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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918470/assessment-of-glucose-regulation-in-pregnancy-after-gastric-bypass-surgery
#1
Christian S Göbl, Latife Bozkurt, Andrea Tura, Michael Leutner, Laura Andrei, Lukas Fahr, Peter Husslein, Wolfgang Eppel, Alexandra Kautzky-Willer
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery is characterised by glycaemic variability. Prospective studies of glucose metabolism in pregnancy after RYGB are not available, therefore this study aimed to evaluate physiological alterations in glucose metabolism in pregnancy following RYGB. METHODS: Sixty-three pregnant women (25 who underwent RYGB, 19 non-operated obese control women and 19 normal weight control women) were included. Frequently sampled 3 h OGTTs and 1 h IVGTTs were performed between 24 and 28 weeks of gestation and, in a subgroup, were repeated at 3-6 months after delivery...
September 16, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917205/prenatal-ddt-exposure-and-child-adiposity-at-age-12-the-chamacos-study
#2
Marcella Warner, Morgan Ye, Kim Harley, Katherine Kogut, Asa Bradman, Brenda Eskenazi
OBJECTIVE: Using data from the Center for the Health Assessment of Mothers and Children of Salinas (CHAMACOS) birth cohort study, we assessed the association of in utero exposure to dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and dichlorodiphenylethylene (DDE) with child adiposity at age 12. METHODS: We included 240 children with o,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDT, and p,p'-DDE concentrations measured in maternal serum collected during pregnancy (ng/g lipid) and complete 12-year follow-up data...
September 12, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913889/prevalence-and-contributors-to-low-grade-inflammation-in-three-u-s-populations-of-reproductive-age-women
#3
Lindsey A Sjaarda, Rose G Radin, Chandra Swanson, Daniel L Kuhr, Sunni L Mumford, Noya Galai, Robert M Silver, Jean Wactawski-Wende, Neil J Perkins, Enrique F Schisterman
BACKGROUND: Inflammation, measured by high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), is linked to adverse reproductive outcomes. However, prevalence and predictors of low-grade inflammation are poorly understood among reproductive age women. Therefore, the current aim was to characterize: (i) the prevalence of elevated hsCRP and (ii) whether the association of various demographic, anthropometric, life style, and metabolic characteristics with higher hsCRP varies across populations of reproductive age women with varying risk profiles for adverse reproductive outcomes...
September 15, 2017: Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904671/-idiopathic-intracranial-hypertension-a-rare-case-related-to-pregnancy
#4
Jihad Drissi, Ayman Hachi, Laila Adlani, Jaouad Kouach, Driss Moussaoui, Mohamed Dehayni
We report the case of a 25-year old primipara whose pregnancy was complicated by idiopathic intracranial hypertension (ICHT) associated with visual impairment in the first quarter. She underwent lumboperitoneal shunt without obstetric consequences. This study aimed to determine the features of this rare pathological entity whose pathophysiological mechanism is poorly elucidated. It would be caused by poor absorption of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) through the arachnoid granulations. Major risk factors are: obesity, polycystic ovary syndrome, thrombophilia and hyperfibrinolyse...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903892/effectiveness-of-smartmoms-a-novel-ehealth-intervention-for-management-of-gestational-weight-gain-randomized-controlled-pilot-trial
#5
Leanne M Redman, L Anne Gilmore, Jeffrey Breaux, Diana M Thomas, Karen Elkind-Hirsch, Tiffany Stewart, Daniel S Hsia, Jeffrey Burton, John W Apolzan, Loren E Cain, Abby D Altazan, Shelly Ragusa, Heather Brady, Allison Davis, J Mick Tilford, Elizabeth F Sutton, Corby K Martin
BACKGROUND: Two-thirds of pregnant women exceed gestational weight gain (GWG) recommendations. Because excess GWG is associated with adverse outcomes for mother and child, development of scalable and cost-effective approaches to deliver intensive lifestyle programs during pregnancy is urgent. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to decrease the proportion of women who exceed the Institute of Medicine (IOM) 2009 GWG guidelines. METHODS: In a parallel-arm randomized controlled trial, 54 pregnant women (age 18-40 years) who were overweight (n=25) or obese (n=29) were enrolled to test whether an intensive lifestyle intervention (called SmartMoms) decreased the proportion of women with excess GWG, defined as exceeding the 2009 IOM guidelines, compared to no intervention (usual care group)...
