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conditioned avoidance response test

Samuel O Igbinedion, Junaid Ansari, Anush Vasikaran, Felicity N Gavins, Paul Jordan, Moheb Boktor, Jonathan S Alexander
Currently, 1% of the United States population holds a diagnosis for celiac disease (CD), however, a more recently recognized and possibly related condition, "non-celiac gluten sensitivity" (NCGS) has been suggested to affect up to 6% of the United States public. While reliable clinical tests for CD exist, diagnosing individuals affected by NCGS is still complicated by the lack of reliable biomarkers and reliance upon a broad set of intestinal and extra intestinal symptoms possibly provoked by gluten. NCGS has been proposed to exhibit an innate immune response activated by gluten and several other wheat proteins...
October 28, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Inakã S Barreto, Stefani I E Andrade, Francisco A S Cunha, Marcelo B Lima, Mario Cesar U Araujo, Luciano F Almeida
A lab-made magnetic-mechanical robotic (MMR) system coupled to a flow-batch analyzer (FBA) for magnetic nanoparticles solid phase extraction (MSPE) is presented. As an illustrative application, an NMR-FBA couple was connected to a graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometer (GFAAS) for quantification of trace cadmium in edible oils. Factors affecting MSPE, such as the amount of adsorbent, the type, concentration and volume of the eluent and elution time were studied. Under the optimized experimental conditions, the interferents studied did not reveal a significant change in the analytical response, indicating that proposed method is selective...
February 1, 2018: Talanta
Petra Bachmann, Xinwei Zhang, Mauro F Larra, Dagmar Rebeck, Karsten Schönbein, Klaus P Koch, Hartmut Schächinger
The Cold Pressor Test (CPT) is often used in psychobiological research. However, the classical CPT version (unilateral hand immersion into ice-water) involves some disadvantages: hands may be needed for further applications, attentional drift towards the affected sensory hemi-field and/or physiological activation of the contralateral hemisphere may produce a laterality bias. Furthermore, instruction-induced motor activity may bias physiologic reactivity. To avoid these problems, a fully automated bilateral feet CPT was developed and tested for validity and feasibility...
November 6, 2017: International Journal of Psychophysiology
Andreas J Genewsky, Carsten T Wotjak
Among the hardwired behaviors, fear or survival responses certainly belong to the most evolutionary conserved ones. However, higher animals possess the ability to adapt to certain environments (e.g., novel foraging grounds), and, therefore, those responses need to be plastic. Previous studies revealed a cell-type specific role of the endocannabinoid system in novelty fear, conditioned fear and active vs. passive avoidance in a shuttle box paradigm. In this study we aim to investigate, whether knocking-out the cannabinoid receptor type-1 (CB1) on cortical glutamatergic (Glu-CB1(-/-)) or GABAergic (GABA-CB1(-/-)) neurons differentially affects the level of behavioral inhibition, which could ultimately lead to differences in escape behavior...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Milan Lstibůrek, Yousry A El-Kassaby, Tore Skrøppa, Gary R Hodge, Jørn H Sønstebø, Arne Steffenrem
Traditional gene-resource management programs for forest trees are long-term endeavors requiring sustained organizational commitment covering extensive landscapes. While successful in maintaining adaptation, genetic diversity and capturing traditional growth attributes gains, these programs are dependent on rigid methods requiring elaborate mating schemes, thus making them slow in coping with climate change challenges. Here, we review the significance of Norway spruce in the boreal region and its current management practices...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Sarah Marshall-Pescini, Jonas F L Schwarz, Inga Kostelnik, Zsófia Virányi, Friederike Range
A number of domestication hypotheses suggest that dogs have acquired a more tolerant temperament than wolves, promoting cooperative interactions with humans and conspecifics. This selection process has been proposed to resemble the one responsible for our own greater cooperative inclinations in comparison with our closest living relatives. However, the socioecology of wolves and dogs, with the former relying more heavily on cooperative activities, predicts that at least with conspecifics, wolves should cooperate better than dogs...
