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Yanan Li, Jianchang Wang, Jinfeng Wang, Libing Liu, Ruoxi Zhang, Ruihan Shi, Qingan Han, Jiguo Sun, Wanzhe Yuan
Porcine proliferative enteritis is a common diarrheal disease characterized by thickening of the intestinal mucosa in swine due to enterocyte proliferation, which is caused by Lawsonia intracellularis. In this study, a real-time loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay was developed to detect L. intracellularis based on the conserved region of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene. The optimal reaction conditions of the real-time LAMP was 65 °C for 60 min. The LAMP products could be detected by both real-time turbidity and direct visual inspection...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Microbiological Methods
Natasha McDonald, Peter J Eddowes, James Hodson, Scott I K Semple, Nigel P Davies, Catherine J Kelly, Stella Kin, Miranda Phillips, Amy H Herlihy, Timothy J Kendall, Rachel M Brown, Desley A H Neil, Stefan G Hübscher, Gideon M Hirschfield, Jonathan A Fallowfield
LiverMultiScan is an emerging diagnostic tool using multiparametric MRI to quantify liver disease. In a two-centre prospective validation study, 161 consecutive adult patients who had clinically-indicated liver biopsies underwent contemporaneous non-contrast multiparametric MRI at 3.0 tesla (proton density fat fraction (PDFF), T1 and T2* mapping), transient elastography (TE) and Enhanced Liver Fibrosis (ELF) test. Non-invasive liver tests were correlated with gold standard histothological measures. Reproducibility of LiverMultiScan was investigated in 22 healthy volunteers...
June 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Ciro Andolfi, Gyorgy Baffy, P Marco Fisichella
In the past decade, the introduction of high-resolution manometry and the classification of achalasia into subtypes has made possible to accurately diagnose the disease and predict the response to treatment for its different subtypes. However, even to date, in an era of exponential medical progress and increased insight in disease mechanisms, treatment of patients with achalasia is still rather simplistic and mostly confined to mechanical disruption of the lower esophageal sphincter by different means. In addition, there is partial consensus on what is the best form of available treatments for patients with achalasia...
August 2018: Journal of Surgical Research
Louise A Kelly-Hope, Janet Hemingway, Mark J Taylor, David H Molyneux
In West and Central Africa, there is a need to establish the prevalence of Wuchereria bancrofti in areas that are co-endemic for Loa loa, in order to implement the appropriate strategies to scale-up interventions for the elimination of lymphatic filariasis (LF). Due to the risk of severe adverse events (SAEs) to ivermectin in individuals with high L. loa microfilaraemia, the current strategy recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) is twice yearly mass drug administration (MDA) with albendazole, supplemented by vector control targeting the Anopheles vectors...
June 15, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Kelvin Kw To, Cyril Cy Yip, Cherie Yw Lai, Carlos Kh Wong, Deborah Ty Ho, Polly Kp Pang, Anthony Ck Ng, Kit-Hang Leung, Rosana Ws Poon, Kwok-Hung Chan, Vincent Cc Cheng, Ivan Fn Hung, Kwok-Yung Yuen
OBJECTIVES: Automated point-of-care molecular assays have greatly shortened the turnaround time of respiratory virus testing. One of the major bottlenecks now lies at the step of the specimen collection especially in a busy clinical setting. Saliva is a convenient specimen type which can be provided easily from adult patients. This study assessed the diagnostic validity, specimen collection time, and cost associated with the use of saliva. METHODS: This was a prospective diagnostic validity study comparing the detection rate of respiratory viruses between saliva and nasopharyngeal aspirate (NPA) among adult hospitalized patients using Xpert® Xpress Flu/RSV...
June 12, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Emma M Harding-Esch, Sebastian S Fuller, S-L Christine Chow, Achyuta V Nori, Mark A Harrison, Mathew Parker, Olaf Piepenburg, Matthew S Forrest, David G Brooks, Rajul Patel, Phillip Hay, Nicola Fearnley, Marcus J Pond, J Kevin Dunbar, Philip D Butcher, Timothy Planche, Catherine M Lowndes, S Tariq Sadiq
OBJECTIVES: Rapid and accurate sexually transmitted infection diagnosis can reduce onward transmission and improve treatment efficacy. We evaluated the accuracy of a 15-minute run-time recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA)-based prototype point-of-care test (TwistDx) for Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG). METHODS: Prospective, multi-centre study of symptomatic and asymptomatic patients attending three English sexual health clinics. Research samples provided were: additional self-collected vulvo-vaginal swab (SCVS) (females); first-catch urine (FCU) aliquot (females and males)...
