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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559179/opioid-receptors-mediate-the-acquisition-but-not-the-expression-of-mitragynine-induced-conditioned-place-preference-in-rats
#1
Nurul H M Yusoff, Sharif M Mansor, Christian P Müller, Zurina Hassan
Mitragynine is the main psychoactive ingredient of the herbal drug preparation Kratom (Ketum), derived from the plant Mitragyna speciosa. Kratom is a widely abused drug in Southeast Asian and has a psychostimulant profile at low-medium doses, while high doses have opioidergic effects. Mitragynine was shown to possess opiate receptor affinity. However, its role in the behavioural effects of mitragynine is unclear. Here we asked whether the reinforcing effects of mitragynine are mediated by opiate receptors using a conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm in rats...
May 27, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544011/changing-trends-in-the-use-of-kratom-mitragyna-speciosa-in-southeast-asia
#2
Darshan Singh, Suresh Narayanan, Balasingam Vicknasingam, Ornella Corazza, Rita Santacroce, Andres Roman-Urrestarazu
OBJECTIVE: Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa. Korth) is an indigenous medicinal plant of Southeast Asia. This review paper aims to describe the trends of kratom use in Southeast Asia. DESIGN: A literature review search was conducted through ScienceDirect, Scopus, ProMed and Google Scholar. Twenty-five articles illustrating kratom use in humans in Southeast Asia were reviewed. RESULTS: Kratom has long been used by rural populations in Southeast Asia as a remedy for common ailments, to fight fatigue from hard manual work, as a drink during social interaction among men, and in village religious functions...
May 24, 2017: Human Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521200/patterns-of-kratom-use-and-health-impact-in-the-us-results-from-an-online-survey
#3
Oliver Grundmann
BACKGROUND: Kratom preparations have raised concerns of public health and safety in the US. Investigation into the demographics, perceived beneficial and detrimental effects of Kratom as well as common doses and purposes of its use are important to properly evaluate its potential health impact. METHODS: An anonymous cross-sectional online survey was conducted in October 2016 of 10,000 current Kratom users through available social media and online resources from the American Kratom Association...
May 10, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501425/the-effects-of-kratom-on-restraint-stress-induced-analgesia-and-its-mechanisms-of-action
#4
José Luis Vázquez López, Lorenz Schild, Thomas Günther, Stefan Schulz, Hartmud Neurath, Axel Becker
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Mitragyna speciosa and its extracts are called kratom (dried leaves, extract). They contain several alkaloids with an affinity for different opioid receptors. They are used in traditional medicine for the treatment of different diseases, as a substitute by opiate addicts, and to mitigate opioid withdrawal symptoms. Apart from their medical properties, they are used to enhance physical endurance and as a means of overcoming stress. PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to determine the mechanisms underlying the effects of kratom on restraint-stress-induced analgesia which occurs during or following exposure to a stressful or fearful stimulus...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484399/biochemical-benefits-diagnosis-and-clinical-risks-evaluation-of-kratom
#5
REVIEW
Dimy Fluyau, Neelambika Revadigar
BACKGROUND: Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) is a tropical tree with a long history of traditional use in parts of Africa and Southeast Asia. Kratom is also known as Thom, Thang, and Biak. Its leaves and the teas brewed from them have long been used by people in that region to manage pain and opioid withdrawal and to stave off fatigue. Kratom is actually consumed throughout the world for its stimulant effects and as an opioid substitute (in form of tea, chewed, smoked, or ingested in capsules)...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443503/kratom-and-future-treatment-for-the-opioids-addiction-and-chronic-pain-periculo-beneficium
#6
Ismaliza Ismail, Suzaily Wahab, Hatta Sidi, Srijit Das, Loo Jiann Lin, Rosdinom Razali
Kratom (Mitragynaspeciosa), a natural existing plant found in South-East Asia, is tradi-tionally used as an herb to help to elevate a person's energy and also to treat numerous medical ailments. Other than the analgesic property, kratom has been used as an agent to overcome opioid withdrawal as it contains natural alkaloids, i.e. mitragynine, 7-hydroxymitragynine, and MGM-9, which has agonist affinity on the opioid receptors, including mu (μ) and kappa (κ). The role of neural reward pathway linked to μ-opioid receptors and both dopaminergic and GABA-ergic interneurons that express μ-opioid receptors were deliberated...