October 31, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Michael J Lawrence, Erika J Eliason, Jacob W Brownscombe, Kathleen M Gilmour, John W Mandelman, Lee F G Gutowsky, Steven J Cooke
The stress axis in teleost fish attempts to maintain internal homeostasis in the face of allostatic loading. However, stress axis induction has been associated with a higher predation rate in fish. To date, the physiological and behavioural factors associated with this outcome are poorly understood. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the impact of experimental cortisol elevation on anti-predator behaviour and physiological responses to predator presence. We hypothesized that semi-chronic cortisol elevation would increase susceptibility to predation by increasing stress-induced risk taking behaviours...
October 27, 2017: Integrative Zoology
Hayley L Wolcott, Alfredo F Ojanguren, Miguel Barbosa
Predation is the main cause of mortality during early life stages. The ability to avoid and evade potential threats is, therefore, favoured to evolve during the early stages of life. It is also during these early stages that the process of familiarization occurs. It has long been recognized that associating with familiar individuals confers antipredator benefits. Yet gaps in our knowledge remain about how predator evasion is affected by social experience during early stages. In this study, we test the hypothesis that familiarization acquired during early life stages improves escape responses...
2017: PeerJ
Eduardo Kenji Hamasato, Dennis Lovelock, João Palermo-Neto, Terrence Deak
Acute illness not only reduces the expression of social behavior by sick rodents, but can also lead to avoidance responses when detected by healthy, would-be social partners. When healthy animals interact with a sick partner, an intriguing question arises: does exposure to a sick conspecific elicit an anticipatory immune response that would facilitate defense against future infection? To address this question, healthy adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (N=64) were given a brief social interaction (30min) with a partner that was either sick (250μg/kg injection with lipopolysaccharide [LPS] 3h prior to test) or healthy (sterile saline injection)...
December 1, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
Lindsay J Henderson, Mary R Ryan, Hannah M Rowland
In freshwater environments, chemosensory cues play an important role in predator-prey interactions. Prey use a variety of chemosensory cues to detect and avoid predators. However, whether predators use the chemical cues released by disturbed or stressed prey has received less attention. Here we tested the hypothesis that the disturbance cue cortisol, in conjunction with visual cues of prey, elevates predatory behavior. We presented predators (perch, Perca fluviatilis) with three chemosensory choice tests and recorded their location, orientation, and aggressive behavior...
2017: PeerJ
Vincent D Campese, Ian T Kim, Gerardo Rojas, Joseph E LeDoux
Three studies explored the sensitivity of aversive Pavlovian to instrumental transfer (PIT) to Pavlovian extinction in rodents. Rats underwent Pavlovian conditioning prior to avoidance training. The PIT test then involved assessment of the effects of the Pavlovian conditioned stimulus (CS) on the performance of the avoidance response (AR). Conducting extinction prior to avoidance training and transfer testing, allowed spontaneous recovery and shock reinstatement of extinguished motivation, whereas conducting extinction following avoidance training and just prior to PIT testing successfully reduced transfer effects...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Donato Romano, Giovanni Benelli, Cesare Stefanini
Escape and surveillance responses to predators are lateralized in several vertebrate species. However, little is known on the laterality of escapes and predator surveillance in arthropods. In this study, we investigated the lateralization of escape and surveillance responses in young instars and adults of Locusta migratoria during biomimetic interactions with a robot-predator inspired to the Guinea fowl, Numida meleagris. Results showed individual-level lateralization in the jumping escape of locusts exposed to the robot-predator attack...
October 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
Mozhgan Shojaee, Kristin B Wood, Lisa K Moore, Chris A Bashur
Engineered vascular grafts have shown promise as arteriovenous shunts, but they have not yet progressed to clinical trials for coronary arteries <4 mm in diameter such as the coronary arteries. Control over initial biomaterial properties and remodeling are necessary to generate viable grafts. In this study, we blended collagen with a synthetic material, poly(ε-caprolactone), to modulate the post-grafting inflammatory response while avoiding aneurysmal-like dilation and failure that can occur with pure collagen grafts...
December 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
Luiza M T Aparecido, Gretchen R Miller, Anthony T Cahill, Georgianne W Moore
While it is reasonable to predict that photosynthetic rates are inhibited while leaves are wet, leaf gas exchange measurements during wet conditions are challenging to obtain due to equipment limitations and the complexity of canopy-atmosphere interactions in forested environments. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate responses of seven tropical and three semiarid savanna plant species to simulated leaf wetness and test the hypotheses that (i) leaf wetness reduces photosynthetic rates (Anet), (ii) leaf traits explain different responses among species and (iii) leaves from wet environments are better adapted for wet leaf conditions than those from drier environments...
