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conditioned avoidance response test

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892066/effects-of-vagus-nerve-stimulation-on-extinction-of-conditioned-fear-and-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-symptoms-in-rats
#1
L J Noble, I J Gonzalez, V B Meruva, K A Callahan, B D Belfort, K R Ramanathan, E Meyers, M P Kilgard, R L Rennaker, C K McIntyre
Exposure-based therapies help patients with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) to extinguish conditioned fear of trauma reminders. However, controlled laboratory studies indicate that PTSD patients do not extinguish conditioned fear as well as healthy controls, and exposure therapy has high failure and dropout rates. The present study examined whether vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) augments extinction of conditioned fear and attenuates PTSD-like symptoms in an animal model of PTSD. To model PTSD, rats were subjected to a single prolonged stress (SPS) protocol, which consisted of restraint, forced swim, loss of consciousness, and 1 week of social isolation...
August 22, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890367/enhanced-anandamide-signaling-reduces-flight-behavior-elicited-by-an-approaching-robo-beetle
#2
Daniel E Heinz, Andreas Genewsky, Carsten T Wotjak
Our current knowledge of the implications of endocannabinoids in fear and anxiety is largely based on fear conditioning paradigms and approach-avoidance conflicts. Here we establish the ethobehavioral beetle mania task (BMT), which confronts mice with an erratically moving robo-beetle. With the help of this task we demonstrate decreased tolerance yet increased avoidance responses to an approaching beetle in high-anxiety behavior (HAB) and BALBc mice compared to C57BL/6N, CD1 and normal-anxiety behavior (NAB) mice...
September 7, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854965/adipose-stem-cells-from-chronic-pancreatitis-patients-improve-mouse-and-human-islet-survival-and-function
#3
Lili Song, Zhen Sun, Do-Sung Kim, Wenyu Gou, Charlie Strange, Huansheng Dong, Wanxing Cui, Gary Gilkeson, Katherine A Morgan, David B Adams, Hongjun Wang
BACKGROUND: Chronic pancreatitis has surgical options including total pancreatectomy to control pain. To avoid surgical diabetes, the explanted pancreas can have islets harvested and transplanted. Immediately following total pancreatectomy with islet autotransplantation (TP-IAT), many islet cells die due to isolation and transplantation stresses. The percentage of patients remaining insulin free after TP-IAT is therefore low. We determined whether cotransplantation of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASCs) from chronic pancreatitis patients (CP-ASCs) would protect islets after transplantation...
August 30, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851668/spaced-sessions-of-avoidance-extinction-reduce-spontaneous-recovery-and-promote-infralimbic-cortex-activation
#4
Carles Tapias-Espinosa, Elisabet Kádár, Pilar Segura-Torres
Extinction-based therapies (EBT) are the psychological treatments of choice for certain anxiety disorders, such as post-traumatic stress disorder. However, some patients relapse and suffer spontaneous recovery (SR) of anxiety symptoms and persistence of avoidance behaviour, which underlines the need for improving EBT. In rats, recent evidence has highlighted the relevance of the temporal distribution of extinction sessions in reducing SR of auditory fear conditioning, although it has seldom been studied in procedures involving proactive avoidance responses, such as two-way active avoidance conditioning (TWAA)...
August 26, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28834828/intraocular-pressure-responses-to-maximal-cycling-sprints-against-different-resistances-the-influence-of-fitness-level
#5
Jesús Vera, Raimundo Jiménez, Beatriz Redondo, David Cárdenas, Carlos Gustavo De Moraes, Amador Garcia-Ramos
PURPOSE: This study investigated the acute effect of maximal cycling sprint against difference resistances on intraocular pressure (IOP) depending on participants' fitness level. METHODS: In total, 26 physically active collegiate men performed 5 maximal cycling sprints against different resistances in a randomized order, and IOP was measured immediately before and after each sprint. Participants were divided in 2 subgroups (low fit and high fit) according to their maximum power output relative to body weight to assess the influence of fitness level...
