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tracking genetically engineered T cells

Simone Krebs, Afruja Ahad, Lukas Carter, Justin Eyquem, Christian Brand, Meghan Bell, Vladimir Ponomarev, Thomas Reiner, Claude F Meares, Stephen Gottschalk, Michel Sadelain, Steven M Larson, Wolfgang Andreas Weber
There remains an urgent need for the non-invasive tracking of transfused chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells to determine their biodistribution, viability, expansion, and anti-tumor functionality. 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA) antibody reporter 1 (DAbR1) comprises a single-chain fragment of the anti-lanthanoid-DOTA antibody 2D12.5/G54C fused to the human CD4-transmembrane domain and binds irreversibly to lanthanoid-(S)-2-(4-acrylamidobenzyl)-DOTA (AABD). The aim of this study was to investigate whether DAbR1 can be expressed on lymphocytes and used as a reporter gene as well as a suicide gene for therapy of immune-related adverse effects...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
Maxim A Moroz, Pat Zanzonico, Jason T Lee, Vladimir Ponomarev
Recent advances in T cell-based immunotherapies from bench to bedside have highlighted the need for improved diagnostic imaging of T cell trafficking in vivo and the means to noninvasively investigate failures in treatment response. T cells expressing tumor-associated T cell receptors (TCRs) or engineered with chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) face multiple challenges, including possible influence of genetic engineering on T cell efficacy, inhibitory effects of the tumor microenvironment, tumor checkpoint proteins and on-target, off-tissue toxicities (Kershaw et al...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Ana I Gonçalves, Margarida S Miranda, Márcia T Rodrigues, Rui Luis Reis, Manuela Gomes
The potential of magnetically assisted strategies within the remit of cell-based therapies is increasing and creates new opportunities in biomedical platforms and in the field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine (TERM).
 Among the magnetic elements approached to build magnetically responsive strategies, superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) represent tunable and precise tools whose properties can be modelled for detection, diagnosis, targeting and therapy purposes. The most investigated clinical role of SPIONs is as contrast imaging agents for tracking and monitoring cells and tissues...
May 24, 2018: Biomedical Materials
Fatma F Mohamed, Renny T Franceschi
The development and maintenance of the skeleton requires a steady source of skeletal progenitors to provide the osteoblasts and chondrocytes necessary for bone and cartilage growth and development. The current model for skeletal stem cells (SSCs) posits that SSC/progenitor cells are present in bone marrow (BM) and other osteogenic sites such as cranial sutures where they undergo self-renewal and differentiation to give rise to the main skeletal tissues. SSCs hold great promise for understanding skeletal biology and genetic diseases of bone as well as for the advancement of bone tissue engineering and regenerative medicine strategies...
December 2017: Current Molecular Biology Reports
Rasmus O Bak, Daniel P Dever, Andreas Reinisch, David Cruz Hernandez, Ravindra Majeti, Matthew H Porteus
Precise and efficient manipulation of genes is crucial for understanding the molecular mechanisms that govern human hematopoiesis and for developing novel therapies for diseases of the blood and immune system. Current methods do not enable precise engineering of complex genotypes that can be easily tracked in a mixed population of cells. We describe a method to multiplex homologous recombination (HR) in human hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells and primary human T cells by combining rAAV6 donor delivery and the CRISPR/Cas9 system delivered as ribonucleoproteins (RNPs)...
September 28, 2017: ELife
Laura Fernández-de-Manúel, Covadonga Díaz-Díaz, Daniel Jiménez-Carretero, Miguel Torres, María C Montoya
Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) can be established as permanent cell lines, and their potential to differentiate into adult tissues has led to widespread use for studying the mechanisms and dynamics of stem cell differentiation and exploring strategies for tissue repair. Imaging live ESCs during development is now feasible due to advances in optical imaging and engineering of genetically encoded fluorescent reporters; however, a major limitation is the low spatio-temporal resolution of long-term 3-D imaging required for generational and neighboring reconstructions...
May 1, 2017: BioTechniques
Lin Wang, Malgorzata M Kamocka, Amy Zollman, Nadia Carlesso
Increasing evidence indicates that normal hematopoiesis is regulated by distinct microenvironmental cues in the BM, which include specialized cellular niches modulating critical hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) functions1 , 2 . Indeed, a more detailed picture of the hematopoietic microenvironment is now emerging, in which the endosteal and the endothelial niches form functional units for the regulation of normal HSC and their progeny3 , 4 , 5 . New studies have revealed the importance of perivascular cells, adipocytes and neuronal cells in maintaining and regulating HSC function6 , 7 , 8 ...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Hiroshi Fukuhara, Yasushi Ino, Tomoki Todo
Oncolytic virus therapy is perhaps the next major breakthrough in cancer treatment following the success in immunotherapy using immune checkpoint inhibitors. Oncolytic viruses are defined as genetically engineered or naturally occurring viruses that selectively replicate in and kill cancer cells without harming the normal tissues. T-Vec (talimogene laherparepvec), a second-generation oncolytic herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) armed with GM-CSF, was recently approved as the first oncolytic virus drug in the USA and Europe...