April 25, 2017: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339456/in-errata-kratom-the-new-legal-high-on-the-block-the-case-of-an-emerging-opioid-receptor-agonist-with-substance-abuse-potential
#7
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Pain Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330725/a-botanical-phytochemical-and-ethnomedicinal-review-of-the-genus-mitragyna-korth-implications-for-products-sold-as-kratom
#8
REVIEW
Paula N Brown, Jensen A Lund, Susan J Murch
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The genus Mitragyna (Rubiacaeae) has been traditionally used in parts of Africa, Asia and Oceania. In recent years, there has been increased interest in species of Mitragyna with the introduction of products to western markets and regulatory uncertainty. AIM OF THE STUDY: This paper reviewed the traditional ethnomedicinal uses of leaves for species belonging to the genus Mitragyna with reference to the botany and known chemistry in order to highlight areas of interest for products currently being sold as kratom...
March 18, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293192/indole-alkaloids-from-plants-as-potential-leads-for-antidepressant-drugs-a-mini-review
#9
Hazrulrizawati A Hamid, Aizi N M Ramli, Mashitah M Yusoff
Depression is the most common illness observed in the elderly, adults, and children. Antidepressants prescribed are usually synthetic drugs and these can sometimes cause a wide range of unpleasant side effects. Current research is focussed on natural products from plants as they are a rich source of potent new drug leads. Besides Hypericum perforatum (St. John's wort), the plants studied include Passiflora incarnata L. (passion flower), Mitragyna speciosa (kratom), Piper methysticum G. Forst (kava) and Valeriana officinalis L...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089300/mitragynine-concentrations-in-two-fatalities
#10
Olwen Domingo, Gabriele Roider, Andreas Stöver, Matthias Graw, Frank Musshoff, Hans Sachs, Wolfgang Bicker
Two cases of fatalities are reported of which the recreational use of Mitragyna speciosa ("kratom") could be confirmed. One of these cases presents with one of the highest postmortem mitragynine concentrations published to date. Our results show that even extremely high mitragynine blood concentrations following the consumption of kratom do not necessarily have to be the direct cause of death in such fatalities as a result of an acute overdose. The two cases are compared with regard to the differences in mitragynine concentrations detected and the role of mitragynine in the death of the subjects...
February 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072812/is-kratom-the-new-legal-high-on-the-block-the-case-of-an-emerging-opioid-receptor-agonist-with-substance-abuse-potential
#11
George C Chang-Chien, Charles A Odonkor, Prin Amorapanth
Kratom is an unscheduled opioid receptor agonist that comes in the form of dietary supplements currently being abused by chronic pain patients on prescription opioids. Active alkaloids isolated from kratom such as mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine are thought to act on mu- and delta-opioid receptors as well as alpha-2 adrenergic and 5-HT2A receptors. Animal studies suggest that kratom may be more potent than morphine. Consequently, kratom consumption produces analgesic and euphoric feelings among users. In particular, some chronic pain patients on opioids take kratom to counteract the effects of opioid withdrawal...
January 2017: Pain Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27951469/-evaluation-of-ion-mobility-spectrometry-for-the-detection-of-mitragynine-in-kratom-products
#12
Nathan Fuenffinger, Melissa Ritchie, Ashley Ruth, Connie Gryniewicz-Ruzicka
An ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) method was developed for the rapid detection of mitragynine, the most abundant alkaloid in Mitragyna speciosa also known as kratom. The peak corresponding to the mitragynine protonated ion exhibited a reduced ion mobility of 0.95±0.00014cm(2)/(Vs), and the mitragynine limit of detection using IMS was 0.5ng. The IMS method was applied to the analysis of 15 commercial samples suspected of containing kratom. IMS results were compared to those obtained from liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis of the same samples...
February 5, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893147/update-on-the-pharmacology-and-legal-status-of-kratom
#13
Walter C Prozialeck
Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) is a plant indigenous to Southeast Asia. Its leaves and the teas brewed from them have long been used by people in that region to stave off fatigue and to manage pain and opioid withdrawal. In a comprehensive review published in 2012, Prozialeck et al presented evidence that kratom had been increasingly used for the self-management of opioid withdrawal and pain in the United States. At the time, kratom was classified as a legal herbal product by the US Drug Enforcement Administration...
December 1, 2016: Journal of the American Osteopathic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27851548/1913-kratom-induced-alveolar-hemorrhage
#14
Jelena Arnautovic, Britni Souther, Stela Tereziu, Niluka Weerakoon
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27768072/rapid-high-throughput-species-identification-of-botanical-material-using-direct-analysis-in-real-time-high-resolution-mass-spectrometry
#15
Ashton D Lesiak, Rabi A Musah
We demonstrate that direct analysis in real time-high resolution mass spectrometry can be used to produce mass spectral profiles of botanical material, and that these chemical fingerprints can be used for plant species identification. The mass spectral data can be acquired rapidly and in a high throughput manner without the need for sample extraction, derivatization or pH adjustment steps. The use of this technique bypasses challenges presented by more conventional techniques including lengthy chromatography analysis times and resource intensive methods...