August 30, 2017: Journal of Glaucoma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802900/adolescent-chronic-variable-social-stress-influences-exploratory-behavior-and-nicotine-responses-in-male-but-not-female-balb-cj-mice
#6
M J Caruso, D E Reiss, J I Caulfield, J L Thomas, A N Baker, S A Cavigelli, H M Kamens
Anxiety disorders and nicotine use are significant contributors to global morbidity and mortality as independent and comorbid diseases. Early-life stress, potentially via stress-induced hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) dysregulation, can exacerbate both. However, little is known about the factors that predispose individuals to the development of both anxiety disorders and nicotine use. Here, we examined the relationship between anxiety-like behaviors and nicotine responses following adolescent stress...
August 9, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798082/long-dsrnas-promote-an-anti-viral-response-in-pacific-oyster-hampering-ostreid-herpesvirus-1-replication
#7
Marianna Pauletto, Amélie Segarra, Caroline Montagnani, Virgile Quillien, Nicole Faury, Jacqueline Le Grand, Philippe Miner, Bruno Petton, Yannick Labreuche, Elodie Fleury, Caroline Fabioux, Luca Bargelloni, Tristan Renault, Arnaud Huvet
Double stranded RNA-mediated genetic interference (RNAi) is a widely used reverse genetic tool for determining the loss-of-function phenotype of a gene. Here, the possible induction of an immune response by long dsRNA was tested in a marine bivalve, i.e. Crassostrea gigas, as well as the specific role of the subunit 2 of the nuclear factor κB inhibitor (IκB2). This gene is a candidate of particular interest for functional investigations in the context of massive mortality oyster events as Cg-IκB2 mRNA levels exhibited significant variation depending on the amount of ostreid herpesvirus 1 (OsHV-1) DNA detected...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794917/microfluidic-device-for-primary-tumor-spheroid-isolation
#8
Jiaojiao Zhou, Jimmy Su, Xiaotong Fu, Lei Zheng, Zhizhong Yin
BACKGROUND: Traditional two-dimensional (2-D) monolayer cell culture is vastly different from in vivo physiological conditions, which can lead to inaccurate or insufficient data in areas where response and efficacy within humans are being investigated, such as drug discovery, pathology studies, etc. Misleading results arise from two main disadvantages of monolayer cell culture. First, after several passages, cell lines lose many features from their original in vivo state. Second, the morphology of cells cultured in a monolayer is much different from the cell morphology in three-dimensional (3-D) in vivo conditions, thus resulting in altered cellular function...
2017: Experimental Hematology & Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793406/uptake-and-transformations-of-engineered-nanomaterials-critical-responses-observed-in-terrestrial-plants-and-the-model-plant-arabidopsis-thaliana
#9
REVIEW
Angelina Montes, Mary A Bisson, Joseph A Gardella, Diana S Aga
With the applications of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) continually expanding and production quickly growing, residues of ENMs will end up in the environment at levels that may be harmful to non-target organisms. Many of the tunable properties that have made them desirable, such as type, size, charge, or coating, also contribute to the current difficulties in understanding the fate of ENMs in the environment. This review article focuses on studies that investigate plant-ENM interactions, including techniques used to study these interactions and documented plant responses due to the phytotoxic effects of ENMs...
December 31, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792732/integrated-magneto-chemical-sensor-for-on-site-food-allergen-detection
#10
Hsing-Ying Lin, Chen-Han Huang, Jongmin Park, Divya Pathania, Cesar M Castro, Alessio Fasano, Ralph Weissleder, Hakho Lee
Adverse food reactions, including food allergies, food sensitivities, and autoimmune reaction (e.g., celiac disease) affect 5-15% of the population and remain a considerable public health problem requiring stringent food avoidance and epinephrine availability for emergency events. Avoiding problematic foods is practically difficult, given current reliance on prepared foods and out-of-home meals. In response, we developed a portable, point-of-use detection technology, termed integrated exogenous antigen testing (iEAT)...
