min with a fused-core C18 EVO column using gradient separation with ammonium bicarbonate (pH 9...
October 8, 2016: Journal of AOAC International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27669103/do-you-get-what-you-paid-for-an-examination-of-products-advertised-as-kratom
#6
O Hayden Griffin, Jace A Daniels, Elizabeth A Gardner
Although some novel psychoactive substances (NPS) are newly discovered chemicals, others are traditional or indigenous substances that are introduced to new markets. One of these latter substances is a plant many people refer to as kratom. Indigenous to Southeast Asia and used for a variety of instrumental and recreational purposes, kratom has recently become available to Western drug users. Kratom is somewhat unique in that the plant contains two different psychoactive chemicals, which have both stimulant (mitragynine) and narcotic (7-hydroxymitragynine) properties...
November 2016: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27556704/mitragynine-corynantheidine-pseudoindoxyls-as-opioid-analgesics-with-mu-agonism-and-delta-antagonism-which-do-not-recruit-%C3%AE-arrestin-2
#7
András Váradi, Gina F Marrone, Travis C Palmer, Ankita Narayan, Márton R Szabó, Valerie Le Rouzic, Steven G Grinnell, Joan J Subrath, Evelyn Warner, Sanjay Kalra, Amanda Hunkele, Jeremy Pagirsky, Shainnel O Eans, Jessica M Medina, Jin Xu, Ying-Xian Pan, Attila Borics, Gavril W Pasternak, Jay P McLaughlin, Susruta Majumdar
Natural products found in Mitragyna speciosa, commonly known as kratom, represent diverse scaffolds (indole, indolenine, and spiro pseudoindoxyl) with opioid activity, providing opportunities to better understand opioid pharmacology. Herein, we report the pharmacology and SAR studies both in vitro and in vivo of mitragynine pseudoindoxyl (3), an oxidative rearrangement product of the corynanthe alkaloid mitragynine. 3 and its corresponding corynantheidine analogs show promise as potent analgesics with a mechanism of action that includes mu opioid receptor agonism/delta opioid receptor antagonism...
September 22, 2016: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27466822/notes-from-the-field-kratom-mitragyna-speciosa-exposures-reported-to-poison-centers-united-states-2010-2015
#8
Mehruba Anwar, Royal Law, Josh Schier
Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) is a plant consumed throughout the world for its stimulant effects and as an opioid substitute (1). It is typically brewed into a tea, chewed, smoked, or ingested in capsules (2). It is also known as Thang, Kakuam, Thom, Ketum, and Biak (3). The Drug Enforcement Administration includes kratom on its Drugs of Concern list (substances that are not currently regulated by the Controlled Substances Act, but that pose risks to persons who abuse them), and the National Institute of Drug Abuse has identified kratom as an emerging drug of abuse (3,4)...
2016: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27178014/traditional-and-non-traditional-uses-of-mitragynine-kratom-a-survey-of-the-literature
#9
Darshan Singh, Suresh Narayanan, Balasingam Vicknasingam
INTRODUCTION: The objective of the paper was to highlight the differences in the traditional and non-traditional users of kratom in the South East Asian and Western contexts. METHOD: A literature survey of published kratom studies among humans was conducted. Forty published studies relevant to the objective were reviewed. RESULTS: Apart from the differences in the sources of supply, patterns of use and social acceptability of kratom within these two regions, the most interesting finding is its evolution to a recreational drug in both settings and the severity of the adverse effects of kratom use reported in the West...
September 2016: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27092496/hepatotoxicity-induced-by-the-3ks-kava-kratom-and-khat
#10
REVIEW
Flaminia Pantano, Roberta Tittarelli, Giulio Mannocchi, Simona Zaami, Serafino Ricci, Raffaele Giorgetti, Daniela Terranova, Francesco P Busardò, Enrico Marinelli
The 3Ks (kava, kratom and khat) are herbals that can potentially induce liver injuries. On the one hand, growing controversial data have been reported about the hepatotoxicity of kratom, while, on the other hand, even though kava and khat hepatotoxicity has been investigated, the hepatotoxic effects are still not clear. Chronic recreational use of kratom has been associated with rare instances of acute liver injury. Several studies and case reports have suggested that khat is hepatotoxic, leading to deranged liver enzymes and also histopathological evidence of acute hepatocellular degeneration...
