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conditioned avoidance response test

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327501/accurate-determination-of-the-frequency-response-function-of-submerged-and-confined-structures-by-using-pzt-patches%C3%A2
#1
Alexandre Presas, David Valentin, Eduard Egusquiza, Carme Valero, Mònica Egusquiza, Matias Bossio
To accurately determine the dynamic response of a structure is of relevant interest in many engineering applications. Particularly, it is of paramount importance to determine the Frequency Response Function (FRF) for structures subjected to dynamic loads in order to avoid resonance and fatigue problems that can drastically reduce their useful life. One challenging case is the experimental determination of the FRF of submerged and confined structures, such as hydraulic turbines, which are greatly affected by dynamic problems as reported in many cases in the past...
March 22, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319860/effects-of-silver-nanoparticles-on-survival-biomass-change-and-avoidance-behaviour-of-the-endogeic-earthworm-allolobophora-chlorotica
#2
C Brami, A R Glover, K R Butt, C N Lowe
Increasing commercial application of silver nanoparticles (Ag NP) and subsequent presence in wastewater and sewage sludge has raised concerns regarding their effects in the aquatic and terrestrial environment. Several studies have employed standardised acute and chronic earthworm-based tests to establish the toxicological effects of Ag NP within soil. These studies have relied heavily on the use of epigiec earthworm species which may have limited ecological relevance in mineral soil. This study assessed the influence of Ag NP (uncoated 80nm powder) and AgNO3 on survival, change in biomass and avoidance behaviour in a soil dwelling (endogiec) species, Allolobophora chlorotica...
March 15, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315955/symbiosis-with-systemic-fungal-endophytes-promotes-host-escape-from-vector-borne-disease
#3
L I Perez, P E Gundel, H J Marrero, A González Arzac, M Omacini
Plants interact with a myriad of microorganisms that modulate their interactions within the community. A well-described example is the symbiosis between grasses and Epichloë fungal endophytes that protects host plants from herbivores. It is suggested that these symbionts could play a protective role for plants against pathogens through the regulation of their growth and development and/or the induction of host defences. However, other endophyte-mediated ecological mechanisms involved in disease avoidance have been scarcely explored...
March 18, 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315756/interleukin-4-is-a-participant-in-the-regulation-of-depressive-like-behavior
#4
Simone Wachholz, Alexandra Knorr, Leonie Mengert, Jennifer Plümper, Rainer Sommer, Georg Juckel, Astrid Friebe
Inflammatory immune activation has been frequently associated with the development of major depression. Microglia might serve as an important interface in this immune system-to-brain communication. Interleukin-4, the major Th2 type cytokine, might be protective against depression due to its ability to counter-regulate inflammation and to inhibit serotonin transporter activity. By using an Interferon-α mouse model, we show that a decreased IL-4 responsiveness of microglia was specifically related to the development of depressive-like behavior...
March 15, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303774/physiological-evaluation-of-personal-protective-ensembles-recommended-for-use-in-west-africa
#5
Aitor Coca, Tyler Quinn, Jung-Hyun Kim, Tianzhou Wu, Jeff Powell, Raymond Roberge, Ronald Shaffer
OBJECTIVE: Personal protective equipment (PPE) provides health care workers with a barrier to prevent human contact with viruses like Ebola and potential transmission of the disease. However, PPE can also introduce an additional physiological burden from potentially increased heat stress. This study evaluated the human physiological and subjective responses to continuous light exercise within environmental conditions similar to those in West Africa while wearing 3 different, commonly used PPE ensembles (E1, E2, and E3)...
March 17, 2017: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279838/modulation-of-sphingosine-1-phosphate-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#6
REVIEW
Laurent Peyrin-Biroulet, Ronald Christopher, Dominic Behan, Cheryl Lassen
Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), including ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, involve an inappropriate immune reaction in the digestive tract, causing a variety of disabling symptoms. The advent of monoclonal antibodies (anti-tumor necrosis factor, anti-integrin, anti-interleukin -23) has revolutionized IBD management. Nevertheless, these agents, with potential for immunogenicity, are associated with high rates of response loss and disease relapse over time. They are also associated with high production costs...
March 6, 2017: Autoimmunity Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275709/caudal-nucleus-accumbens-core-is-critical-in-the-regulation-of-cue-elicited-approach-avoidance-decisions
#7
Laurie Hamel, Tharshika Thangarasa, Osai Samadi, Rutsuko Ito
The nucleus accumbens (NAc) is thought to be a site of integration of positively and negatively valenced information and action selection. Functional differentiation in valence processing has previously been found along the rostrocaudal axis of the shell region of the NAc in assessments of unconditioned motivation. Given that the core region of the NAc has been implicated in the elicitation of motivated behavior in response to conditioned cues, we sought to assess the role of caudal, intermediate, and rostral sites within this subregion in cue-elicited approach-avoidance decisions...