August 25, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771578/keep-calm-and-don-t-stop-growing-non-consumptive-effects-of-a-sympatric-predator-on-two-invasive-ponto-caspian-gammarids-dikerogammarus-villosus-and-pontogammarus-robustoides
#11
Łukasz Jermacz, Jarosław Kobak
Predators shape prey populations by elimination of individuals (consumptive effects) and by inducing modifications in prey behaviour, physiology or morphology (NCE-non-consumptive effects). Due to the resource allocation to defence, decreased feeding and higher stress, the costs of predator NCEs can be considerable. Therefore, the resistance to NCEs may be crucial for population growth and interspecific competition. We tested the resistance of Ponto-Caspian gammarids Dikerogammarus villosus and Pontogammarus robustoides to NCEs imposed by their predator, the racer goby Babka gymnotrachelus...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742218/if-the-coping-fits-use-it-preadolescent-recent-stress-exposure-differentially-predicts-post-tsst-salivary-cortisol-recovery
#12
Jason J Bendezú, Martha E Wadsworth
This study examined recent stress exposure and effortful coping effects on salivary cortisol (sC) response patterns in preadolescent boys and girls (N = 121, Mage  = 10.60 years). Children were exposed to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) and one of two randomly assigned, post-TSST coping conditions: distraction and avoidance. Piecewise growth multilevel modeling did not link children's recent stressful life events or hair cortisol (hC) levels to sC reactivity, though each interacted with coping condition to predict sC recovery patterns...
July 25, 2017: Developmental Psychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735573/chemoattractant-activity-of-tris-hydroxymethyl-aminomethane-for-brugia-pahangi-infective-third-stage-larvae
#13
Y Mitsui, K E Ureña-Tatis, Y Aoki
Urocanic acid (UCA) is known as a major chemoattractant for Strongyloides stercoralis infective third-stage larvae (L3). Since Brugia pahangi is a skin-penetrating parasitic nematode similar to S. stercoralis, UCA was expected to be a chemoattractant for B. pahangi L3. Thus, the chemoattractant activity of UCA for B. pahangi L3 was assessed. The chemotactic responses of B. pahangi L3 to UCA or acetic acid (CH3COOH) dissolved in amine solutions were assessed using an agar-plate assay. A test solution of 200 mm UCA dissolved in aqueous 270 mm tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane (Tris) significantly attracted B...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Helminthology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727646/development-and-validation-of-a-quantitative-measure-of-adaptive-behaviors-in-women-with-pelvic-floor-disorders
#14
John T Wei, Rodney Dunn, Ingrid Nygaard, Kathryn Burgio, Emily S Lukacz, Alayne Markland, Patricia A Wren, Linda Brubaker, Matthew D Barber, J Eric Jelovsek, Cathie Spino, Susie Meikle, Nancy Janz
PURPOSE: To establish validity for the Pelvic Floor Disorders Network (PFDN) self-administered Adaptive Behavior Index (ABI) and to assess whether ABI assesses known discordance between severity of pelvic floor symptoms and self-reported bother. METHODS: In addition to the ABI questionnaire, participants in 1 of 6 Pelvic Floor Disorders Network trials completed condition-specific measures of pretreatment symptom severity (including Pelvic Floor Distress Inventory; PFDI) and health-related quality of life (Pelvic Floor Impact Questionnaire; PFIQ)...
July 20, 2017: Female Pelvic Medicine & Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715475/free-ranging-dogs-show-age-related-plasticity-in-their-ability-to-follow-human-pointing
#15
Debottam Bhattacharjee, Nikhil Dev N, Shreya Gupta, Shubhra Sau, Rohan Sarkar, Arpita Biswas, Arunita Banerjee, Daisy Babu, Diksha Mehta, Anindita Bhadra
Differences in pet dogs' and captive wolves' ability to follow human communicative intents have led to the proposition of several hypotheses regarding the possession and development of social cognitive skills in dogs. It is possible that the social cognitive abilities of pet dogs are induced by indirect conditioning through living with humans, and studying free-ranging dogs can provide deeper insights into differentiating between innate abilities and conditioning in dogs. Free-ranging dogs are mostly scavengers, indirectly depending on humans for their sustenance...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711118/mental-imagery-training-increases-wanting-of-rewards-and-reward-sensitivity-and-reduces-depressive-symptoms
#16
Julia Linke, Michèle Wessa
High reward sensitivity and wanting of rewarding stimuli help to identify and motivate repetition of pleasant activities. This behavioral activation is thought to increase positive emotions. Therefore, both mechanisms are highly relevant for resilience against depressive symptoms. Yet, these mechanisms have not been targeted by psychotherapeutic interventions. In the present study, we tested a mental imagery training comprising eight 10-minute sessions every second day and delivered via the Internet to healthy volunteers (N = 30, 21 female, mean age of 23...
