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Aortic pathology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821833/microrna-449c-5p-inhibits-osteogenic-differentiation-of-human-vics-through-smad4-mediated-pathway
#1
Rongjian Xu, Min Zhao, Yun Yang, Zhuo Huang, Chunying Shi, Xianglin Hou, Yannan Zhao, Bing Chen, Zhifeng Xiao, Jianzhou Liu, Qi Miao, Jianwu Dai
Calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD) is the most common heart valve disorder, yet its mechanism remains poorly understood. Valve interstitial cells (VICs) are the prevalent cells in aortic valve and their osteogenic differentiation may be responsible for calcific nodule formation in CAVD pathogenesis. Emerging evidence shows microRNA (miRNA, or miR) can function as important regulators of many pathological processes, including osteogenic differentiation. Here, we aimed to explore the function of miR-449c-5p in CAVD pathogenesis...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820653/fibrous-skeleton-of-the-heart-anatomic-overview-and-evaluation-of-pathologic-conditions-with-ct-and-mr-imaging
#2
Farhood Saremi, Damián Sánchez-Quintana, Shumpei Mori, Horia Muresian, Diane E Spicer, Cameron Hassani, Robert H Anderson
The fibrous skeleton is concentrated at the base of the ventricular mass. It provides electrical insulation at the atrioventricular level and fibrous continuity for the leaflets of the mitral, aortic, and tricuspid valves. Its components include the fibrous trigones, the fibrous area of aortic-mitral continuity, the subvalvar collar of the mitral valve, the membranous septum, the interleaflet triangles, the tendon of Todaro, and likely the conus ligament. The majority of the mitral annulus is fibrous, but the only true fibrous part of the tricuspid annulus is where the valvar leaflets are attached to the central fibrous body...
August 18, 2017: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820420/alterations-in-placenta-redox-status-during-experimental-model-of-hypoxia-induced-preeclampsia
#3
A Sharashenidze, L Panchulidze, T Sanikidze
An important pathogenetic link of preeclampsia (PE) is hypoxia of uterine-placental tissues, accompanied by damage of the vascular endothelium and the release of vasoactive mediators, violate vascular tone and microcirculation in the maternal organism and placenta and development of a number of pathological processes in the mother's and fetus body. The aim of the study was to establish metabolic abnormalities of oxidative metabolism of the placenta during experimental model of PE (uterine/placental hypoxia)...
July 2017: Georgian Medical News
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814297/genotyping-and-comparative-pathology-of-spirocerca-in-black-backed-jackals-canis-mesomelas-in-south-africa
#4
M M Bumby, M C Williams, J C A Steyl, R Harrison-White, H Lutermann, G T Fosgate, P J de Waal, J Mitha, S J Clift
BACKGROUND: The pathology of spirocercosis, a disease caused by the infestation of carnivores with the nematode Spirocerca lupi, has been extensively described in domestic dogs and coyotes. However, it has not been described in wild carnivores in South Africa. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether black-backed jackals are a host for Spirocerca species and to provide a detailed description of the associated pathology. Jackals were also stratified according to age and the Spirocerca species recovered were characterized using molecular techniques...
August 16, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812215/proteomic-alterations-associated-with-biomechanical-dysfunction-are-early-processes-in-the-emilin1-deficient-mouse-model-of-aortic-valve-disease
#5
P M Angel, D A Narmoneva, M K Sewell-Loftin, C Munjal, L Dupuis, B J Landis, A Jegga, C B Kern, W D Merryman, H S Baldwin, G M Bressan, Robert B Hinton
Aortic valve (AV) disease involves stiffening of the AV cusp with progression characterized by inflammation, fibrosis, and calcification. Here, we examine the relationship between biomechanical valve function and proteomic changes before and after the development of AV pathology in the Emilin1-/- mouse model of latent AV disease. Biomechanical studies were performed to quantify tissue stiffness at the macro (micropipette) and micro (atomic force microscopy (AFM)) levels. Micropipette studies showed that the Emilin1-/- AV annulus and cusp regions demonstrated increased stiffness only after the onset of AV disease...