September 13, 2017: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903110/flavor-perception-and-preference-development-in-human-infants
#6
Catherine A Forestell
As most parents and caregivers are aware, feeding children a nutritionally balanced diet can be challenging. Children are born with a biological predisposition to prefer sweet and to avoid bitter foods such as green leafy vegetables. It has been hypothesized that this predisposition evolved to attract children to energy-dense foods while discouraging the consumption of toxins. Although this may have enhanced survival in environments historically characterized by food scarcity, it is clearly maladaptive in many of today's food environments where children are surrounded by an abundance of sweet-tasting, unhealthful foods and beverages that place them at risk for excessive weight gain...
2017: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903109/does-breastfeeding-shape-food-preferences-links-to-obesity
#7
Alison K Ventura
The first 2 years of life have been recognized as a critical window for obesity prevention efforts. This period is characterized by rapid growth and development and, in a relatively short period of time, a child transitions from a purely milk-based diet to a more varied solid-food diet. Much learning about food and eating occurs during this critical window, and it is well-documented that early feeding and dietary exposures predict later food preferences, eating behaviors, and dietary patterns. The focus of this review will be on the earliest feeding experiences - breast- and formula-feeding - and the unique role of breastfeeding in shaping children's food preferences...
2017: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901891/dietary-intake-of-fat-and-fibre-according-to-reference-values-relates-to-higher-gut-microbiota-richness-in-overweight-pregnant-women
#8
Henna Röytiö, Kati Mokkala, Tero Vahlberg, Kirsi Laitinen
The diet-microbiota-metabolism relationships during pregnancy are mostly unknown. We explored the effect of the habitual diet and adherence to the dietary reference values on gut microbiota composition and diversity. Further, the association of gut microbiota with serum lipidomics and low-grade inflammation was evaluated. Overweight and obese women (BMI 30·7 (sd 4·4) kg/m2, n 100) were studied at early pregnancy (≤17 weeks). Intakes of nutrients were calculated from 3-d food diaries. Faecal microbiota composition was analysed using 16S rRNA gene sequencing...
September 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901544/effect-of-obesity-on-neonatal-hypoglycaemia-in-mothers-with-gestational-diabetes-a-comparative-study
#9
Katherine Collins, Raoul Oehmen, Shailender Mehta
BACKGROUND: Rates of pre-gestational obesity and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) are increasing in Australia. While both are established risk factors for neonatal hypoglycaemia, the additive effect of both risks on neonatal hypoglycaemia is not well understood. AIMS: To determine the influence of obesity on neonatal hypoglycaemia among infants born to GDM mothers. The authors hypothesise the presence of a greater frequency and severity of neonatal hypoglycaemia in infants born to obese GDM women...
September 13, 2017: Australian & New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899534/gene-by-environment-interactions-of-the-clock-pemt-and-ghrelin%C3%A2-loci-with-average-sleep-duration-in-relation-to-obesity-traits%C3%A2-using-a-cohort-of-643-new-zealand-european-children
#10
Mohanraj Krishnan, Andrew N Shelling, Clare R Wall, Edwin A Mitchell, Rinki Murphy, Lesley M E McCowan, John M D Thompson
OBJECTIVES: Modern technology may have desensitised the 'biological clock' to environmental cues, disrupting the appropriate co-ordination of metabolic processes. Susceptibility to misalignment of circadian rhythms may be partly genetically influenced and effects on sleep quality and duration could predispose to poorer health outcomes. Shorter sleep duration is associated with obesity traits, which are brought on by an increased opportunity to eat and/or a shift of hormonal profile promoting hunger...
