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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802911/childhood-maltreatment-and-high-dietary-fat-intake-behaviors-in-adulthood-a-birth-cohort-study
#1
Amanuel Alemu Abajobir, Steve Kisely, Gail Williams, Lane Strathearn, Jake Moses Najman
Childhood maltreatment has been associated with a wide range of chronic medical conditions including obesity, other metabolic events and eating disorders. However, little is known about the association between childhood maltreatment and high dietary fat intake. This study addresses the extent to which co-occurring and specific forms of substantiated childhood maltreatment are associated with self-reported high dietary fat intake in adulthood and whether there is a gender-childhood maltreatment interaction in predicting this association...
August 10, 2017: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802822/stillbirth-prevalence-in-brazil-an-exploration-of-regional-differences
#2
Taiana Silva Carvalho, Pat Doyle, Lucia Campos Pellanda
INTRODUCTION: Brazil is a large, heterogeneous, and diverse country, marked by social, economic, and regional inequalities. Stillbirth is a global concern, especially in low- and middle-income countries. This study investigated the prevalence and possible determinants of stillbirth in different regions of Brazil. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study including all women of reproductive age who had had a pregnancy in the last five years, enrolled in the most recent Brazilian Demographic and Health Survey (DHS/PNDS-2006/07)...
August 9, 2017: Jornal de Pediatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795415/joint-bayesian-weight-and-height-postnatal-growth-model-to-study-the-effects-of-maternal-smoking-during-pregnancy
#3
Sophie Carles, Marie-Aline Charles, Barbara Heude, Ismaïl Ahmed, Jérémie Botton
Growth models used for describing the dynamics of body weight and height generally consider each trait independently. We proposed modeling height and weight trajectories jointly with a nonlinear heteroscedastic mixed model based on the Jenss-Bayley growth function with correlated individual random effects and using Bayesian inference techniques. Simulations showed that our model provides good estimates of the growth parameters. We illustrated how it can be used to assess the associations between maternal smoking during pregnancy, an early-life factor potentially involved in prenatal programming of obesity, and children's growth from birth to 5 years of age...
August 10, 2017: Statistics in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794439/maternal-low-intensity-physical-exercise-prevents-obesity-in-offspring-rats-exposed-to-early-overnutrition
#4
Tatiane Aparecida Ribeiro, Laize Peron Tófolo, Isabela Peixoto Martins, Audrei Pavanello, Júlio Cezar de Oliveira, Kelly Valério Prates, Rosiane Aparecida Miranda, Claudinéia Conationi da Silva Franco, Rodrigo Mello Gomes, Flávio Andrade Francisco, Vander Silva Alves, Douglas Lopes de Almeida, Veridiana Mota Moreira, Kesia Palma-Rigo, Elaine Vieira, Gabriel Sergio Fabricio, Marcos Ricardo da Silva Rodrigues, Wilson Rinaldi, Ananda Malta, Paulo Cezar de Freitas Mathias
Low intensity exercise during pregnancy and lactation may create a protective effect against the development of obesity in offspring exposed to overnutrition in early life. To test these hypotheses, pregnant rats were randomly assigned into 2 groups: Sedentary and Exercised, low intensity, on a rodent treadmill at 30% VO2Max /30-minute/session/3x/week throughout pregnancy and the lactation. Male offspring were raised in small litters (SL, 3 pups/dam) and normal litters (NL, 9 pups/dam) as models of early overnutrition and normal feed, respectively...
August 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793129/clinical-characteristics-of-women-with-gestational-diabetes-comparison-of-two-cohorts-enrolled-20-years-apart-in-southern-brazil
#5
Angela Jacob Reichelt, Letícia Schwerz Weinert, Livia Silveira Mastella, Vanessa Gnielka, Maria Amélia Campos, Vânia Naomi Hirakata, Maria Lúcia Rocha Oppermann, Sandra Pinho Silveiro, Maria Inês Schmidt
CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: The prevalence and characteristics of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) have changed over time, reflecting the nutritional transition and changes in diagnostic criteria. We aimed to evaluate characteristics of women with GDM over a 20-year interval. DESIGN AND SETTING: Comparison of two pregnancy cohorts enrolled in different periods, in university hospitals in Porto Alegre, Brazil: 1991 to 1993 (n = 216); and 2009 to 2013 (n = 375). METHODS: We applied two diagnostic criteria to the cohorts: International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups (IADPSG)/World Health Organization (WHO); and National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE)...