September 2017: Behavior Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705440/inhibition-of-trkb-at-the-nucleus-accumbens-using-ana-12-regulates-basal-and-stress-induced-orexin-a-expression-within-the-mesolimbic-system-and-affects-anxiety-sociability-and-motivation
#17
Idu Azogu, Helene Plamondon
Repeated stress exposure can lead to the development of anxiety and mood disorders. An emerging biological substrate of depression and associated pathology is the nucleus accumbens (NAc), which through interactions with limbic, cognitive and motor circuits can regulate a variety of stress responses. Within these circuits, orexin neurons are involved in arousal and stress adaptability, effects proposed mediated via brain-derived neurotrophic factor signaling. This study tested the hypotheses that 1) repeated exposure to heterotypic stress alters social ability and preference and passive avoidant behaviors, 2) TrkB receptors at the NAc shell regulates stress-induced behavioral responses and orexin expression within the mesocorticolimbic system...
July 11, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686490/preliminary-inter-rater-reliability-of-the-wheelchair-components-questionnaire-for-condition
#18
Karen Rispin, John DiFrancesco, Lawrence A Raymond, Kristopher Riseling, Joy Wee
PURPOSE: The Wheelchair Components Questionnaire for Condition (WCQ-C) enables the collection of data on wheelchair maintenance condition and durability in resource-limited environments. It can be used in large studies to indicate typical patterns of wear at a location, or for a type of wheelchair. It can also be used in clinical settings as an evidence based indication that a wheelchair may need repair or replacement. This type of data can enable effective use of limited funds by wheelchair providers, manufacturers and users...
July 7, 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation. Assistive Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684634/the-effect-of-ingested-glucose-dose-on-the-suppression-of-endogenous-glucose-production-in-humans
#19
Greg M Kowalski, Samantha M Moore, Steven Hamley, Ahrathy Selathurai, Clinton R Bruce
Insulin clamp studies have shown that insulin's suppressive actions on endogenous glucose production (EGP) are markedly more sensitive than that for stimulating glucose disposal (Rd). However, clamp conditions do not adequately mimic postprandial physiological responses. Here, in healthy subjects, using the variable infusion dual-tracer approach, we used a 3-fold range of ingested glucose doses (25, 50 and 75 g) to investigate how physiologic changes in plasma insulin influence EGP. Remarkably, the glucose responses were similar for all doses tested, yet there was a dose-dependent increase in insulin secretion and plasma insulin levels...
July 6, 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684359/significance-of-the-nicotinic-alpha7-receptor-in-cognition-and-antipsychotic-like-behavior-in-the-rat
#20
Marie-Louise G Wadenberg, Dina Manetti, Maria Novella Romanelli, Hugo R Arias
Schizophrenic (SCH) patients show cognitive impairment in attentional performance. Positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) of α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) such as the Alzheimer's drug galantamine (GAL) and PAM-2 are documented to have pro-cognitive properties. However, it is not well established if these properties would be lost, or may hamper antipsychotic efficacy, when given as an adjunct to an antipsychotic which is needed for managing psychotic symptoms. Using adult male Wistar rats, we here investigated the effects of: a) GAL, alone or co-administered with the antipsychotic risperidone (RISP), on acute phencyclidine (PCP)-induced deficits in the attentional set-shifting (ASST) test; b) PAM-2, alone and co-administered with RISP, in the conditioned avoidance response (CAR) test for antipsychotic activity...
July 3, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
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