September 2017: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894539/prevalence-risk-factors-and-character-of-abdominal-hernia-in-arar-city-northern-saudi-arabia-in-2017
#11
Abdulmajeed AhmedAlenazi, Mahmoud Mohammed Alsharif, Malik Azhar Hussain, Naif Gharbi Alenezi, Abdulrhman Ahmed Alenazi, Shouq Amjad Almadani, Nour Homoud Alanazi, Jazzaa Hammad Alshammari, Alwaleed Oqab Altimyat, Tariq Hulayyil Alanazi
BACKGROUND: Abdominal wall hernias are a very common surgical condition affecting all ages and both sexes. The main risk factors of hernias include pregnancy, weight lifting, constipation, and weight gain. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors of abdominal hernias, their causes, treatment and complications among both sexes of the Arar population (Saudi Arabia). METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1,567 adults living in Arar city in 2017...
July 2017: Electronic Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886253/female-offspring-born-to-obese-and-insulin-resistant-dams-are-not-at-increased-risk-for-obesity-and-metabolic-dysfunction-during-early-development
#12
Hanin Aburasayn, Rami Al Batran, Keshav Gopal, Malak Almutairi, Amina Eshreif, Farah Eaton, John Ussher
The percentage of women who are obese at the time of conception/pregnancy is increasing, with animal and human studies demonstrating that offspring born to obese dams/mothers are at increased risk for obesity and the metabolic syndrome. Our goal was to confirm in an experimental model of metabolic syndrome in the dam, whether the offspring would be at increased risk of obesity. Conversely, we observed that male offspring born to dams with metabolic syndrome had no alterations in their body weight profiles, whereas female offspring born to dams with metabolic syndrome were heavier at weaning, but exhibited no perturbations in energy metabolism...
September 8, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884000/catabolic-and-anabolic-faces-of-insulin-resistance-and-their-disorders-a-new-insight-into-circadian-control-of-metabolic-disorders-leading-to-diabetes
#13
REVIEW
Polina M Schwartsburd
Maintenance of glucose homeostasis during circadian behavioral cycles is critical. The processes controlling the switch between predominant lipolysis/fatty oxidation during fasting and predominant lipid storage/glucose oxidation following feeding are determined principally by insulin. Chronic elevated threshold of insulin resistance (IR) is a key pathological feature of obesity, Type 2 diabetes, sepsis and cancer cachexia; however, a temporal reduced threshold of IR is widely met in fasting/hibernation, pregnancy, antibacterial immunity, exercise and stress...
August 2017: Future Science OA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883541/prenatal-risk-factors-influencing-childhood-bmi-and-overweight-independent-of-birth-weight-and-infancy-bmi-a-path-analysis-within-the-danish-national-birth-cohort
#14
C S Morgen, L Ängquist, J L Baker, A-Mn Andersen, K F Michaelsen, T I A Sørensen
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Prenatal risk factors for childhood overweight may operate indirectly through development in body size in early life and/or directly independent hereof. We quantified the effects of maternal and paternal body mass index (BMI), maternal age, socioeconomic position (SEP), parity, gestational weight gain, maternal smoking during pregnancy, caesarean section, birth weight, and BMI at 5 and 12 months on BMI and overweight at 7 and 11 years. METHODS: Family triads with information on maternal, paternal and child BMI at ages 7 (n=29 374) and 11 years (n=18 044) were selected from the Danish National Birth Cohort...
September 8, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883521/impact-of-maternal-obesity-on-the-incidence-of-pregnancy-complications-in-france-and-canada
#15
Florent Fuchs, Marie-Victoire Senat, Evelyne Rey, Jacques Balayla, Nils Chaillet, Jean Bouyer, François Audibert
The aim of our study was to compare the impact of maternal obesity on the incidence of medical complications of pregnancy in France and Canada. We performed a prospective comparative cohort study using French data, retrieved from a prospective cohort of singleton deliveries, and Canadian data retrieved from QUARISMA, a cluster-randomized controlled trial conducted in Quebec, both between 2009 and 2011. Outcomes studied included, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP), venous thromboembolism, stillbirth, caesarean delivery and macrosomia...
