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Richard A Young

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470457/hiv-diagnoses-among-persons-aged-13-29-years-united-states-2010-2014
#1
M Cheryl Bañez Ocfemia, Richard Dunville, Tianchi Zhang, Lisa C Barrios, Alexandra M Oster
In 2014, persons aged 13-29 years represented 23% of the U.S. population, yet accounted for 40% of diagnoses of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection during the same year (1). During 2010-2014, the rates of diagnosis of HIV infection decreased among persons aged 15-19 years, were stable among persons aged 20-24 years, and increased among persons aged 25-29 years (1). However, these 5-year age groups encompass multiple developmental stages and potentially mask trends associated with the rapid psychosocial changes during adolescence through young adulthood...
February 23, 2018: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470414/the-sitting-height-index-of-build-body-mass-sitting-height-%C3%A2-as-an-improvement-on-the-body-mass-index-for-children-adolescents-and-young-adults
#2
Richard Burton
The body mass index (BMI) is unsatisfactory in being affected by both relative leg length and height, and, for use with children and adolescents, therefore needs to be interpreted in relation to age. The sitting-height index of build (body mass)/(sitting height)³, is largely free of these disadvantages. Furthermore, because that index is independent of relative leg length, the latter can be treated as a separate indicator of nutritional history and health risks. Past studies on white children and adults have shown body mass to be approximately proportional to (sitting height)³...
February 22, 2018: Children
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470137/open-access-is-there-a-predator-at-the-door
#3
Rakesh Chandra, Edward W Fisher, Terry M Jones, David W Kennedy, Dennis H Kraus, John H Krouse, Michael Link, Lawrence R Lustig, Bert W O'Malley, Jay F Piccirillo, Robert Ruben, Robert T Sataloff, Raj Sindwani, Richard J Smith, Michael G Stewart, Peter C Weber, D Bradley Welling, Robin Youngs
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 1, 2018: Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468674/mental-health-of-long-term-survivors-of-childhood-and-young-adult-cancer-a-systematic-review
#4
REVIEW
Amanda J Friend, Richard G Feltbower, Emily J Hughes, Kristian P Dye, Adam W Glaser
Childhood cancer is increasing in prevalence whilst survival rates are improving. The prevalence of adult survivors of childhood cancer is consequently increasing. Many survivors suffer long-term consequences of their cancer treatment. Whilst many of these are well documented, relatively little is known about the mental health of survivors of childhood cancer. This article aimed to describe the prevalence and spectrum of mental health problems found in adult survivors of childhood cancer using a systematic review methodology...
February 22, 2018: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467168/whole-genome-analysis-illustrates-global-clonal-population-structure-of-the-ubiquitous-dermatophyte-pathogen-trichophyton-rubrum
#5
Gabriela F Persinoti, Diego A Martinez, Wenjun Li, Aylin Döğen, R Blake Billmyre, Anna Averette, Jonathan M Goldberg, Terrance Shea, Sarah Young, Qiandong Zeng, Brian G Oliver, Richard Barton, Banu Metin, Süleyha Hilmioğlu-Polat, Macit Ilkit, Yvonne Gräser, Nilce M Martinez-Rossi, Theodore C White, Joseph Heitman, Christina A Cuomo
Dermatophytes include fungal species that infect humans, as well as those which also infect other animals or only grow in the environment. The dermatophyte species Trichophyton rubrum is a frequent cause of skin infection in immunocompetent individuals. While members of the T. rubrum species complex have been further categorized based on various morphologies, the population structure and ability to undergo sexual reproduction are not well understood. In this study, we analyze a large set of T. rubrum and Trichophyton interdigitale isolates to examine mating types, evidence of mating, and genetic variation...
February 21, 2018: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467048/pregnancy-associated-spontaneous-coronary-artery-dissection-pascad-an-etiology-for-chest-pain-in-the-young-peripartum-patient
#6
Richard Lee, David Carr
Cardiac emergencies in pregnancy and the postpartum period are rare but often life-threatening. An emergency physician's differential diagnosis for chest pain in the peripartum patient often includes serious etiologies such as pulmonary embolism or myocardial infarction (MI). A lesser-known but important consideration on the differential for MI is that of a spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD). SCAD is defined as an intramural hematoma within the coronary artery that compresses the true lumen. Expansion by increased pressures may lead to subsequent myocardial ischemia and infarction...
February 22, 2018: CJEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29465695/extragenital-chlamydia-and-gonorrhea-in-young-black-men-who-have-sex-with-men-missed-treatment-opportunities-for-hiv-infected-msm
#7
Leandro Mena, Richard A Crosby, Nicholas Chamberlain
OBJECTIVES: This study of young Black MSM (YBMSM) assessed the prevalence of extra-genital chlamydia and gonorrhea among those testing negative for urethral infections, and compared prevalence of both by HIV status. METHODS: A convenience sample of 609 YBMSM was recruited for a cross-sectional study from two sexual health clinics located in Jackson, MS. To detect C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae, NAAT was performed on urine, rectal swabs, and oral swabs. OraSure was used to detect HIV...