2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27057581/a-case-report-of-kratom-addiction-and-withdrawal
#11
REVIEW
David Galbis-Reig
Kratom, a relatively unknown herb among physicians in the western world, is advertised on the Internet as an alternative to opioid analgesics, as a potential treatment for oploid withdrawal and as a "legal high" with minimal addiction potential. This report describes a case of kratom addiction in a 37-year-old woman with a severe oploid-like withdrawal syndrome that was managed successfully with symptom-triggered clonidine therapy and scheduled hydroxyzine. A review of other case reports of kratom toxicity, the herb's addiction potential, and the kratom withdrawal syndrome is discussed...
February 2016: WMJ: Official Publication of the State Medical Society of Wisconsin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27018165/neurobiology-of-kratom-and-its-main-alkaloid-mitragynine
#12
Farah W Suhaimi, Nurul H M Yusoff, Rahimah Hassan, Sharif M Mansor, Visweswaran Navaratnam, Christian P Müller, Zurina Hassan
Kratom or its main alkaloid, mitragynine is derived from the plant Mitragyna speciosa Korth which is indigenous to Southeast Asian countries. This substance has become widely available in other countries like Europe and United States due to its opium- and coca-like effects. In this article, we have reviewed available reports on mitragynine and other M. speciosa extracts. M. speciosa has been proven to have a rewarding effect and is effective in alleviating the morphine and ethanol withdrawal effects. However, studies in human revealed that prolonged consumption of this plant led to dependence and tolerance while cessation caused a series of aversive withdrawal symptoms...
September 2016: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27001139/mitragynine-kratom-monitoring-in-sports-drug-testing
#13
Sven Guddat, Christian Görgens, Vanessa Steinhart, Wilhelm Schänzer, Mario Thevis
In 2014, mitragynine (Kratom) was placed on the Monitoring List of the World Anti-Doping Agency to gain information of its current use in professional sports. Therefore, analytical strategies in sports drug testing are presented and the first Kratom case in professional sports is described. It is outlined that thorough monitoring by anti-doping laboratories is of utmost importance to obtain data on Kratom's misuse and to protect athletes from potential health hazards. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd...
March 22, 2016: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26990882/chronic-mitragynine-kratom-enhances-punishment-resistance-in-natural-reward-seeking-and-impairs-place-learning-in-mice
#14
Nurul Iman W Ismail, Nanthini Jayabalan, Sharif Mahsufi Mansor, Christian P Müller, Mustapha Muzaimi
Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) is a widely abused herbal drug preparation in Southeast Asia. It is often consumed as a substitute for heroin, but imposing itself unknown harms and addictive burdens. Mitragynine is the major psychostimulant constituent of kratom that has recently been reported to induce morphine-like behavioural and cognitive effects in rodents. The effects of chronic consumption on non-drug related behaviours are still unclear. In the present study, we investigated the effects of chronic mitragynine treatment on spontaneous activity, reward-related behaviour and cognition in mice in an IntelliCage® system, and compared them with those of morphine and Δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)...
March 17, 2016: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26640804/following-the-roots-of-kratom-mitragyna-speciosa-the-evolution-of-an-enhancer-from-a-traditional-use-to-increase-work-and-productivity-in-southeast-asia-to-a-recreational-psychoactive-drug-in-western-countries
#15
REVIEW
Eduardo Cinosi, Giovanni Martinotti, Pierluigi Simonato, Darshan Singh, Zsolt Demetrovics, Andres Roman-Urrestarazu, Francesco Saverio Bersani, Balasingam Vicknasingam, Giulia Piazzon, Jih-Heng Li, Wen-Jing Yu, Máté Kapitány-Fövény, Judit Farkas, Massimo Di Giannantonio, Ornella Corazza
The use of substances to enhance human abilities is a constant and cross-cultural feature in the evolution of humanity. Although much has changed over time, the availability on the Internet, often supported by misleading marketing strategies, has made their use even more likely and risky. This paper will explore the case of Mitragyna speciosa Korth. (kratom), a tropical tree used traditionally to combat fatigue and improve work productivity among farm populations in Southeast Asia, which has recently become popular as novel psychoactive substance in Western countries...