September 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882122/prevalence-and-predictors-of-early-gestational-weight-gain-associated-with-obesity-risk-in-a-diverse-australian-antenatal-population-a-cross-sectional-study
#16
K Cheney, S Berkemeier, K A Sim, A Gordon, K Black
BACKGROUND: Excess gestational weight gain (GWG) leads to adverse short- and long-term consequences for women and their offspring. Evidence suggests that excess GWG in early pregnancy may be particularly detrimental, contributing to the intergenerational cycle of obesity. The primary outcome was to investigate the prevalence and predictors of excess GWG in early pregnancy, and if women understand the risks to themselves and their offspring stratified by maternal body mass index (BMI)...
September 7, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881823/hypertriglyceridemia-in-female-rats-during-pregnancy-induces-obesity-in-male-offspring-via-altering-hypothalamic-leptin-signaling
#17
Tanzil Ur Rahman, Kamran Ullah, Zhang-Hong Ke, Meng-Xi Guo, Lu-Yang Jin, Jun Ren, Yu-Zhong Zhou, Yi Cheng, Xin-Yan Dong, Hai-Yan Pang, Ting-Ting Wang, Jian-Zhong Sheng, He-Feng Huang
Maternal obesity influence the child's long-term development and health. Though, the mechanism concerned in this process is still uncertain. In the present study, we explored whether overfeeding of a high-fat diet during pregnancy in female rats altered metabolic phenotypes in an F1 generation and authenticated the contribution of hypothalamic leptin signaling. Leptin responsiveness and the number of immunopositive neurons for phosphorylated signal transducer and activator transcription 3 (pSTAT3) were analyzed...
August 8, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881030/the-association-between-anticoagulation-therapy-maternal-characteristics-and-a-failed-cfdna-test-due-to-a-low-fetal-fraction
#18
Whitney Burns, Nathanael Koelper, Andrea Barberio, Mary DeAgostino-Kelly, Michael Mennuti, Mary D Sammel, Lorraine Dugoff
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to identify maternal characteristics associated with a failed cell-free DNA (cfDNA) test due to a low fetal fraction (FF). METHOD: Retrospective cohort study of women with singleton pregnancies who had cfDNA screening at 10-25 weeks gestation between October 2011 and January 2016. cfDNA screening was performed using methylation techniques until October 2013; thereafter, samples were run with massively parallel sequencing...
September 7, 2017: Prenatal Diagnosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879820/effects-of-the-healthy-start-randomized-intervention-on-dietary-intake-among-obesity-prone-normal-weight-children
#19
Jeanett F Rohde, Sofus C Larsen, Lars Ängquist, Nanna J Olsen, Maria Stougaard, Erik L Mortensen, Berit L Heitmann
OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to evaluate the impact of a 15-month intervention on dietary intake conducted among obesity-prone normal-weight pre-school children. DESIGN: Information on dietary intake was obtained using a 4 d diet record. A diet quality index was adapted to assess how well children's diet complied with the Danish national guidelines. Linear regression per protocol and intention-to-treat analyses of differences in intakes of energy, macronutrients, fruit, vegetables, fish, sugar-sweetened beverages and diet quality index between the two groups were conducted...
September 7, 2017: Public Health Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877946/cohort-profile-maternal-lifestyle-and-diet-in-relation-to-pregnancy-postpartum-and-infant-health-outcomes-in-vietnam-a-multicentre-prospective-cohort-study
#20
Cong Luat Nguyen, Phung Thi Hoang Nguyen, Tan Khac Chu, Anh Vo Van Ha, Ngoc Minh Pham, Dat Van Duong, Dung Van Do, Hong Kim Tang, Colin W Binns, Andy H Lee
PURPOSE: To determine modifiable maternal risk factors for adverse pregnancy, postpartum maternal and child health outcomes in Vietnam. PARTICIPANTS: This prospective cohort study included pregnant women seeking prenatal care at six hospitals in three large cities in Vietnam. After enrolment, eligible participants who gave their consent to participate in the study were interviewed at 24-28 weeks' gestation. Glucose testing was conducted and blood pressure was measured during this period...
September 5, 2017: BMJ Open
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