October 19, 2017: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463853/spina-bifida-predisposing-heterozygous-mutations-in-planar-cell-polarity-genes-and-zic2-reduce-bone-mass-in-young-mice
#8
Isabel R Orriss, Stuart Lanham, Dawn Savery, Nicholas D E Greene, Philip Stanier, Richard Oreffo, Andrew J Copp, Gabriel L Galea
Fractures are a common comorbidity in children with the neural tube defect (NTD) spina bifida. Mutations in the Wnt/planar cell polarity (PCP) pathway contribute to NTDs in humans and mice, but whether this pathway independently determines bone mass is poorly understood. Here, we first confirmed that core Wnt/PCP components are expressed in osteoblasts and osteoclasts in vitro. In vivo, we performed detailed µCT comparisons of bone structure in tibiae from young male mice heterozygous for NTD-associated mutations versus WT littermates...
February 20, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463776/abl-and-arg-mediate-cysteine-cathepsin-secretion-to-facilitate-melanoma-invasion-and-metastasis
#9
Rakshamani Tripathi, Leann S Fiore, Dana L Richards, Yuchen Yang, Jinpeng Liu, Chi Wang, Rina Plattner
The incidence of melanoma is increasing, particularly in young women, and the disease remains incurable for many because of its aggressive, metastatic nature and its high rate of resistance to conventional, targeted, and immunological agents. Cathepsins are proteases that are critical for melanoma progression and therapeutic resistance. Intracellular cathepsins cleave or degrade proteins that restrict cancer progression, whereas extracellular cathepsins directly cleave the extracellular matrix and activate proinvasive proteases in the tumor microenvironment...
February 20, 2018: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462899/-i-wouldn-t-be-friends-with-someone-if-they-were-liking-too-much-rubbish-a-qualitative-study-of-alcohol-brands-youth-identity-and-social-media
#10
Richard I Purves, Martine Stead, Douglas Eadie
The consumption of alcohol by young people remains a major public health concern at both the national and international level. Levels of drinking among 15-yearolds in the United Kingdom (UK) remain significantly higher than the European average. This study explored how alcohol brands are used by young people to develop their desired identities and how these acts of consumption extend to young people's profiles on social media. It also deepens understanding of how alcohol brands are connected to young peoples' concerns about image and peer group dynamics...
February 16, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462101/predicting-diaphyseal-cortical-bone-status-using-measures-of-muscle-force-capacity
#11
Simon Higgins, Chester M Sokolowski, Megha Vishwanathan, Jessica G Anderson, Michael D Schmidt, Richard D Lewis, Ellen M Evans
PURPOSE: Muscle cross sectional area (MCSA) is often used as a surrogate for the forces applied to bones during physical activity. Though MCSA is a strong predictor of cortical bone status, its use makes assumptions about the relationship between muscle size and force that are inaccurate. Furthermore, to measure MCSA and other muscle force surrogates typically requires expensive and/or radiative laboratory equipment. Thus, this study aimed to determine whether clinical lab- and field-based methodologies for measuring muscular force capacity accounted for similar variance in diaphyseal cortical bone status as a commonly used muscular force surrogate; MCSA, at the mid-tibia in young men and women...
February 16, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29461884/cournand-s-and-richards-post-nobel-challenge-do-anything-on-the-structure-of-the-lung-that-is-of-interest-for-physiology
#12
Ewald R Weibel
In their Nobel Lectures of 1956, the two cardiopulmonary physiologists André Cournand and Dickinson Richards described the future projects that they considered important for rounding up their impressive scientific achievements. One of them called for work that brought together structure and function of the lung in a systematic way. They challenged a young anatomist to undertake this in their cardiopulmonary laboratory at Bellevue Hospital. The first steps established the need for quantitative information on the structures that form the pulmonary gas exchanger as well as the airway tree...
February 2018: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29459468/genetics-lifestyle-and-low-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol-in-young-and-apparently-healthy-women
#13
Jan-Willem Balder, Antoine Rimbert, Xiang Zhang, Martijn Viel, Roan Kanninga, Freerk van Dijk, Peter Lansberg, Richard Sinke, Jan Albert Kuivenhoven
BACKGROUND: Atherosclerosis starts in childhood but low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), a causal risk factor, is mostly studied and dealt with when clinical events have occurred. Women are usually affected later in life than men and are underdiagnosed, undertreated, and understudied in cardiovascular trials and research. This study aims at a better understanding of lifestyle and genetic factors that affect LDL-C in young women. METHODS: We randomly selected for every year of age 8 women with LDL-C ≤1st percentile (≤50 mg/dL) and 8 women with LDL-C ≥99th percentile (≥186 mg/dL) from 28 000 female participants aged between 25 to 40 years of a population-based cohort study...