October 2016: Cancer Science
Lingfeng Liu, Daniel Sommermeyer, Alexandra Cabanov, Paula Kosasih, Tyler Hill, Stanley R Riddell
Adoptive immunotherapy with genetically engineered T cells has the potential to treat cancer and other diseases. The introduction of Strep-tag II sequences into specific sites in synthetic chimeric antigen receptors or natural T-cell receptors of diverse specificities provides engineered T cells with a marker for identification and rapid purification, a method for tailoring spacer length of chimeric receptors for optimal function, and a functional element for selective antibody-coated, microbead-driven, large-scale expansion...
April 2016: Nature Biotechnology
Nicolette G Alkema, G Bea A Wisman, Ate G J van der Zee, Marcel A T M van Vugt, Steven de Jong
High-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC) has the highest mortality rate among all gynecological cancers. Patients are generally diagnosed in an advanced stage with the majority of cases displaying platinum resistant relapses. Recent genomic interrogation of large numbers of HGSOC patient samples indicated high complexity in terms of genetic aberrations, intra- and intertumor heterogeneity and underscored their lack of targetable oncogenic mutations. Sub-classifications of HGSOC based on expression profiles, termed 'differentiated', 'immunoreactive', 'mesenchymal' and 'proliferative', were shown to have prognostic value...
January 2016: Drug Resistance Updates: Reviews and Commentaries in Antimicrobial and Anticancer Chemotherapy
Giacomo Oliveira, Eliana Ruggiero, Maria Teresa Lupo Stanghellini, Nicoletta Cieri, Mattia D'Agostino, Mattio D'Agostino, Raffaele Fronza, Christina Lulay, Francesca Dionisio, Sara Mastaglio, Raffaella Greco, Jacopo Peccatori, Alessandro Aiuti, Alessandro Ambrosi, Luca Biasco, Attilio Bondanza, Antonio Lambiase, Catia Traversari, Luca Vago, Christof von Kalle, Manfred Schmidt, Claudio Bordignon, Fabio Ciceri, Chiara Bonini
Long-lasting immune protection from pathogens and cancer requires the generation of memory T cells able to survive long-term. To unravel the immunological requirements for long-term persistence of human memory T cells, we characterized and traced, over several years, T lymphocytes genetically modified to express the thymidine kinase (TK) suicide gene that were infused in 10 patients after haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). At 2 to 14 years after infusion and in the presence of a broad and resting immune system, we could still detect effectors/effector memory (TEM/EFF), central memory (TCM), and stem memory (TSCM) TK(+) cells, circulating at low but stable levels in all patients...
December 9, 2015: Science Translational Medicine
Spencer C Knight, Liangqi Xie, Wulan Deng, Benjamin Guglielmi, Lea B Witkowsky, Lana Bosanac, Elisa T Zhang, Mohamed El Beheiry, Jean-Baptiste Masson, Maxime Dahan, Zhe Liu, Jennifer A Doudna, Robert Tjian
The RNA-guided CRISPR-associated protein Cas9 is used for genome editing, transcriptional modulation, and live-cell imaging. Cas9-guide RNA complexes recognize and cleave double-stranded DNA sequences on the basis of 20-nucleotide RNA-DNA complementarity, but the mechanism of target searching in mammalian cells is unknown. Here, we use single-particle tracking to visualize diffusion and chromatin binding of Cas9 in living cells. We show that three-dimensional diffusion dominates Cas9 searching in vivo, and off-target binding events are, on average, short-lived (<1 second)...
November 13, 2015: Science
Adam Badar, Louise Kiru, Tammy L Kalber, Amit Jathoul, Karin Straathof, Erik Årstad, Mark F Lythgoe, Martin Pule
BACKGROUND: In vivo imaging using genetic reporters is a central supporting tool in the development of cell and gene therapies affording us the ability to selectively track the therapeutic indefinitely. Previous studies have demonstrated the utility of the human norepinephrine transporter (hNET) as a positron emission tomography/single photon emission computed tomography (PET/SPECT) genetic reporter for in vivo cellular imaging. Here, our aim was to extend on this work and construct a tricistronic vector with dual optical (firefly luciferase) and nuclear (hNET) in vivo imaging and ex vivo histochemical capabilities...