January 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273984/study-of-risk-factors-for-development-of-voice-disorders-and-its-impact-on-the-quality-of-life-of-school-teachers-in-mangalore-india
#8
Arati Alva, Megna Machado, Kiran Bhojwani, Suja Sreedharan
INTRODUCTION: School teachers are most prone to the development and detrimental effects of voice disorders as a consequence of their work. The risk factors for development of dysphonia in teachers are multifactorial. AIM: The primary aim of our study was to investigate the various risk factors that influence the onset and progression of voice disorders in school teachers in the Indian context. We wanted to assess the effect of voice problems on the physical, psychosocial and functional aspect of a teacher's life...
January 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263423/hydrological-niche-models-predict-water-plant-functional-group-distributions-in-diverse-wetland-types
#9
David C Deane, Jason M Nicol, Susan L Gehrig, Claire Harding, Kane T Aldridge, Abigail M Goodman, Justin D Brookes
Human use of water resources threatens environmental water supplies. If resource managers are to develop policies that avoid unacceptable ecological impacts, some means to predict ecosystem response to changes in water availability is necessary. This is difficult to achieve at spatial-scales relevant for water resource management because of the high natural variability in ecosystem hydrology and ecology. Water plant functional groups classify species with similar hydrological niche preferences together, allowing a qualitative means to generalise community responses to changes in hydrology...
March 6, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261994/turning-in-mid-air-allows-aphids-that-flee-the-plant-to-avoid-reaching-the-risky-ground
#10
Meresman Yonatan, Ben-Ari Matan, Inbar Moshe
When forced to drop from the plant, flightless arboreal insects can avoid reaching the risky ground by maneuvering their body through the air. When wingless pea aphids (Acyrthosiphon pisum) are threatened by natural enemies, they often drop off their host plant while assuming a stereotypic posture that rotates them in mid-air, aligning them with their feet pointing downwards. This position may increase their chances to re-cling onto lower plant parts and avoid facing the dangers on the ground, though its effectiveness in realistic field conditions has not been tested...
March 6, 2017: Integrative Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230396/detecting-target-changes-in-multiple-object-tracking-with-peripheral-vision-more-pronounced-eccentricity-effects-for-changes-in-form-than-in-motion
#11
Christian Vater, Ralf Kredel, Ernst-Joachim Hossner
In the current study, dual-task performance is examined with multiple-object tracking as a primary task and target-change detection as a secondary task. The to-be-detected target changes in conditions of either change type (form vs. motion; Experiment 1) or change salience (stop vs. slowdown; Experiment 2), with changes occurring at either near (5°-10°) or far (15°-20°) eccentricities (Experiments 1 and 2). The aim of the study was to test whether changes can be detected solely with peripheral vision. By controlling for saccades and computing gaze distances, we could show that participants used peripheral vision to monitor the targets and, additionally, to perceive changes at both near and far eccentricities...
February 23, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218646/impact-of-consuming-toxic-monarch-caterpillars-on-adult-chinese-mantid-mass-gain-and-fecundity
#12
Jamie L Rafter, Liahna Gonda-King, Daniel Niesen, Navindra P Seeram, Chad M Rigsby, Evan L Preisser
Predators that feed on chemically-defended prey often experience non-lethal effects that result in learned avoidance of the prey species. Some predators are able to consume toxic prey without ill-effect. The Chinese mantid is able to consume cardenolide-containing monarch caterpillars without immediate adverse effects. Although they discard the caterpillars' gut contents, mantids consume sequestered cardenolides. Although consumption of these cardenolides does not elicit an acute response, there may be long-term costs associated with cardenolide consumption...
February 17, 2017: Insects
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211969/identifying-congruence-in-stream-assemblage-thresholds-in-response-to-nutrient-and-sediment-gradients-for-limit-setting
#13
Annika Wagenhoff, Joanne E Clapcott, Kelvin E M Lau, Gillian D Lewis, Roger G Young
The setting of numeric instream objectives (effects-based criteria) and catchment limits for major agricultural stressors, such as nutrients and fine sediment, is a promising policy instrument to prevent or reduce degradation of stream ecosystem health. We explored the suitability of assemblage thresholds, defined as a point at which a small increase in a stressor will result in a disproportionally large change in assemblage structure relative to other points across the stressor gradient, to inform instream nutrient and sediment objectives...
October 11, 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199931/a-personalized-3d-printed-prosthetic-joint-replacement-for-the-human-temporomandibular-joint-from-implant-design-to-implantation
#14
David C Ackland, Dale Robinson, Michael Redhead, Peter Vee Sin Lee, Adrian Moskaljuk, George Dimitroulis
Personalized prosthetic joint replacements have important applications in cases of complex bone and joint conditions where the shape and size of off-the-shelf components may not be adequate. The objective of this study was to design, test and fabricate a personalized 3D-printed prosthesis for a patient requiring total joint replacement surgery of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ). The new 'Melbourne' prosthetic TMJ design featured a condylar component sized specifically to the patient and fixation screw positions that avoid potential intra-operative damage to the mandibular nerve...
