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conditioned avoidance response test

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435125/the-blockage-of-ventromedial-hypothalamus-crf-type-2-receptors-impairs-escape-responses-in-the-elevated-t-maze
#1
Mariana S C F Silva, Thaissa M O Souza, Bruno A Pereira, Daniel A Ribeiro, Isabel C Céspedes, Jackson C Bittencourt, Milena B Viana
In a previous study, the administration of corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF) into the dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH), a region that modulates defensive reactions, was shown to facilitate elevated T-maze (ETM) avoidance responses, an anxiogenic-like effect. Intra-DMH administration of the CRF type 1 receptor (CRFR1) antagonist antalarmin induced anxiolytic-like effects and counteracted the anxiogenic effects of CRF. The present study further investigates the role played by CRF receptors of the medial hypothalamus in anxiety...
April 20, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427076/application-of-clinical-trial-results-to-clinical-practice
#2
Marco A Zarbin, Neelakshi Bhagat, Lekha K Mukkamala
Two critical questions one must answer as one applies the results of a clinical trial to clinical practice are: (1) Regardless of whether the trial result is likely to be replicated or reproduced in a second large-scale trial, are the results likely to be reproduced in one's practice? (2) Regardless of whether the experimental treatment was better than the alternative on average for a population of patients, are the results clinically important for a given patient in one's practice? To determine if a study result is likely to be reproduced in one's clinical practice, it may be helpful to answer 5 questions: (1) Have steps been taken to minimize bias? (2) Is the result likely due to the treatment? (3) Is the result unlikely due to chance? (4) Is the study population representative of one's patients? (5) Is the totality of evidence consistent? If the answer to all 5 questions is "yes," then we posit that the trial result is likely to be reproduced in one's practice...
2017: Developments in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426689/preference-index-supported-by-motivation-tests-in-nile-tilapia
#3
Caroline Marques Maia, Gilson Luiz Volpato
The identification of animal preferences is assumed to provide better rearing environments for the animals in question. Preference tests focus on the frequency of approaches or the time an animal spends in proximity to each item of the investigated resource during a multiple-choice trial. Recently, a preference index (PI) was proposed to differentiate animal preferences from momentary responses (Sci Rep, 2016, 6:28328, DOI: 10.1038/srep28328). This index also quantifies the degree of preference for each item...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421528/postnatal-lps-challenge-impacts-escape-learning-and-expression-of-plasticity-factors-mmp9-and-timp1-in-rats-effects-of-repeated-training
#4
Alexander Trofimov, Tatyana Strekalova, Niall Mortimer, Olga Zubareva, Alexander Schwarz, Evgeniy Svirin, Aleksei Umriukhin, Andrei Svistunov, Klaus-Peter Lesch, Victor Klimenko
Bacterial intoxication associated with inflammatory conditions during development can impair brain functions, in particular evolutionarily novel forms of memory, such as explicit learning. Little is known about the dangers of early-life inflammation on more basic forms of learning, for example, the acquisition of motor escape abilities, which are generally better preserved under pathological conditions. To address this limitation in knowledge, an inflammatory response was elicited in Wistar pups by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) injections (25 μg/kg) on postnatal days P15, P18 and P21...
April 18, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419347/evolutionary-trade-offs-between-drought-resistance-mechanisms-across-a-precipitation-gradient-in-a-seasonally-dry-tropical-oak-quercus-oleoides
#5
Jose A Ramírez-Valiente, Jeannine Cavender-Bares
In seasonally dry tropical forest regions, drought avoidance during the dry season coupled with high assimilation rates in the wet season is hypothesized to be an advantageous strategy for forest trees in regions with severe and long dry seasons. In contrast, where dry seasons are milder, drought tolerance coupled with a conservative resource-use strategy is expected to maximize carbon assimilation throughout the year. Tests of this hypothesis, particularly at the intraspecific level, have been seldom conducted...
April 13, 2017: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417082/improving-glucose-tolerance-by-muscle-damaging-exercise
#6
Chien-Te Ho, Machiko Otaka, Chia-Hua Kuo
Tissue damage is regarded as an unwanted medical condition to be avoided. However, introducing tolerable tissue damages has been used as a therapeutic intervention in traditional and complementary medicine to cure discomfort and illness. Eccentric exercise is known to cause significant necrosis and insulin resistance of skeletal muscle. The purpose of this study was to determine the magnitude of muscle damage and blood glucose responses during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) after eccentric training in 21 young participants...