August 7, 2017: São Paulo Medical Journal, Revista Paulista de Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789672/challenges-in-the-diagnosis-and-management-of-anti-phospholipid-syndrome-a-case-from-cameroon
#6
Ahmadou M Jingi, Liliane Mfeukeu-Kuate, Aurel T Tankeu, Narcisse Assene Ateba, Edvine Wawo Yonta, Jean Jacques Noubiap
BACKGROUND: Anti-phospholipid syndrome (APLS) is a condition characterized by the presence of raised plasma levels of anti-phospholipid antibodies associated with thrombo-embolic disease and/or poor obstetrical outcomes in women. The epidemiology of APLS is unknown in most sub-Saharan African countries due to limited access to diagnosis tools. We report the case of APLS in a 29-year-old obese woman that was preceded by pre-eclampsia and fetal death. The diagnosis of APLS was made during a thrombo-embolic episode 4 years after the poor obstetrical outcome...
August 8, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783527/circulating-early-and-mid-pregnancy-micrornas-and-risk-of-gestational-diabetes
#7
Pandora L Wander, Edward J Boyko, Karin Hevner, Viraj J Parikh, Mahlet G Tadesse, Tanya K Sorensen, Michelle A Williams, Daniel A Enquobahrie
AIMS: Epigenetic regulators, including microRNAs (miRNAs), are implicated in type 2 diabetes, but evidence linking circulating miRNAs in pregnancy and risk of gestational diabetes (GDM) is sparse. Potential modifiers, including pre-pregnancy overweight/obesity and offspring sex, are unexamined. We hypothesized that circulating levels of early-mid-pregnancy (range 7-23weeks of gestation) candidate miRNAs are related to subsequent development of GDM. We also hypothesized that miRNA-GDM associations might vary by pre-pregnancy body-mass index (ppBMI) or offspring sex...
July 25, 2017: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782412/gestational-weight-gain-in-obese-pregnancy-impact-on-maternal-and-foetal-metabolic-parameters-and-birthweight
#8
Karen L Lindsay, Lorraine Brennan, Ann Rath, Orla C Maguire, Thomas Smith, Fionnuala M McAuliffe
The aim of this prospective, observational study was to investigate the impact of gestational weight gain (GWG) among euglycaemic obese pregnant women on maternal and foetal metabolic parameters and neonatal outcome. Total GWG was recorded for 101 obese, non-diabetic women with a singleton pregnancy. At 28 weeks of gestation, fasting maternal blood samples were analysed for glucose, insulin, c-peptide and lipids. Cord bloods were collected at delivery for analysis of glucose, c-peptide and lipids. GWG (mean ± SD =10...
August 6, 2017: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology: the Journal of the Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782224/prokineticin-1-is-up-regulated-by-insulin-in-decidualizing-human-endometrial-stromal-cells
#9
Dorina Ujvari, Ivika Jakson, Cecilia Oldmark, Sanaz Attarha, Twana Alkasalias, Daniel Salamon, Sebastian Gidlöf, Angelica Lindén Hirschberg
Prokineticin 1 (PROK1), a hypoxia-regulated angiogenic factor, has emerged as a crucial regulator of embryo implantation and placentation. Dysregulation of PROK1 has been linked to recurrent pregnancy loss, pre-eclampsia, foetal growth restriction and preterm birth. These pregnancy complications are common in women with obesity and polycystic ovary syndrome, i.e. conditions associated with insulin resistance and compensatory hyperinsulinaemia. We investigated the effect of insulin on PROK1 expression during in vitro decidualization...