August 15, 2017: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808796/structural-alteration-of-the-endothelial-glycocalyx-contribution-of-the-actin-cytoskeleton
#6
Weiqi Li, Wen Wang
The endothelial glycocalyx is a carbohydrate-protein layer that lines the luminal surface of the endothelium. It anchors to the cell membrane via its core proteins that share extended link to the actin cytoskeleton. It is widely accepted that those protein domains and the attached carbohydrates are susceptible to pathological changes. It is unclear, however, to what extent the actin cytoskeleton contributes to the glycocalyx stability. In this study, we investigate the role of the actin cytoskeleton in the maintenance of the glycocalyx under static and laminar flow conditions in vitro...
August 14, 2017: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805231/the-histone-methyltransferase-mixed-lineage-leukemia-mll-3-may-play-a-potential-role-on-clinical-dilated-cardiomyopathy
#7
Ding-Sheng Jiang, Xin Yi, Rui Li, Yun-Shu Su, Jing Wang, Min-Lai Chen, Li-Gang Liu, Min Hu, Cai Cheng, Ping Zheng, Xue-Hai Zhu, Xiang Wei
Histone modifications play a critical role in the pathological processes of dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). While the role and expression pattern of histone methyltransferases (HMTs), especially mixed lineage leukemia (MLL) families on DCM are unclear. To this end, twelve normal and fifteen DCM heart samples were included in the present study. A murine cardiac remodelling model was induced by transverse aortic constriction (TAC). Real-time PCR was performed to detect the expression levels of MLL families in the mouse and human left ventricles...
August 9, 2017: Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805011/bicuspid-and-unicuspid-aortic-valves-different-phenotypes-of-the-same-disease-insight-from-the-gentac-registry
#8
Joseph M Krepp, Mary J Roman, Richard B Devereux, Adrienne Bruce, Siddharth K Prakash, Shaine A Morris, Dianna M Milewicz, Kathryn W Holmes, William Ravekes, Ralph V Shohet, Reed E Pyeritz, Cheryl L Maslen, Barbara L Kroner, Kim A Eagle, Liliana Preiss, Federico M Asch
BACKGROUND: Unicuspid aortic valve (UAV) is a rare disorder, often difficult to distinguish from bicuspid aortic valve (BAV). BAV and UAV share valve pathology such as the presence of a raphe, leaflet fusion, aortic stenosis, aortic regurgitation, and/or ascending aortic dilatation, but a comprehensive echocardiographic comparison of patients with UAV and BAV has not been previously performed. METHODS: We investigated UAV and BAV patients at an early stage of disease included in GenTAC, a national registry of genetically related aortic aneurysms and associated cardiac conditions...
August 14, 2017: Congenital Heart Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803167/igg4-related-disease-a-new-etiology-underlying-diffuse-intracranial-dilating-vasculopathy
#9
Evan S Marlin, Davis Dornbos, Daniel S Ikeda, Norman L Lehman, Ciarán J Powers
BACKGROUND: Diffuse intracranial aneurysmal vasculopathy is a rare condition, previously described in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. IgG4 related disease (IgG4-RD) is a recognized inflammatory disease of systemic organs, leading to fibrosis of connective tissues. It has also been linked to inflammatory dilating aortic aneurysms, coronary vascular disease, hypophysitis, orbital pseudotumor and pachymeningitis. It has not yet been described as a cause of diffuse intracranial dilating vasculopathy...
August 9, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797443/retraction-notice-to-aortic-valve-endocarditis-and-coronary-angiography-with-cerebral-embolic%C3%A2-protection
#10
Joost Daemen, Nicolas M Van Mieghem
This article has been retracted: please see Elsevier Policy on Article Withdrawal (http://www.elsevier.com/locate/withdrawalpolicy). This article has been retracted at the request of the Editor-in-Chief, as well as the authors. The article was published with pathology slides submitted by the authors. After publication, the authors notified the journal that the wrong pathology slides were submitted to the article in error. In the process, the correct slides were no longer available and therefore the authors and the Editor required a retraction of the article...