April 2017: Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413280/comparison-of-sevoflurane-and-propofol-for-laryngeal-mask-airway-insertion-and-pressor-response-in-patients-undergoing-gynecological-procedures
#7
Shirishkumar Gulabrao Chavan, Surita Mandhyan, Sandhya Haridas Gujar, Gourish Prakash Shinde
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: A popular method of providing anesthesia for laryngeal mask airway (LMA) insertion is with the use of propofol. However, bolus propofol has been associated with adverse effects such as hypotension, apnea and pain on injection. Hence, time is needed to search an alternative. We aimed to compare the induction characteristics, ease of LMA insertion, hemodynamic changes and complications with inhalation of 8% sevoflurane vital capacity breath and propofol. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A prospective randomized study of 60 American Society of Anesthesiologists' Grade I and II patients was conducted and distributed among two groups with 30 each undergoing gynecological procedures under general anesthesia...
January 2017: Journal of Anaesthesiology, Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412306/time-dependent-sensitization-of-antipsychotic-effect-in-adolescent-male-and-female-rats
#8
Xiaojing Ding, Xiaonan Li, Qing Shu, Ruiyong Wu, Gang Hu, Ming Li
Many behavioral and biological effects of a psychoactive drug often undergo time-dependent change following even one single drug exposure. The present study examined whether one or two exposures of haloperidol, olanzapine or clozapine would also induce a time-dependent change in their behavioral effects in adolescent rats and whether such a change vary between sexes. Adolescent Sprague-Dawley rats (<40days old) were first treated with one single injection of haloperidol (0.05 and 0.1mg/kg, sc), clozapine (10...
April 12, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389140/sex-differences-in-aripiprazole-sensitization-from-adolescence-to-adulthood
#9
Elizabeth Freeman, Joanne Lin, Shinnyi Chow, Collin Davis, Ming Li
The present study investigated the potential sex differences in repeated aripiprazole (ARI) treatment-induced behavioral sensitization from adolescence to adulthood, and to determine whether ARI sensitization can be transferred to olanzapine (OLZ) and/or clozapine (CLZ) using the conditioned avoidance response (CAR) and phencyclidine-induced (PCP) hyperlocomotion tests of antipsychotic activity. Male and female Sprague-Dawley adolescence rats (P46) were first treated with ARI (10mg/kg) for 5 consecutive days (P46-50) and tested for avoidance response and ARI-induced inhibition of PCP-induced hyperlocomotion...
April 4, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28360963/assessing-eosinophilic-cationic-protein-as-a-biomarker-for-monitoring-patients-with-eosinophilic-esophagitis-treated-with-specific-exclusion-diets
#10
Joan Doménech Witek, Vicente Jover Cerdà, Vicente Gil Guillén, Juan Bautista Doménech Clar, Ramón Rodríguez Pacheco
BACKGROUND: Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a complex pathology. Attempts have been made in order to relate EoE with the intake of certain food. The problem is to establish which foods are really involved in the pathophysiology of this condition and to objectify a reliable inflammation biomarker for the follow-up of patients undergoing pharmacological treatment and/or diets. Our aim is to assess the food sensitization profile of patients with objective diagnosis of EoE and objectify the utility of ECP as an inflammation biomarker for the follow-up of patients with EoE treated with specific diets, based on the hypothesis that we will observe a decrease and clinical improvement after maintenance of these diets...
2017: World Allergy Organization Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359882/re-examining-the-factors-affecting-choice-in-the-light-dark-preference-test-in-zebrafish
#11
Amanda Facciol, Steven Tran, Robert Gerlai
The light-dark preference test has been extensively used to screen anxiolytic drugs and investigate mechanisms of anxiety with rodents. Recently, this task has been adapted to zebrafish, but a number of inconsistent findings have emerged. For example, some found zebrafish to avoid and others to prefer dark. Given the translational relevance of the zebrafish, its utility in high throughput drug screens, and that anxiety still represents a large unmet medical need, there is an urgent need to resolve these inconsistencies...
March 27, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347260/a-drug-drug-conditioning-paradigm-reveals-multiple-antipsychotic-nicotine-interactions
#12
Min Feng, Nathan L Sparkman, Nan Sui, Ming Li
Clinical studies indicate a reciprocal impact between nicotine use and antipsychotic medications in patients with schizophrenia. The present study used a conditioned avoidance response (CAR) test (a behavioral test of antipsychotic effect) and examined the specific drug-drug interactions between nicotine and haloperidol or clozapine. Following acquisition of the avoidance response, rats were first tested under either vehicle, nicotine (0.2, 0.4 mg/kg, sc), haloperidol (0.025, 0.05 mg/kg, sc), clozapine (5.0, 10...
April 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327501/accurate-determination-of-the-frequency-response-function-of-submerged-and-confined-structures-by-using-pzt-patches%C3%A2
#13
Alexandre Presas, David Valentin, Eduard Egusquiza, Carme Valero, Mònica Egusquiza, Matias Bossio
To accurately determine the dynamic response of a structure is of relevant interest in many engineering applications. Particularly, it is of paramount importance to determine the Frequency Response Function (FRF) for structures subjected to dynamic loads in order to avoid resonance and fatigue problems that can drastically reduce their useful life. One challenging case is the experimental determination of the FRF of submerged and confined structures, such as hydraulic turbines, which are greatly affected by dynamic problems as reported in many cases in the past...