August 7, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780990/folate-and-vitamin-b12-status-is-associated-with-insulin-resistance-and-metabolic-syndrome-in-morbid-obesity
#10
Zhen Li, Rosa-Maria Gueant-Rodriguez, Didier Quilliot, Marie-Aude Sirveaux, David Meyre, Jean-Louis Gueant, Laurent Brunaud
BACKGROUND: Low vitamin B12 and high folate during pregnancy are associated with visceral obesity and insulin resistance in offspring. In the general population, high folate exacerbates the increase of methylmalonic acid, a marker of vitamin B12 deficiency. However, the influence of vitamin B12 and folate and their related markers on insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome remains unknown in severe obesity. AIM: To evaluate the influence of vitamin B12 and folate on HOMA-IR and components of metabolic syndrome in severe obesity...
July 24, 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780659/preconception-counseling-for-women-with-cardiac-disease
#11
REVIEW
Mark A Clapp, Sarah N Bernstein
All providers who care for reproductive-aged women with cardiac disease should assess these patients' desires and plans for pregnancy at every encounter. For those considering pregnancy, preconception counseling, often performed by a maternal-fetal medicine specialist, can help patients understand the potential implications of pregnancy on their health and estimate the risks of an adverse cardiac event prior to conceiving. There are cardiac conditions, such as pulmonary hypertension and aortic stenosis, in which pregnancy may be contraindicated given the high morbidity and mortality; there are tools available to help quantify a patient's risk...
September 2017: Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780627/primary-pediatric-hypertension-current-understanding-and-emerging-concepts
#12
REVIEW
Andrew C Tiu, Michael D Bishop, Laureano D Asico, Pedro A Jose, Van Anthony M Villar
The rising prevalence of primary pediatric hypertension and its tracking into adult hypertension point to the importance of determining its pathogenesis to gain insights into its current and emerging management. Considering that the intricate control of BP is governed by a myriad of anatomical, molecular biological, biochemical, and physiological systems, multiple genes are likely to influence an individual's BP and susceptibility to develop hypertension. The long-term regulation of BP rests on renal and non-renal mechanisms...
September 2017: Current Hypertension Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28775375/the-relationship-between-maternal-25-hydroxyvitamin-d-status-in-pregnancy-and-childhood-adiposity-and-allergy-an-observational-study
#13
V T Boyle, E B Thorstensen, J M D Thompson, L M E McCowan, E A Mitchell, K M Godfrey, L Poston, C R Wall, R Murphy, W Cutfield, T Kenealy, L C Kenny, P N Baker
BACKGROUND: Vitamin D insufficiency (defined as <75 nmol/l) is widespread amongst pregnant women around the world and has been proposed to influence offspring outcomes in childhood and into adult life, including adiposity and allergy. Disorders including asthma and eczema are on the rise amongst children. Our aim was to investigate the relationship between maternal 25-hydroxyvitamin D status in pregnancy and offspring adiposity, asthma and eczema in childhood. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Maternal 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations were analysed in serum samples collected at 15 weeks' gestation from 1710 participants of the prospective Screening for Pregnancy Endpoints (SCOPE) cohort study...
August 4, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771488/maternal-obesity-programs-reduced-leptin-signaling-in-the-pituitary-and-altered-gh-igf1-axis-function-leading-to-increased-adiposity-in-adult-sheep-offspring
#14
Nuermaimaiti Tuersunjiang, John F Odhiambo, Desiree R Shasa, Ashley M Smith, Peter W Nathanielsz, Stephen P Ford
Studies in rodents highlight a role for leptin in stimulation of pituitary growth hormone (GH) secretion, with an impact on body composition regulation. We have reported that maternal obesity (MO) during ovine pregnancy results in hyperphagia, glucose-insulin dysregulation, increased adiposity, hypercortisolemia and hyperleptinemia in mature offspring subjected to a bout of ad libitum feeding. We hypothesized that MO reduces leptin signaling in the pituitary and down regulates the GH/IGF1 axis and increases circulating cortisol leading to increased adiposity in their adult offspring...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770376/prenatal-exposure-to-lipopolysaccharide-induces-ptx3-expression-and-results-in-obesity-in-mouse-offspring
#15
Shugang Qin, Xin Chen, Meng Gao, Jianzhi Zhou, Xiaohui Li
This study tested the hypothesis whether inflammation will directly lead to obesity. This study was designed to investigate the relationship between inflammation and obesity by intraperitoneally injecting pregnant mice with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (75 μg kg(-1)). The results showed that inflammation during pregnancy could lead to a significant increase in the levels of the inflammatory factor PTX3. The offspring of the LPS-treated mice displayed abnormal levels of fat development, blood lipids, and glucose metabolism, and fat differentiation markers were significantly increased...
