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conditioned avoidance response test

Ann Meulders, Yannick Boddez, Fernando Blanco, Maaike Van Den Houte, Johan W S Vlaeyen
Impaired selective fear learning has been advanced as a core mechanism involved in excessive spreading of protective responses such as pain-related fear and avoidance leading to disability in chronic pain conditions. Using the litmus test for selective learning effects, the blocking procedure, we tested the hypothesis that fibromyalgia patients show less selective threat learning than healthy controls. We introduce a novel selective learning task based around a clinical diary scenario. On a trial-by-trial basis, participants rated whether they expected certain situations (A, B, Z, X) in the diary of a fictive fibromyalgia patient would trigger pain in that patient...
March 12, 2018: Pain
Ariadna S Szczybelski, Tineke Kampen, Joris Vromans, Edwin T H M Peeters, Martine J van den Heuvel-Greve, Nico W van den Brink, Albert A Koelmans
Currently, risk assessment for oil contamination does not consider behavioral responses of benthos to oil toxicity. Avoidance of oil-contaminated sediment by benthic amphipods, however, may be a highly sensitive endpoint for sub-lethal effects of commonly used distillate fuels. In the present study, the avoidance behavior of temperate freshwater (Gammarus pulex) and marine (Gammarus locusta) amphipods is tested, allowing them to choose between a reference sediment and a Distillate Marine grade A (DMA) oil-spiked sediment...
March 12, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Anita Harrewijn, Melle J W van der Molen, Irene M van Vliet, Renaud L M Tissier, P Michiel Westenberg
Social anxiety disorder is an invalidating psychiatric disorder characterized by extreme fear and avoidance of one or more social situations in which patients might experience scrutiny by others. The goal of this two-generation family study was to delineate behavioral and electrocortical endophenotypes of social anxiety disorder related to social evaluation. Nine families of patients with social anxiety disorder (their spouse and children, and siblings of these patients with spouse and children) performed a social judgment paradigm in which they believed to be evaluated by peers...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Kiflemariam Yehuala Belachew, Kerstin A Nagel, Fabio Fiorani, Frederick L Stoddard
Background: Soil moisture deficiency causes yield reduction and instability in faba bean ( Vicia faba L.) production. The extent of sensitivity to drought stress varies across accessions originating from diverse moisture regimes of the world. Hence, we conducted successive greenhouse experiments in pots and rhizotrons to explore diversity in root responses to soil water deficit. Methods: A set of 89 accessions from wet and dry growing regions of the world was defined according to the Focused Identification of Germplasm Strategy and screened in a perlite-sand medium under well watered conditions in a greenhouse experiment...
2018: PeerJ
Yoichi Kadoh, Haruko Miyoshi, Takehiko Matsumura, Yoshihito Tanaka, Mitsuya Hongu, Mayumi Kimura, Kei Takedomi, Kenji Omori, Jun Kotera, Takashi Sasaki, Tamaki Kobayashi, Hiroyuki Taniguchi, Yumi Watanabe, Koki Kojima, Toshiaki Sakamoto, Toshiyuki Himiyama, Eiji Kawanishi
Phosphodiesterase (PDE) 10A is a dual hydrolase of cAMP and cGMP and highly expressed in striatal medium spiny neurons. Inhibition of PDE10A modulates the activity of medium spiny neurons (MSN) via the regulation of cAMP and cGMP. Signal control of MSN is considered associated with psychotic symptoms. Therefore PDE10A inhibitor is expected as a therapeutic method for psychosis disease such as schizophrenia. Avanafil (1) is a PDE5 inhibitor (treatment for erectile dysfunction) discovered by our company. We paid attention to the homology of PDE10A and PDE5 and took advantage of PDE5 inhibitor library to discover PDE10A inhibitors, and found a series of compounds that exhibit higher potency for PDE10A than PDE5...
2018: Chemical & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
Angelos-Miltiadis Krypotos, Iris M Engelhard
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Excessive avoidance towards non-dangerous cues is a key diagnostic criterion across anxiety-related disorders. Despite current therapies being successful in reducing such avoidance, relapse rates remain high. Based on recent findings, according to which learned fear responses were reduced after the presentation of the fear stimulus with a novel-neutral event (novel-based extinction), we tested whether novel-based extinction could diminish conditioned avoidance...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Stefan F Fischerauer, Mojtaba Talaei-Khoei, Rens Bexkens, David C Ring, Luke S Oh, Ana-Maria Vranceanu
BACKGROUND: Fear avoidance can play a prominent role in maladaptive responses to an injury. In injured athletes, such pain-related fear or fear avoidance behavior may have a substantial influence on the recovery process. Specifically, it may explain why some are able to reach their preinjury abilities, whereas others are unable to return to sport. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: (1) Is fear avoidance in athletes associated with decreased physical function after injury? (2) To what degree is fear avoidance associated with athletes' pain intensity? METHODS: In a cross-sectional study, we recruited injured athletes-defined as patients with sports-related injury, weekly engagement in sport activities, participation in competitive events as part of a team or club, self-identification as an athlete, and a desire to return to sport after recovery-from an orthopaedic sports medicine center at a major urban university hospital...