March 22, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319860/effects-of-silver-nanoparticles-on-survival-biomass-change-and-avoidance-behaviour-of-the-endogeic-earthworm-allolobophora-chlorotica
#14
C Brami, A R Glover, K R Butt, C N Lowe
Increasing commercial application of silver nanoparticles (Ag NP) and subsequent presence in wastewater and sewage sludge has raised concerns regarding their effects in the aquatic and terrestrial environment. Several studies have employed standardised acute and chronic earthworm-based tests to establish the toxicological effects of Ag NP within soil. These studies have relied heavily on the use of epigiec earthworm species which may have limited ecological relevance in mineral soil. This study assessed the influence of Ag NP (uncoated 80nm powder) and AgNO3 on survival, change in biomass and avoidance behaviour in a soil dwelling (endogiec) species, Allolobophora chlorotica...
March 15, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315955/symbiosis-with-systemic-fungal-endophytes-promotes-host-escape-from-vector-borne-disease
#15
L I Perez, P E Gundel, H J Marrero, A González Arzac, M Omacini
Plants interact with a myriad of microorganisms that modulate their interactions within the community. A well-described example is the symbiosis between grasses and Epichloë fungal endophytes that protects host plants from herbivores. It is suggested that these symbionts could play a protective role for plants against pathogens through the regulation of their growth and development and/or the induction of host defences. However, other endophyte-mediated ecological mechanisms involved in disease avoidance have been scarcely explored...
March 18, 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315756/interleukin-4-is-a-participant-in-the-regulation-of-depressive-like-behavior
#16
Simone Wachholz, Alexandra Knorr, Leonie Mengert, Jennifer Plümper, Rainer Sommer, Georg Juckel, Astrid Friebe
Inflammatory immune activation has been frequently associated with the development of major depression. Microglia might serve as an important interface in this immune system-to-brain communication. Interleukin-4, the major Th2 type cytokine, might be protective against depression due to its ability to counter-regulate inflammation and to inhibit serotonin transporter activity. By using an Interferon-α mouse model, we show that a decreased IL-4 responsiveness of microglia was specifically related to the development of depressive-like behavior...
March 16, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303774/physiological-evaluation-of-personal-protective-ensembles-recommended-for-use-in-west-africa
#17
Aitor Coca, Tyler Quinn, Jung-Hyun Kim, Tianzhou Wu, Jeff Powell, Raymond Roberge, Ronald Shaffer
OBJECTIVE: Personal protective equipment (PPE) provides health care workers with a barrier to prevent human contact with viruses like Ebola and potential transmission of the disease. However, PPE can also introduce an additional physiological burden from potentially increased heat stress. This study evaluated the human physiological and subjective responses to continuous light exercise within environmental conditions similar to those in West Africa while wearing 3 different, commonly used PPE ensembles (E1, E2, and E3)...
March 17, 2017: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279838/modulation-of-sphingosine-1-phosphate-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#18
REVIEW
Laurent Peyrin-Biroulet, Ronald Christopher, Dominic Behan, Cheryl Lassen
Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), including ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, involve an inappropriate immune reaction in the digestive tract, causing a variety of disabling symptoms. The advent of monoclonal antibodies (anti-tumor necrosis factor, anti-integrin, anti-interleukin -23) has revolutionized IBD management. Nevertheless, these agents, with potential for immunogenicity, are associated with high rates of response loss and disease relapse over time. They are also associated with high production costs...
March 7, 2017: Autoimmunity Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275709/caudal-nucleus-accumbens-core-is-critical-in-the-regulation-of-cue-elicited-approach-avoidance-decisions
#19
Laurie Hamel, Tharshika Thangarasa, Osai Samadi, Rutsuko Ito
The nucleus accumbens (NAc) is thought to be a site of integration of positively and negatively valenced information and action selection. Functional differentiation in valence processing has previously been found along the rostrocaudal axis of the shell region of the NAc in assessments of unconditioned motivation. Given that the core region of the NAc has been implicated in the elicitation of motivated behavior in response to conditioned cues, we sought to assess the role of caudal, intermediate, and rostral sites within this subregion in cue-elicited approach-avoidance decisions...
January 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273984/study-of-risk-factors-for-development-of-voice-disorders-and-its-impact-on-the-quality-of-life-of-school-teachers-in-mangalore-india
#20
Arati Alva, Megna Machado, Kiran Bhojwani, Suja Sreedharan
INTRODUCTION: School teachers are most prone to the development and detrimental effects of voice disorders as a consequence of their work. The risk factors for development of dysphonia in teachers are multifactorial. AIM: The primary aim of our study was to investigate the various risk factors that influence the onset and progression of voice disorders in school teachers in the Indian context. We wanted to assess the effect of voice problems on the physical, psychosocial and functional aspect of a teacher's life...
January 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
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