August 14, 2017: JACC. Cardiovascular Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795037/unusual-presentation-of-a-penetrating-aortic-arch-injury
#11
Fikret Sami Vural, Atul Kumar Patel, Kashif Mustafa
A 27-year-old man was admitted with a penetrating injury at the mid-manubrium. Computed tomographic (CT) angiography showed a filling defect in the aortic arch. This was evaluated as a sign of injury and the patient underwent an emergency operation. No active bleeding or clot was found in the mediastinum during the operation. The laceration point was between the innominate and the left carotid artery posteriorly. The injury was approached using hypothermic circulatory arrest. Aortotomy and exploration showed a 2-cm-long full-thickness aortic injury with an overlying clot...
August 2017: Korean Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794660/a-renal-colic-fast-track-pathway-to-improve-waiting-times-and-outcomes-for-patients-presenting-to-the-emergency-department
#12
Omar Al Kadhi, Kate Manley, Madhavi Natarajan, Valmiki Lutchmedial, Abbi Forsyth, Kate Tabrett, Jonathan Betteridge, William Finch, Heinrich Hollis
INTRODUCTION: Renal colic is commonly encountered in the emergency department (ED). We validated a fast track renal colic (FTRC) initiative to decrease patient waiting times and streamline patient flow. METHOD: The FTRC pathway was devised according to the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence clinical summary criteria for the management of patients with suspected renal colic. ED triage nurses use the pathway to identify patients with likely renal colic suitable for fast track to analgesia, investigation and management...
2017: Open Access Emergency Medicine: OAEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794364/an-ineffective-differential-diagnosis-of-infective-endocarditis-and-rheumatic-heart-disease-after-streptococcal-skin-and-soft-tissue-infection
#13
Tetsuya Suzuki, Momoko Mawatari, Toshihiko Iizuka, Tatsuya Amano, Satoshi Kutsuna, Yoshihiro Fujiya, Nozomi Takeshita, Kayoko Hayakawa, Norio Ohmagari
We herein report the case of a 68-year-old woman with a skin and soft tissue infection at her extremities. The blood culture results were positive for Streptococcus pyogenes, and we started treatment using ampicillin and clindamycin, although subsequent auscultation revealed a new-onset heart murmur. We therefore suspected rheumatic heart disease and infective endocarditis. The case met both the Jones criteria and the modified Duke criteria. Transesophageal echocardiography revealed vegetation on the aortic valve, although the pathological findings were also compatible with both rheumatic heart disease and infective endocarditis...
August 10, 2017: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791821/il-22-modulates-inflammatory-properties-of-human-primary-aortic-smooth-muscle-cells
#14
Paulina Gorzelak-Pabis, Maciej Chałubiński, Katarzyna Wojdan, Emilia Łuczak, Maciej Borowiec, Marlena Broncel
BACKGROUND: IL-22 is expressed at barrier surfaces, which suggests its critical role in the maintenance of normal barrier homeostasis and tissue repair. IL-22 can both promote pathological inflammation and prevent the destruction of tissues. The functional outcomes of IL-22 on vascular smooth muscle cells, which are shown to regulate immune processes within the vascular wall and which are involved in certain pathologies, have not been analyzed. OBJECTIVES: The effect of IL-22 on the expression of novel antiand pro-inflammatory and barrier disrupting cytokines, apoptosis and the expression of adhesive molecules in human primary aortic smooth muscle cells (AoSMC) was investigated...
May 2017: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791773/sarcoidosis-with-takayasu-arteritis-a-model-of-overlapping-granulomatosis-a-report-of-seven-cases-and-literature-review
#15
Catherine Chapelon-Abric, David Saadoun, Isabelle Marie, Cloé Comarmond, Anne Claire Desbois, Fanny Domont, Léa Savey, Patrice Cacoub
OBJECTIVE: To describe the features of exceptional coexisting Takayasu arteritis (TA) and sarcoidosis, two conditions of unknown cause associated with a common immunologic pattern. METHODS: We report seven cases of concomitant sarcoidosis-Takayasu or Takayasu-like vasculitis, observed in two referral centers between 1995 and 2015. RESULTS: All patients were female. The mean age at sarcoidosis diagnosis and TA diagnosis was 36 and 37 years, respectively...