October 2, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27752985/suspected-adulteration-of-commercial-kratom-products-with-7-hydroxymitragynine
#16
Alicia G Lydecker, Abhisheak Sharma, Christopher R McCurdy, Bonnie A Avery, Kavita M Babu, Edward W Boyer
INTRODUCTION: Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa), a plant native to Southeast Asia, has been used for centuries for its stimulant and opium-like effects. Mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine, exclusive to M. speciosa, are the alkaloids primary responsible for Kratom's biologic and psychoactive profile, and likely contribute to its problematic use. We purchased several commercially available Kratom analogs for analysis and through our results, present evidence of probable adulteration with the highly potent and addictive plant alkaloid, 7-hydroxymitragynine...
December 2016: Journal of Medical Toxicology: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27725074/determination-of-mitragynine-in-mitragyna-speciosa-raw-materials-and-finished-products-by-liquid-chromatography-with-uv-detection-single-laboratory-validation
#17
Elizabeth M Mudge, Paula N Brown
Mitragyna speciosa (kratom) is a tree indigenous to Southeast Asia, and its leaves are used in herbal formulations because they contain indole alkaloids mitragynine and 7-hydroxy (7-OH) mitragynine. An HPLC method was developed, optimized, and validated using single-laboratory validation guidelines to quantify mitragynine in kratom raw materials and finished products. The method optimization evaluated several extraction parameters including solvent type, solvent volume, time, and extraction method. The separation of the mitragynine alkaloids was achieved in 18 min with a fused-core C18 EVO column using gradient separation with ammonium bicarbonate (pH 9...
October 8, 2016: Journal of AOAC International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27669103/do-you-get-what-you-paid-for-an-examination-of-products-advertised-as-kratom
#18
O Hayden Griffin, Jace A Daniels, Elizabeth A Gardner
Although some novel psychoactive substances (NPS) are newly discovered chemicals, others are traditional or indigenous substances that are introduced to new markets. One of these latter substances is a plant many people refer to as kratom. Indigenous to Southeast Asia and used for a variety of instrumental and recreational purposes, kratom has recently become available to Western drug users. Kratom is somewhat unique in that the plant contains two different psychoactive chemicals, which have both stimulant (mitragynine) and narcotic (7-hydroxymitragynine) properties...
November 2016: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27556704/mitragynine-corynantheidine-pseudoindoxyls-as-opioid-analgesics-with-mu-agonism-and-delta-antagonism-which-do-not-recruit-%C3%AE-arrestin-2
#19
András Váradi, Gina F Marrone, Travis C Palmer, Ankita Narayan, Márton R Szabó, Valerie Le Rouzic, Steven G Grinnell, Joan J Subrath, Evelyn Warner, Sanjay Kalra, Amanda Hunkele, Jeremy Pagirsky, Shainnel O Eans, Jessica M Medina, Jin Xu, Ying-Xian Pan, Attila Borics, Gavril W Pasternak, Jay P McLaughlin, Susruta Majumdar
Natural products found in Mitragyna speciosa, commonly known as kratom, represent diverse scaffolds (indole, indolenine, and spiro pseudoindoxyl) with opioid activity, providing opportunities to better understand opioid pharmacology. Herein, we report the pharmacology and SAR studies both in vitro and in vivo of mitragynine pseudoindoxyl (3), an oxidative rearrangement product of the corynanthe alkaloid mitragynine. 3 and its corresponding corynantheidine analogs show promise as potent analgesics with a mechanism of action that includes mu opioid receptor agonism/delta opioid receptor antagonism...
September 22, 2016: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27466822/notes-from-the-field-kratom-mitragyna-speciosa-exposures-reported-to-poison-centers-united-states-2010-2015
#20
Mehruba Anwar, Royal Law, Josh Schier
Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) is a plant consumed throughout the world for its stimulant effects and as an opioid substitute (1). It is typically brewed into a tea, chewed, smoked, or ingested in capsules (2). It is also known as Thang, Kakuam, Thom, Ketum, and Biak (3). The Drug Enforcement Administration includes kratom on its Drugs of Concern list (substances that are not currently regulated by the Controlled Substances Act, but that pose risks to persons who abuse them), and the National Institute of Drug Abuse has identified kratom as an emerging drug of abuse (3,4)...
July 29, 2016: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
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