August 2, 2017: Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768569/tissue-cell-stress-response-to-obesity-and-its-interaction-with-late-gestation-diet
#16
Vivek Saroha, Neele S Dellschaft, Duane H Keisler, David S Gardner, Helen Budge, Sylvain P Sebert, Michael E Symonds
Intrauterine growth restriction in late pregnancy can contribute to adverse long-term metabolic health in the offspring. In the present study we used an animal (sheep) model of maternal dietary manipulation in late pregnancy, combined with exposure of the offspring to a low-activity, obesogenic environment after weaning, to characterise the effects on glucose homeostasis. Dizygotic twin-pregnant sheep were either fed to 60% of requirements (nutrient restriction (R)) or fed ad libitum (~140% of requirements (A)) from 110 days gestation until term (~147 days)...
August 3, 2017: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767281/the-impact-of-prenatal-yoga-on-exercise-attitudes-and-behavior-teachable-moments-from-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#17
Shilpa Babbar, Blake W Porter, Karen B Williams
OBJECTIVE: Pregnancy serves as an opportune time for "teachable moments" to elicit positive behavior change. We evaluated change in exercise perception, behavior and gestational weight gain in participants engaged in a one-hour educational experience. METHODS: Women between 28 0/7 to 36 6/7 weeks with no prior yoga experience carrying a non-anomalous singleton fetus participated in a randomized controlled trial on prenatal yoga. The yoga group engaged in a one-hour yoga class; the attention control educational group, in a one-hour presentation on exercise, nutrition and obesity in pregnancy...
August 2, 2017: International Journal of Yoga Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767144/differences-in-body-mass-index-between-siblings-who-are-discordant-for-exposure-to-antenatal-maternal-smoking
#18
Lorna Aucott, Sohinee Bhattacharya, Geraldine McNeill, Steve Turner
BACKGROUND: Maternal smoking during pregnancy is associated with increased childhood body mass index (BMI), but the relationship may be due to confounding by maternal factors. This study tested the hypothesis that siblings born to mothers who begin to smoke between pregnancies will have higher BMI than older unexposed siblings. METHODS: Maternal details from the Aberdeen Maternity and Neonatal Databank were linked to the Study of Trends in Obesity in North East Scotland which holds offspring BMI at 5 years of age...
August 2, 2017: Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766922/maternal-pre-pregnancy-obesity-and-the-risk-of-shoulder-dystocia-a-meta-analysis
#19
C Zhang, Y Wu, S Li, D Zhang
BACKGROUND: Results from epidemiological studies about the association between maternal pre-pregnancy obesity and the risk of shoulder dystocia are inconsistent. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of maternal pre-pregnancy obesity on the risk of shoulder dystocia. SEARCH STRATEGY: We searched PubMed and Web of Science database for all relevant studies up to 5 August 2016 and reviewed the reference lists of identified articles. SELECTION CRITERIA: Observational studies that investigated the association between pre-pregnancy obesity and the risk of shoulder dystocia were included...
August 2, 2017: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766127/metabolic-profiling-of-gestational-diabetes-in-obese-women-during-pregnancy
#20
Sara L White, Dharmintra Pasupathy, Naveed Sattar, Scott M Nelson, Debbie A Lawlor, Annette L Briley, Paul T Seed, Paul Welsh, Lucilla Poston
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Antenatal obesity and associated gestational diabetes (GDM) are increasing worldwide. While pre-existing insulin resistance is implicated in GDM in obese women, the responsible metabolic pathways remain poorly described. Our aim was to compare metabolic profiles in blood of obese pregnant women with and without GDM 10 weeks prior to and at the time of diagnosis by OGTT. METHODS: We investigated 646 women, of whom 198 developed GDM, in this prospective cohort study, a secondary analysis of UK Pregnancies Better Eating and Activity Trial (UPBEAT), a multicentre randomised controlled trial of a complex lifestyle intervention in obese pregnant women...
August 1, 2017: Diabetologia
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