June 12, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
P J Toliman, J M Kaldor, S G Badman, S Phillips, G Tan, J M L Brotherton, M Saville, A J Vallely, S N Tabrizi
OBJECTIVES: To compare the performance of self-collected vaginal (V) specimens with clinician-collected cervical (C) specimens for detection of high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) and cervical disease using the Cepheid Xpert HPV, Roche Cobas 4800 HPV, and Hologic Aptima HPV assays. METHODS: Women aged 30-59 years (N=1005) were recruited at two clinics in Papua New Guinea, and provided specimens for testing at point-of-care using the Xpert HPV Test, and for subsequent testing using the Cobas HPV (n=981) and Aptima HPV (n=983) assays...
June 12, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Peter M DiGeronimo, Nicholas A Crossland, Angela Jugan, Javier G Nevarez, Thomas N Tully, Dawn E Evans
A 5-year-old sexually intact male Toulouse goose ( Anser anser domesticus) was presented for ataxia, polyuria, and polydipsia. The goose was cachectic and exhibited head tremors. Results of plasma biochemical analysis and point-of-care glucometry revealed persistent hyperglycemia. Despite supportive care and oral glipizide, the goose died within 48 hours of presentation. Necropsy revealed severe pancreatic atrophy and fibrosis with regionally extensive cerebellar encephalomalacia and generalized Purkinje cell degeneration and necrosis...
June 2018: Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery
Enrico Heffler, Massimo Landi, Cristiano Caruso, Silvia Fichera, Federica Gani, Giuseppe Guida, Maria Teresa Liuzzo, Maria Provvidenza Pistorio, Stefano Pizzimenti, Anna Maria Riccio, Veronica Seccia, Matteo Ferrando, Luca Malvezzi, Giovanni Passalacqua, Matteo Gelardi
Nasal cytology is an easy, cheap, non-invasive and point-of-care method to assess nasal inflammation and disease-specific cellular features. By means of nasal cytology it is possible to distinguish between different inflammatory patterns that are typically associated with specific diseases (i.e.: allergic and non allergic rhinitis). Its use is particularly relevant when other clinical information, such as signs, symptoms, time-course and allergic sensitizations, are not enough to recognize which of the different rhinitis phenotypes is involved; for example, it is only by means of nasal cytology that it is possible to distinguish, among the non allergic rhinitis, those characterized by eosinophilic (NARES), mastcellular (NARMA), mixed eosinophilic-mastcellular (NARESMA) or neutrophilic (NARNE) inflammation...
June 15, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Yoo Min Park, Sun Young Lim, Soon Woo Jeong, Younseong Song, Nam Ho Bae, Seok Bok Hong, Bong Gill Choi, Seok Jae Lee, Kyoung G Lee
Flexible and highly ordered nanopillar arrayed electrodes have brought great interest for many electrochemical applications, especially to the biosensors, because of its unique mechanical and topological properties. Herein, we report an advanced method to fabricate highly ordered nanopillar electrodes produced by soft-/photo-lithography and metal evaporation. The highly ordered nanopillar array exhibited the superior electrochemical and mechanical properties in regard with the wide space to response with electrolytes, enabling the sensitive analysis...
2018: Nano Convergence
Jagjit Kaur, Cheng Jiang, Guozhen Liu
Measurement of glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) is a gold standard procedure for assessing long term glycemic control in individuals with diabetes mellitus as it gives the stable and reliable value of blood glucose levels for a period of 90-120 days. HbA1c is formed by the non-enzymatic glycation of terminal valine of hemoglobin. The analysis of HbA1c tends to be complicated because there are more than 300 different assay methods for measuring HbA1c which leads to variations in reported values from same samples...
June 7, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Nyawira Mwangi, Muchai Gachago, Michael Gichangi, Stephen Gichuhi, Kibata Githeko, Atieno Jalango, Jefitha Karimurio, Joseph Kibachio, Lawrence Muthami, Nancy Ngugi, Carmichael Nduri, Patrick Nyaga, Joseph Nyamori, Alain Nazaire Mbongo Zindamoyen, Covadonga Bascaran, Allen Foster
BACKGROUND: The use of clinical practice guidelines envisages augmenting quality and best practice in clinical outcomes. Generic guidelines that are not adapted for local use often fail to produce these outcomes. Adaptation is a systematic and rigorous process that should maintain the quality and validity of the guideline, while making it more usable by the targeted users. Diverse skills are required for the task of adaptation. Although adapting a guideline is not a guarantee that it will be implemented, adaptation may improve acceptance and adherence to its recommendations...
June 15, 2018: Implementation Science: IS
Thomas Waterfield, Derek Fairley, Fiona Lynn, Bronagh Blackwood, Michael D Shields
BACKGROUND: Meningococcal disease (MD) is notoriously difficult to diagnose in the early stages of the illness and presents similarly to many self-limiting viral infections. This mandates a cautious approach to diagnosis and initial management of suspected MD with many children receiving precautionary broad-spectrum intravenous antibiotics. Despite this approach, some children are still diagnosed late. In the last 10 years, there have been advances in nucleic acid amplification techniques, and there is now a rapid test that can detect meningococcal DNA in under 30 min...