October 1, 2017: Tree Physiology
Junghyun Namkung, Sungho Won
Family-based association analysis unconditional on parental genotypes models the effects of observed genotypes. This approach has been shown to have greater power than conditional methods. In this chapter, we review popular association analysis methods accounting for familial correlations: the marginal model using generalized estimating equations (GEE), the mixed model with a polygenic random component, and genome-wide association analyses. The marginal approach does not explicitly model familial correlations but uses the information to improve the efficiency of parameter estimates...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Francesco Carano, Stefania Sarno, Sara De Fanti, Patrizia Serventi, Carla Bini, Donata Luiselli, Susi Pelotti
BACKGROUND: Environmental conditions and past migratory events may have shaped genetic heterogeneity of clinically relevant enzymes involved in the phase I metabolism of the most common therapeutic drugs. AIM: To investigate the genetic variability of CYP2D6, CYP2B6, CYP2C19 and CYP2C9 across the Italian Peninsula, by sampling only ancestrally and geographically homogeneous individuals from northern, central and southern Italy. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A total of 25 SNPs were genotyped in 174 unrelated Italian individuals by means of multiplex PCR and minisequencing reactions...
October 3, 2017: Annals of Human Biology
John A Barry, Susan Mollan, Michael A Burdon, Michelle Jenkins, Alastair K Denniston
BACKGROUND: Congenital colour vision deficiency (CVD), commonly called 'colour blindness', affects around 8% of men and 0.4% of women. Although many aspects of health (e.g. change in colour of urine) and healthcare (e.g. coloured medication, colour-coded diagnostic tests), and modern life depend upon colour coding (e.g. graphs, maps, signals), the impact of colour blindness on everyday life is not generally considered a topic of importance. This study is the first to create and validate a questionnaire measuring the quality of life (QoL) impact of being colour blind...
October 2, 2017: BMC Ophthalmology
Andrew T Gloster, Jens Klotsche, Tatiana Aggeler, Noemi Geisser, Gregory Juillerat, Nicole Schmidlin, Sophie Müller-Siemens, Jens Gaab
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT), a behavioral therapy that targets psychological flexibility (PF), has been shown to be efficacious across a wide range of problems, including chronic work-related stress and perceived stress. ACT's effect on the multiple levels of the acute stress response (i.e., subjective and biological) is less well understood. The aim of the current study was to test whether ACT, by working toward PF, would reduce both the endocrine and subjective evaluations of participants' acute stress response...
September 30, 2017: Psychotherapy Research: Journal of the Society for Psychotherapy Research
Ahmed Kandeil, Ahmed Mostafa, Rabeh El-Shesheny, Ahmed Nageh El-Taweel, Mokhtar Gomaa, Hussein Galal, Ghazi Kayali, Mohamed A Ali
Raising backyard poultry under low biosecurity conditions is a common practice in Egypt. While vaccination is routinely applied in Egypt in commercial settings to curb the spread of avian influenza viruses, it remains less commonly used in backyard settings. We assessed the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of a H5N1 vaccine based on a contemporary Egyptian clade virus among turkeys, ducks, geese, and chickens raised together in a backyard setting. Results showed that this vaccine elicits an immune response in all tested species reaching up to a hemagglutination inhibition titer of 10 log2 after a booster dose...
October 27, 2017: Vaccine
Vootele Voikar, Sven Krackow, Hans-Peter Lipp, Anton Rau, Giovanni Colacicco, David P Wolfer
To evaluate permanent effects of hippocampal and prefrontal cortex lesion on spatial tasks, lesioned and sham-operated female C57BL/6 mice were exposed to a series of conditioning schemes in IntelliCages housing 8-10 transponder-tagged mice from each treatment group. Sequential testing started at 51-172days after bilateral lesions and lasted for 154 and 218days in two batches of mice, respectively. Spontaneous undisturbed behavioral patterns clearly separated the three groups, hippocampals being characterized by more erratic hyperactivity, and strongly impaired circadian synchronization ability...
September 18, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
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