February 14, 2018: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
Maria G Corda, Maria A Piludu, Francesco Sanna, Giovanna Piras, Marianna Boi, Fabrizio Sanna, Alberto Fernández Teruel, Osvaldo Giorgi
The Roman high- (RHA) and low-avoidance (RLA) outbred rat lines are selected for respectively rapid vs. poor acquisition of active avoidant behavior. Emotional reactivity appears to be the most prominent behavioral difference between the two lines, with RLA rats being more fearful/anxious than their RHA counterparts. Accordingly, here we show that shock-induced inhibition of drinking behavior in the Vogel's test is significantly more pronounced in RLA than RHA rats. Thus, unpunished drinking activity is similar in both lines (38...
February 22, 2018: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
Mawutorli Nyarku, Mandana Mazaheri, Rohan Jayaratne, Matthew Dunbabin, Md Mahmudur Rahman, Erik Uhde, Lidia Morawska
Mobile phones have a large spectrum of applications, aiding in risk prevention and improving health and wellbeing of their owners. So far, however, they have not been used for direct assessment of personal exposure to air pollution. In this study, we comprehensively evaluated the first, and the only available, mobile phone-BROAD Life-equipped with air pollution sensors (PM2.5 and VOC), to answer the question whether this technology is a viable option in the quest of reducing the burden of disease to air pollution...
2018: PloS One
Giulia Prete, Paolo Capotosto, Filippo Zappasodi, Luca Tommasi
OBJECTIVE: Four main theories concerning hemispheric asymmetries for emotional processing have been proposed: the right hemisphere hypothesis (RHH; the right hemisphere is specialized in processing all emotions), the valence hypothesis (VH; the left and the right hemispheres are superior in positive and negative emotion processing, respectively), the modified VH (the right-hemispheric superiority at posterior sites is followed by a valence-specific activity at frontal sites), and the motivational model (the left and the right hemispheres are superior in approaching-related and avoidance-related emotions, respectively)...
February 22, 2018: Neuropsychology
Jacquelyn C Guzy, Evan A Eskew, Brian J Halstead, Steven J Price
Almost all large rivers worldwide are fragmented by dams, and their impacts have been modeled using the serial discontinuity concept (SDC), a series of predictions regarding responses of key biotic and abiotic variables. We evaluated the effects of damming on anuran communities along a 245-km river corridor by conducting repeated, time-constrained anuran calling surveys at 42 locations along the Broad and Pacolet Rivers in South Carolina, USA. Using a hierarchical Bayesian analysis, we test the biodiversity prediction of the SDC (modified for floodplain rivers) by evaluating anuran occupancy and species diversity relative to dams and degree of urbanized land use...
February 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Danielle A Lopes, Thaissa M O Souza, José S de Andrade, Mariana F S Silva, Hanna K M Antunes, Luciana Le Seur Maluf, Isabel C Céspedes, Milena B Viana
Environmental enrichment (EE) is an animal management technique, which seems to improve adaptation to the experimental conditions of housing in laboratory animals. Previous studies have pointed to different beneficial effects of the procedure in the treatment of several disorders, including psychiatric conditions such as depression. The anxiolytic effects induced by EE, on the other hand, are not as clear. In fact, it has been proposed that EE acts as a mild stressor agent. To better understand the relationship of EE with anxiety-related responses, the present study exposed rats to one week of EE and subsequently tested these animals in the inhibitory avoidance and escape tasks of the elevated T-maze (ETM)...
February 12, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Tal Aharon, Paul Lemler, Patrick H Vaccaro, Marco Caricato
A comparative theoretical and experimental study of dispersive optical activity is presented for a set of small, rigid organic molecules in gas and solution phases. Target species were chosen to facilitate wavelength-resolved measurements of specific rotation in rarefied vapors and in organic solvents having different polarities, while avoiding complications due to conformational flexibility. Calculations were performed with two density functionals (B3LYP and CAM-B3LYP) and with the coupled-cluster singles and doubles (CCSD) ansatz, and solvent effects were included through use of the polarizable continuum model (PCM)...