February 20, 2018: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458318/protocol-summary-and-statistical-analysis-plan-for-the-intensive-care-unit-randomised-trial-comparing-two-approaches-to-oxygen-therapy-icu-rox
#14
Diane M Mackle, Michael J Bailey, Richard W Beasley, Rinaldo Bellomo, Victoria L Bennett, Adam M Deane, Glenn M Eastwood, Simon Finfer, Ross C Freebairn, Edward Litton, Natalie J Linke, Colin J McArthur, Shay P McGuinness, Rakshit Panwar, Paul J Young
BACKGROUND: The balance of risks and benefits of conservative v standard care oxygen strategies for patients who are invasively ventilated in the intensive care unit (ICU) is uncertain. OBJECTIVE: To describe the study protocol and statistical analysis plan for the ICU randomised trial comparing two approaches to oxygen therapy (ICU-ROX). DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Protocol for a multicentre, randomised, participant and outcome assessor-blinded, standard care-controlled, parallel-group, two-sided superiority trial to be conducted in up to 22 ICUs in Australia and New Zealand...
March 2018: Critical Care and Resuscitation: Journal of the Australasian Academy of Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456084/rescue-of-fragile-x-syndrome-neurons-by-dna-methylation-editing-of-the-fmr1-gene
#15
X Shawn Liu, Hao Wu, Marine Krzisch, Xuebing Wu, John Graef, Julien Muffat, Denes Hnisz, Charles H Li, Bingbing Yuan, Chuanyun Xu, Yun Li, Dan Vershkov, Angela Cacace, Richard A Young, Rudolf Jaenisch
Fragile X syndrome (FXS), the most common genetic form of intellectual disability in males, is caused by silencing of the FMR1 gene associated with hypermethylation of the CGG expansion mutation in the 5' UTR of FMR1 in FXS patients. Here, we applied recently developed DNA methylation editing tools to reverse this hypermethylation event. Targeted demethylation of the CGG expansion by dCas9-Tet1/single guide RNA (sgRNA) switched the heterochromatin status of the upstream FMR1 promoter to an active chromatin state, restoring a persistent expression of FMR1 in FXS iPSCs...
February 8, 2018: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454263/homeless-youth-barriers-and-facilitators-for-service-referrals
#16
Emma B Black, Izabela E Fedyszyn, Helen Mildred, Rhianna Perkin, Richard Lough, Peter Brann, Cheryl Ritter
Young people who are homeless and experiencing mental health issues are reluctant to use relevant services for numerous reasons. Youth are also at risk of disengaging from services at times of referral to additional or alternative services. This study aimed to identify barriers and facilitators for inter-service referrals for homeless youth with mental health issues who have already engaged with a service. Qualitative, semi-structured interviews were conducted with homeless youth (n = 10), homelessness support workers (n = 10), and mental health clinicians (n = 10)...
February 10, 2018: Evaluation and Program Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451923/to-what-extent-do-potential-conservation-donors-value-community-aspects-of-conservation-projects-in-low-income-countries
#17
Amy R Lewis, Richard P Young, James M Gibbons, Julia P G Jones
There is a major gap in funding required for conservation, especially in low income countries. Given the significant contribution of taxpayers in industrialized countries to funding conservation overseas, and donations from membership organisation, understanding the preferences of ordinary people in a high income country for different attributes of conservation projects is valuable for future marketing of conservation. We conducted a discrete choice experiment with visitors to a UK zoo, while simultaneously conducting a revealed preference study through a real donation campaign on the same sample...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450479/open-access-is-there-a-predator-at-the-door
#18
Jay F Piccirillo, Rakesh Chandra, Edward W Fisher, Terry M Jones, David W Kennedy, Dennis H Kraus, John H Krouse, Michael Link, Lawrence R Lustig, Bert W O'Malley, Robert Ruben, Robert T Sataloff, Raj Sindwani, Richard J Smith, Michael G Stewart, Peter C Weber, D Bradley Welling, Robin Youngs, M B Bs
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 15, 2018: JAMA Otolaryngology—Head & Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449178/comment-on-a-pilot-study-of-primary-care-physicians-attitude-to-weight-loss-surgery-in-england-are-the-young-more-prejudiced
#19
EDITORIAL
Richard M Peterson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 31, 2018: Surgery for Obesity and related Diseases: Official Journal of the American Society for Bariatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446087/open-access-is-there-a-predator-at-the-door
#20
EDITORIAL
Rakesh Chandra, Edward W Fisher, Terry M Jones, David W Kennedy, Dennis H Kraus, John H Krouse, Michael Link, Lawrence R Lustig, Bert W O'Malley, Jay F Piccirillo, Robert Ruben, Robert T Sataloff, Raj Sindwani, Richard J Smith, Michael G Stewart, Peter C Weber, D Bradley Welling, Robin Youngs
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 15, 2018: Laryngoscope
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