August 8, 2017: International Journal of Rheumatic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790933/mechanisms-of-smooth-muscle-cell-differentiation-are-distinctly-altered-in-thoracic-aortic-aneurysms-associated-with-bicuspid-or-tricuspid-aortic-valves
#16
Elena Ignatieva, Daria Kostina, Olga Irtyuga, Vladimir Uspensky, Alexey Golovkin, Natalia Gavriliuk, Olga Moiseeva, Anna Kostareva, Anna Malashicheva
Cellular and molecular mechanisms of thoracic aortic aneurysm are not clear and therapeutic approaches are mostly absent. Thoracic aortic aneurysm is associated with defective differentiation of smooth muscle cells (SMC) of aortic wall. Bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) comparing to tricuspid aortic valve (TAV) significantly predisposes to a risk of thoracic aortic aneurysms. It has been suggested recently that BAV-associated aortopathies represent a separate pathology comparing to TAV-associated dilations. The only proven candidate gene that has been associated with BAV remains NOTCH1...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777256/the-p-407-induced-mouse-model-of-dose-controlled-hyperlipidemia-and-atherosclerosis-twenty-five-years-later
#17
Thomas P Johnston, Tatyana A Korolenko, Amirhossein Sahebkar
The poloxamer 407 (P-407) non-genetic, non-diet-induced mouse model of dose-controlled hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis was first introduced in 1992. Dyslipidemia is produced in C57BL/6 mice of either sex following the intraperitoneal administration of P-407, which is a polyether-based nonionic surface-active-agent. Aortic atherosclerotic lesions begin to form after 1 month of repeated P-407 administration and obtain maximum size, numerical density, and human-like pathological features by 4 months. Our laboratory published a review of this model in 2004, although an update would seem both appropriate and timely based on new findings since 2004...
August 4, 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774434/automatic-measurement-of-the-sinus-of-valsalva-by-image-analysis
#18
Fabrice Mairesse, Cédric Blanchard, Arnaud Boucher, Tadeusz Sliwa, Alain Lalande, Yvon Voisin
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Despite the importance of the morphology of the sinus of Valsalva in the behavior of heart valves and the proper irrigation of coronary arteries, the study of these sinuses from medical imaging is still limited to manual radii measurements. This paper aims to present an automatic method to measure the sinuses of Valsalva on medical images, more specifically on cine MRI and Xray CT. METHODS: This paper introduces an enhanced method to automatically localize and extract each sinus of Valsalva edge and its relevant points...
September 2017: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771943/overexpression-of-integrin-%C3%AE-11-induces-cardiac-fibrosis-in-mice
#19
Andreas Romaine, Ida W Sørensen, Cédric Zeltz, Ning Lu, Pugazendhi Murugan Erusappan, Arne Olav Melleby, Lili Zhang, Bård Bendiksen, Emma Louise Robinson, Jan Magnus Aronsen, Kate M Herum, Håvard Danielsen, Ivar Sjaastad, Geir Christensen, Donald Gullberg
AIM: To understand the role of the collagen-binding integrin α11 in vivo we have used a classical approach of creating a mouse strain overexpressing integrin α11. A transgenic mouse strain overexpressing α11 in muscle tissues was analysed in the current study with special reference to the heart tissue. METHODS: We generated and phenotyped integrin α11 transgenic (TG) mice by echocardiography, magnetic resonance imaging and histology. Wild-type (WT) mice were subjected to aortic banding (AB) and the expression of integrin α11 was measured in flow cytometry sorted cardiomyocytes and non-myocytes...
August 3, 2017: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770396/mitro-aortic-pathology-a%C3%A2-point-of-view-for-a%C3%A2-fully-transcatheter-staged-approach
#20
REVIEW
G D'Ancona, L Paranskaya, A Öner, S Kische, H Ince
Severe aortic valve stenosis (AVS) and mitral valve regurgitation (MVR) often coexist. Although a fully percutaneous treatment for the two conditions, by means of transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) followed by MitraClip, can be appealing in selected high-risk candidates, critical and strategical reasoning should be applied. In a 3-year period we have developed a single-centre experience of 14 patients who were managed with a staged percutaneous approach to treat severe AVS and MVR. The average interval from TAVI to MitraClip repair was 101 ± 12 days...
August 2, 2017: Netherlands Heart Journal
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