June 15, 2018: Systematic Reviews
Serge Molliex, Sylvie Passot, Jerome Morel, Emmanuel Futier, Jean Yves Lefrant, Jean Michel Constantin, Yannick Le Manach, Bruno Pereira
INTRODUCTION: in elderly patients, goal directed haemodynamic therapy (GDHT), depth of anaesthesia monitoring and lung-protective ventilation have been shown to improve postoperative outcomes. The aim of this study was to evaluate current practices concerning strategies of anaesthesia optimisation in patients aged ≥ 75 years. PATIENTS AND METHODS: a multicentre observational study was performed from February to May 2015 in 23 French academic centres. On 30 consecutive days in each centre, patients ≥ 75 years with at least one major co-morbidity undergoing elective or emergency procedures (femoral-neck fractures surgery, intraperitoneal abdominal surgery or vascular surgery) were included...
June 11, 2018: Anaesthesia, Critical Care & Pain Medicine
Charles Chiu
Three recent Science articles (Chen et al., 2018; Gootenberg et al., 2018; Myhrvold et al., 2018) describe the use of CRISPR-Cas technology to develop point-of-care diagnostics that directly detect viruses from clinical samples. These tests could radically transform approaches to diagnosing infectious diseases at the bedside and in the field.
June 13, 2018: Cell Host & Microbe
J W Andersen, M Dahl, K B Yderstraede, A Hoegh
AIMS: To determine the prevalence of unidentified diabetes mellitus among 67-year-olds in Denmark participating in a screening programme focusing on cardiovascular disease and diabetes, and to describe glycaemic levels in individuals according to point-of-care HbA1c combined with self-reported diabetes status. METHODS: In this cross-sectional, retrospective, population-based study, all people aged 67 years living in the Viborg municipality were invited to take part in the Viborg Inter-sectorial Screening Programme (VISP), which focuses on cardiovascular disease and diabetes...
June 14, 2018: Diabetic Medicine: a Journal of the British Diabetic Association
Denise R Black, Mary L Held, Tami H Wyatt
Integrated health care (IHC) is a proposed change to the U.S. health care system to address health care disparities for individuals with mental and physical health conditions. Computer applications may provide an effective strategy to prepare social workers for the transition to IHC. An Internet-based tool, Integrated Healthcare (Version 1.0) was developed and tested through rapid prototyping to access knowledge required for behavioral health providers to practice in IHC settings. Two focus groups (N = 5, N = 7) and individual interviews (N = 5) were conducted with social work professors and students...
June 13, 2018: Health & Social Work
Ali Li, Xijiao Mu, Tianrong Li, Huang Wen, Wanchong Li, Yuee Li, Baodui Wang
Currently, nanomaterials with peroxidase activity have become an important colorimetric tool for biomolecular detection. However, compared with natural enzymes, the efficiency of most nanozymes is still lower. Here, with a leaf-like metal-organic-framework-5 as both a precursor and a template and copper acetate as a second precursor, hierarchical Cu hydroxy double salt (HDS) nanoflowers have been prepared and used as a label-free glucose colorimetric detection platform. We have demonstrated a scalable and facile synthesis of hierarchical Cu HDS nanoflowers, and density functional theory (DFT) calculations confirmed that there exists a hydrogen bond between the terephthalate anions and the layer OH group...
June 14, 2018: Nanoscale
Christopher Mallow, Warren Isakow
BACKGROUND: Point of care bedside ultrasound is widely utilized as a rapid technique to evaluate patients with acute pulmonary emergencies, including acute pneumothorax. The presence of a pneumothorax is a known cause of loss of lung sliding by ultrasound examination, but no other risk factors have been clearly identified. We attempted to identify demographic and patient characteristics that are risk factors for loss of ultrasonographic lung sliding in the absence of a pneumothorax. METHODS: Data were collected on 159 patients admitted to the medical intensive care unit with acute respiratory failure, undergoing routine admission lung ultrasound...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Bronchology & Interventional Pulmonology
Nicholas J Emery, Sagardip Majumder, Allen P Liu
Point-of-care molecular diagnostic tests show great promise for providing accurate, timely results in low-infrastructure healthcare settings and at home. The design space for these tests is limited by a variety of possible background reactions, which often originate from relatively weak promiscuous activities of the enzymes used for nucleic acid amplification. When this background signal is amplified alongside the signal of the intended biomarker, the dynamic range of the test can be severely compromised. Therefore, a detailed knowledge of potential side reactions arising from enzyme promiscuity can improve rational design of point-of-care molecular diagnostic tests...
June 2018: Synthetic and Systems Biotechnology
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