February 8, 2018: Chirality
Jill D Pruetz
OBJECTIVES: I report on the nocturnal behavior of Fongoli chimpanzees in a savanna mosaic during different seasons and lunar phases and test the hypothesis that hot daytime temperatures influence activity at night. I predicted that apes would be more active at night during periods of greater lunar illuminosity given diurnal primates' lack of visual specializations for low-light conditions and in dry season months when water scarcity exacerbated heat stress. MATERIALS AND METHODS: I observed chimpanzees for 403 hrs on 40 nights between 2007 and 2013 and categorized their activity as social, movement, or vocalization...
February 8, 2018: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Wagner Souza Silva, Aravind Gayatri, Sangani Samir, Lamontagne Anouk
This study examines how three types of obstacles (cylinder, virtual human and virtual human with footstep sounds) affect circumvention strategies of healthy young adults. Sixteen participants aged 25.2 ± 2.5 years (mean ± 1SD) were tested while walking overground and viewing a virtual room through a helmet mounted display. As participants walked towards a stationary target in the far space, they avoided an obstacle (cylinder or virtual human) approaching either from the right (+40°), left (-40°) or head-on (0°)...
January 31, 2018: Gait & Posture
Clifford J Bailey
This overview considers the opportunities and challenges that face the use of gluco-regulatory peptides to treat type 2 diabetes. New insulin analogues and formulations are being developed with pharmacokinetic properties to speed-up or prolong transfer from a subcutaneous injection site to the target tissues, or to selectively favour effects on the liver. Alternative routes of insulin administration continue to attract attention, and advances in the integration of glucose monitoring with insulin pump devices are improving miniaturised 'closed loop' artificial pancreas systems...
February 2018: Peptides
Anja Lender, Adrian Meule, Mike Rinck, Timo Brockmeyer, Jens Blechert
Strong implicit responses to food have evolved to avoid energy depletion but contribute to overeating in today's affluent environments. The Approach-Avoidance Task (AAT) supposedly assesses implicit biases in response to food stimuli: Participants push pictures on a monitor "away" or pull them near with a joystick that controls a corresponding image zoom. One version of the task couples movement direction with image content-independent features, for example, pulling blue-framed images and pushing green-framed images regardless of content ('irrelevant feature version')...
January 30, 2018: Appetite
Yada Treesukosol, Timothy H Moran
The orosensory characteristics of a diet play a role in its acceptance and rejection. The current study was designed to investigate the gustatory components that contribute to the intake of a palatable, high-energy diet (HE; 45% calories from fat, 17% calories from sucrose). Here, rats were conditioned to avoid HE diet by pairings with i.p. injections of LiCl to induce visceral malaise. Subsequently, the degree of generalization was tested to an array of taste compounds using a brief-access lick procedure (10-s trials, 30-min sessions)...
February 1, 2018: Chemical Senses
Matthias Koch, Berardo Di Matteo, Jürgen Eichhorn, Johannes Zellner, Felix Mayr, Werner Krutsch, Leonard Achenbach, Rebecca Woehl, Michael Nerlich, Peter Angele
INTRODUCTION: Conservative treatment of partial ACL ruptures is associated with a high failure rate, and often patients undergo ACL reconstruction. ACL preservation by trephination of the ACL origin and application of Autologous Conditioned Plasma (ACP) seems to be an intriguing new treatment option to favour ACL tissue healing and avoid traditional reconstruction. The aim of this study was to describe the mid-term outcomes of this new ACL preserving technique. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-four patients (mean age 41...
January 30, 2018: Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery
Néstor Fernández Del-Saz, Antonia Romero-Munar, Gregory R Cawthray, Francisco Palma, Ricardo Aroca, Elena Baraza, Igor Florez-Sarasa, Hans Lambers, Miquel Ribas-Carbó
Plants exhibit respiratory bypasses (e.g., the alternative oxidase, AOX) and increase the synthesis of carboxylates in their organs (leaves and roots) in response to phosphorus (P) deficiency which increases P uptake capacity. They also show differential expression of high-affinity inorganic phosphorus (Pi) transporters, thus avoiding P toxicity at a high P availability. The association between AOX and carboxylate synthesis was tested in Solanum lycopersicum plants grown at different soil P availability, by using plants grown under P-sufficient and P-limiting conditions, and by applying a short-term (24 h) P-sufficient pulse to plants grown under P limitation...
January 29, 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
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