February 6, 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191986/studies-of-learned-helplessness-in-honey-bees-apis-mellifera-ligustica
#15
Christopher W Dinges, Christopher A Varnon, Lisa D Cota, Stephen Slykerman, Charles I Abramson
The current study reports 2 experiments investigating learned helplessness in the honey bee (Apis mellifera ligustica). In Experiment 1, we used a traditional escape method but found the bees' activity levels too high to observe changes due to treatment conditions. The bees were not able to learn in this traditional escape procedure; thus, such procedures may be inappropriate to study learned helplessness in honey bees. In Experiment 2, we used an alternative punishment, or passive avoidance, method to investigate learned helplessness...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Animal Learning and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176352/learning-processes-underlying-avoidance-of-negative-outcomes
#16
Marta Andreatta, Sebastian Michelmann, Paul Pauli, Johannes Hewig
Successful avoidance of a threatening event may negatively reinforce the behavior due to activation of brain structures involved in reward processing. Here, we further investigated the learning-related properties of avoidance using feedback-related negativity (FRN). The FRN is modulated by violations of an intended outcome (prediction error, PE), that is, the bigger the difference between intended and actual outcome, the larger the FRN amplitude is. Twenty-eight participants underwent an operant conditioning paradigm, in which a behavior (button press) allowed them to avoid a painful electric shock...
February 8, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166801/assessing-the-health-impact-of-transnational-corporations-a-case-study-on-mcdonald-s-australia
#17
Julia Anaf, Frances E Baum, Matt Fisher, Elizabeth Harris, Sharon Friel
BACKGROUND: The practices of transnational corporations affect population health through production methods, shaping social determinants of health, or influencing the regulatory structures governing their activities. There has been limited research on community exposures to TNC policies and practices. Our pilot research used McDonald's Australia to test methods for assessing the health impacts of one TNC within Australia. METHODS: We adapted existing Health Impact Assessment methods to assess McDonald's activities...
February 6, 2017: Globalization and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163878/foraging-in-an-unsteady-world-bumblebee-flight-performance-in-field-realistic-turbulence
#18
J D Crall, J J Chang, R L Oppenheimer, S A Combes
Natural environments are characterized by variable wind that can pose significant challenges for flying animals and robots. However, our understanding of the flow conditions that animals experience outdoors and how these impact flight performance remains limited. Here, we combine laboratory and field experiments to characterize wind conditions encountered by foraging bumblebees in outdoor environments and test the effects of these conditions on flight. We used radio-frequency tags to track foraging activity of uniquely identified bumblebee (Bombus impatiens) workers, while simultaneously recording local wind flows...
February 6, 2017: Interface Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155295/repellent-activities-of-dichloromethane-extract-of-i-allium-sativum-i-garlic-liliaceae-against-i-hyalomma-rufipes-i-acari
#19
Felix Nchu, Solomon R Magano, Jacobus N Eloff
Dichloromethane (DCM) extract of garlic (Allium sativum Linn.) bulbs was assessed for its repellent effect against the hard tick, Hyalomma rufipes (Acari: Ixodidae) using two tick behavioural bioassays; Type A and Type B repellency bioassays, under laboratory conditions. These bioassays exploit the questing behaviour of H. rufipes, a tick that in nature displays ambush strategy, seeking its host by climbing up on vegetation and attaching to a passing host. One hundred microlitres (100 µL) of the test solution containing DCM extract of garlic bulbs and DCM at concentrations of 0...
December 2, 2016: Journal of the South African Veterinary Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137660/effects-of-moderate-treadmill-exercise-and-fluoxetine-on-behavioural-and-cognitive-deficits-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis-dysfunction-and-alternations-in-hippocampal-bdnf-and-mrna-expression-of-apoptosis-related-proteins-in-a-rat-model-of-post-traumatic
#20
Sakineh Shafia, Abbas Ali Vafaei, Seyed Afshin Samaei, Ahmad Reza Bandegi, Alireza Rafiei, Reza Valadan, Zahra Hosseini-Khah, Raziyeh Mohammadkhani, Ali Rashidy-Pour
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a condition that develops after an individual has experienced a major trauma. Currently, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) like fluoxetine are the first-line choice in PTSD drug treatment but their moderate response rates and side effects indicate an urgent need for the development of new treatment. Physical activity is known to improve symptoms of certain neuropsychiatric disorders. The present study investigated the effects of moderate treadmill exercise, the antidepressant fluoxetine and the combined treatment on behavioural deficits, and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis dysfunction...
January 28, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
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