2015: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26595229/experiences-of-kratom-users-a-qualitative-analysis
#16
Marc T Swogger, Elaine Hart, Fire Erowid, Earth Erowid, Nicole Trabold, Kaila Yee, Kimberly A Parkhurst, Brittany M Priddy, Zach Walsh
Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) is a psychoactive plant that has been used since at least 1836 in folk medicine in Southeast Asian countries. More recently, kratom has become widely available in the West and is used for both recreational and medicinal purposes. There has, however, been little scientific research into the short- and long-term effects of kratom in humans, and much of the information available is anecdotal. To supplement the increasing scientific understanding of kratom's pharmacology and research into its effects in animals, we report the results of a qualitative analysis of first-hand descriptions of human kratom use that were submitted to, and published by, a psychoactive substance information website (Erowid...
November 2015: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26511390/the-pharmacology-and-toxicology-of-kratom-from-traditional-herb-to-drug-of-abuse
#17
REVIEW
Marcus L Warner, Nellie C Kaufman, Oliver Grundmann
Mitragyna speciosa (Rubiaceae), commonly known as kratom, is a tropical tree with a long history of traditional use in parts of Africa and Southeast Asia. In recent years, kratom has gained popularity for use as a recreational drug across the globe. Relatively new to the illicit market and used in a manner different from its traditional applications, preparations of kratom are touted by many as a safe and legal psychoactive product that improves mood, relieves pain, and may provide benefits in opiate addiction...
January 2016: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26452798/determination-of-mitragynine-in-urine-matrices-by-bar-adsorptive-microextraction-and-hplc-analysis
#18
N R Neng, S M Ahmad, H Gaspar, J M F Nogueira
Bar adsorptive microextraction combined with liquid desorption followed by high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection (BAµE-LD/HPLC-DAD) is proposed for the determination of the psychoactive alkaloid mitragynine (MG) in human urine matrices. By using a modified N-vinylpyrrolidone polymer (P2) sorbent phase, high selectivity and efficiency is achieved. Assays performed by BAµE(P2)-LD/HPLC-DAD on 25 mL water samples spiked at the 8.0 µg L(-1) level yielded average recoveries around 100% of MG, under optimized experimental conditions...
November 1, 2015: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25995615/pharmacokinetics-of-mitragynine-in-man
#19
Satariya Trakulsrichai, Korbtham Sathirakul, Saranya Auparakkitanon, Jatupon Krongvorakul, Jetjamnong Sueajai, Nantida Noumjad, Chonlaphat Sukasem, Winai Wananukul
BACKGROUND: Kratom, known botanically as Mitragyna speciosa (Korth.), is an indigenous tree in Southeast Asia. Kratom is currently easily available worldwide via special shops and the Internet to use as a drug of abuse, opioid alternative, or pain killer. So far, the pharmacokinetics of this plant has been studied only in animals, and there is no such study in humans. The major abundant active alkaloid in Kratom, mitragynine, is one of the promising new chemical substances to be developed as a new drug...
2015: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25950592/social-functioning-of-kratom-mitragyna-speciosa-users-in-malaysia
#20
Darshan Singh, Christian P Müller, Balasingam K Vicknasingam, Sharif M Mansor
Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) is an indigenous plant known for its traditional medicinal use, and for its addiction potential, in Southeast Asia. In recent years, kratom and its major alkaloid, mitragynine, spread worldwide with largely unknown effects on behavior and mental health. Recent studies show that kratom use can lead to dependence and that mitragynine works as an addictive drug in animal studies. Nevertheless, kratom preparations were also suggested as a less harmful substitute in opiate withdrawal...
April 2015: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
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