2015: EJNMMI Research
Melissa N McCracken, Dimitrios N Vatakis, Dhaval Dixit, Jami McLaughlin, Jerome A Zack, Owen N Witte
Adoptive transfer of tumor-reactive T cells can successfully reduce tumor burden; however, in rare cases, lethal on-target/off-tumor effects have been reported. A noninvasive method to track engineered cells with high sensitivity and resolution would allow observation of correct cell homing and/or identification of dangerous off-target locations in preclinical and clinical applications. Human deoxycytidine kinase triple mutant (hdCK3mut) is a nonimmunogenic PET reporter that was previously shown to be an effective tool to monitor whole-body hematopoiesis...
May 2015: Journal of Clinical Investigation
Ramsey I Zeitoun, Andrew D Garst, George D Degen, Gur Pines, Thomas J Mansell, Tirzah Y Glebes, Nanette R Boyle, Ryan T Gill
Multiplexed genome engineering approaches can be used to generate targeted genetic diversity in cell populations on laboratory timescales, but methods to track mutations and link them to phenotypes have been lacking. We present an approach for tracking combinatorial engineered libraries (TRACE) through the simultaneous mapping of millions of combinatorially engineered genomes at single-cell resolution. Distal genomic sites are assembled into individual DNA constructs that are compatible with next-generation sequencing strategies...
June 2015: Nature Biotechnology
Luca Biasco, Serena Scala, Luca Basso Ricci, Francesca Dionisio, Cristina Baricordi, Andrea Calabria, Stefania Giannelli, Nicoletta Cieri, Federica Barzaghi, Roberta Pajno, Hamoud Al-Mousa, Alessia Scarselli, Caterina Cancrini, Claudio Bordignon, Maria Grazia Roncarolo, Eugenio Montini, Chiara Bonini, Alessandro Aiuti
A definitive understanding of survival and differentiation potential in humans of T cell subpopulations is of paramount importance for the development of effective T cell therapies. In particular, uncovering the dynamics in vivo in humans of the recently described T memory stem cells (TSCM) would be crucial for therapeutic approaches that aim at taking advantage of a stable cellular vehicle with precursor potential. We exploited data derived from two gene therapy clinical trials for an inherited immunodeficiency, using either retrovirally engineered hematopoietic stem cells or mature lymphocytes to trace individual T cell clones directly in vivo in humans...
February 4, 2015: Science Translational Medicine
A D Kaiser, M Assenmacher, B Schröder, M Meyer, R Orentas, U Bethke, B Dropulic
The recent successes of adoptive T-cell immunotherapy for the treatment of hematologic malignancies have highlighted the need for manufacturing processes that are robust and scalable for product commercialization. Here we review some of the more outstanding issues surrounding commercial scale manufacturing of personalized-adoptive T-cell medicinal products. These include closed system operations, improving process robustness and simplifying work flows, reducing labor intensity by implementing process automation, scalability and cost, as well as appropriate testing and tracking of products, all while maintaining strict adherence to Current Good Manufacturing Practices and regulatory guidelines...
March 2015: Cancer Gene Therapy
Lindsey M Costantini, Susan C Irvin, Steven C Kennedy, Feng Guo, Harris Goldstein, Betsy C Herold, Erik L Snapp
The HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein, gp120, binds the host cell receptor, CD4, in the initial step of HIV viral entry and infection. This process is an appealing target for the development of inhibitory drugs and neutralizing antibodies. To study gp120 binding and intracellular trafficking, we engineered a fluorescent fusion of the humanized gp120 JRFL HIV-1 variant and GFP. Gp120-sfGFP is glycosylated with human sugars, robustly expressed, and secreted from cultured human cells. Protein dynamics, quality control, and trafficking can be visualized in live cells...
February 2015: Virology
Hiroshi Fujiwara
Accumulating clinical evidence suggests that adoptive T-cell immunotherapy could be a promising option for control of cancer; evident examples include the graft-vs-leukemia effect mediated by donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI) and therapeutic infusion of ex vivo-expanded tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) for melanoma. Currently, along with advances in synthetic immunology, gene-modified T cells retargeted to defined tumor antigens have been introduced as "cellular drugs". As the functional properties of the adoptive immune response mediated by T lymphocytes are decisively regulated by their T-cell receptors (TCRs), transfer of genes encoding target antigen-specific receptors should enable polyclonal T cells to be uniformly redirected toward cancer cells...
December 15, 2014: Pharmaceuticals
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