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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637315/attenuated-effects-of-bile-acids-on-glucose-metabolism-and-insulin-sensitivity-in-a-male-mouse-model-of-prenatal-undernutrition
#1
Huijuan Ma, Vicencia M Sales, Ashley R Wolf, Sathish Subramanian, Tucker J Matthews, Michael Chen, Aparna Sharma, Walt Gall, Wim Kulik, David E Cohen, Yusuke Adachi, Nicholas W Griffin, Jeffrey I Gordon, Mary-Elizabeth Patti, Elvira Isganaitis
Prenatal undernutrition and low birth weight are associated with risk of type 2 diabetes and obesity. Prenatal caloric restriction results in low birth weight, glucose intolerance, obesity, and reduced plasma bile acids (BA) in offspring mice. Since BAs can regulate systemic metabolism and glucose homeostasis, we hypothesized that BA supplementation could prevent diet-induced obesity and glucose intolerance in this model of developmental programming. Pregnant dams were food restricted by 50% from gestational days 12...
June 15, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637261/further-simulations-and-analyses-demonstrate-open-problems-of-phylostratigraphy
#2
Bryan A Moyers, Jianzhi Zhang
Phylostratigraphy, originally designed for gene age estimation by BLAST-based protein homology searches of sequenced genomes, has been widely used for studying patterns and inferring mechanisms of gene origination and evolution. We previously showed by computer simulation that phylostratigraphy underestimates gene age for a non-negligible fraction of genes and that the underestimation is severer for genes with certain properties such as fast evolution and short protein sequences. Consequently, many previously reported age distributions of gene properties may have been methodological artifacts rather than biological realities...
June 14, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637056/-urosepsis-in-children
#3
Josef Oswald
Urinary tract infections (UTI) are the most common infectious diseases in children. Urosepsis in childhood, though rare, is the most complicated possible variant. In newborns and infants, unspecific symptoms are a significant barrier to a fast and reliable diagnosis, which is crucial to successful treatment. In addition to urine and laboratory tests as well as non-invasive examinations (ultrasound), there may be an indication for invasive examinations of the kidneys (DMSA scans) in cases of a severe infection...
June 21, 2017: Aktuelle Urologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636906/flexible-fitting-of-atomic-models-into-cryo-em-density-maps-guided-by-helix-correspondences
#4
Hang Dou, Derek W Burrows, Matthew L Baker, Tao Ju
Although electron cryo-microscopy (cryo-EM) has recently achieved resolutions of better than 3 Å, at which point molecular modeling can be done directly from the density map, analysis and annotation of a cryo-EM density map still primarily rely on fitting atomic or homology models to the density map. In this article, we present, to our knowledge, a new method for flexible fitting of known or modeled protein structures into cryo-EM density maps. Unlike existing methods that are guided by local density gradients, our method is guided by correspondences between the α-helices in the density map and model, and does not require an initial rigid-body fitting step...
June 20, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636875/effects-of-prenatal-binge-like-ethanol-exposure-and-maternal-stress-on-postnatal-morphological-development-of-hippocampal-neurons-in-rats
#5
Ewa Jakubowska-Dogru, Birsen Elibol, Ilknur Dursun, Sinan Yürüker
BACKGROUND: Alcohol is one of the most commonly used drugs of abuse negatively affecting human health and it is known as a potent teratogen responsible for fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), which is characterized by cognitive deficits especially pronounced in juveniles but ameliorating in adults. Searching for the potential morphological correlates of these effects, in this study, we compared the course of developmental changes in the morphology of principal hippocampal neurons in fetal-alcohol (A group), intubated control (IC group), and intact control male rats (C group) over a protracted period of the first two postnatal months...
June 18, 2017: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636684/balanced-work-function-as-a-driver-for-facile-hydrogen-evolution-reaction-comprehension-and-experimental-assessment-of-interfacial-catalytic-descriptor
#6
Aleksandar R Zeradjanin, Ashokanand Vimalanandan, George Polymeros, Angel A Topalov, Karl J J Mayrhofer, Michael Rohwerder
A major step in the development of (electro)catalysis would be the possibility to estimate accurately the energetics of adsorption processes related to reaction intermediates. Computational chemistry (e.g. using DFT) developed significantly in that direction and allowed the fast prediction of (electro)catalytic activity trends and improved the general understanding of adsorption at electrochemical interfaces. However, building a reliable and comprehensive picture of electrocatalytic reactions undoubtedly requires experimental assessment of adsorption energies...
June 21, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636617/backup-development-and-evaluation-of-a-smart-phone-application-for-coping-with-suicidal-crises
#7
Kirsten Pauwels, Saskia Aerts, Ekke Muijzers, Eva De Jaegere, Kees van Heeringen, Gwendolyn Portzky
BACKGROUND: Suicide is a major public health issue and has large impact on the lives of many people. Innovative technologies such as smartphones could create new possibilities for suicide prevention, such as helping to overcome the barriers and stigma on help seeking in case of suicidal ideation. Due to their omnipresence, smartphone apps can offer suicide prevention tools very fast, they are easily-accessible, low-threshold and can help overcome some of the help-seeking barriers suicidal people experience...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636576/vitamin-d-levels-and-vitamin-d-receptor-gene-polymorphism-in-major-depression
#8
Merve Şahin Can, Hayriye Baykan, Özgür Baykan, Nevin Erensoy, Tunay Karlıdere
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study is to evaluate vitamin D levels and rs2228570 (FokI) polymorphism of vitamin D in patients with established diagnosis of major depressive disorder in order to investigate the impact of vitamin D levels and genetic polymorphisms on etiology and/or severity of the disease. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The study included 86 patients who were diagnosed with major depressive disorder in Hospital of Balıkesir University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry, and 89 healthy volunteers with similar age, sex, education level and BMI...
June 2017: Psychiatria Danubina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636398/ultrafast-carrier-trapping-in-thick-shell-colloidal-quantum-dots
#9
Ankit Jain, Oleksandr Voznyy, Marek Korkusinski, Pawel Hawrylak, Edward H Sargent
It has previously been found that Auger processes can lead to femtosec- ond carrier trapping in quantum dots, limiting their performance in opto- electronic applications that rely on radiative recombination. Here, using atomistic simulations, we investigate whether a shell can protect carriers from Auger-assisted trapping. For these studies we investigate CdSe/CdS core-shell quantum dots having total diameters reaching up to 10 nm. We find trapping lifetimes as fast as 1 ps for 2 nm shells, and we report that shells as thick as 6 nm are required to suppress trapping fully...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636393/lithium-ion-coupled-electron-transfer-rates-in-superconcentrated-electrolytes-exploring-the-bottlenecks-for-fast-charge-transfer-rates-with-limn2o4-cathode-materials
#10
Victoria A Nikitina, Maxim V Zakharkin, Sergey Yu Vassiliev, Lada V Yashina, Evgeny V Antipov, Keith J Stevenson
The charge transfer kinetics of lithium ion intercalation into LixMn2O4 cathode materials was examined in dilute and concentrated aqueous and carbonate LiTFSI solutions using electrochemical methods. Distinctive trends in ion intercalation rates were observed between water-based and ethylene carbonate/diethyl carbonate solutions. The influence of the solution concentration on the rate of lithium ion transfer in aqueous media can be tentatively attributed to the process associated with Mn dissolution, while in carbonate solutions the rate is influenced by the formation of a concentration-dependent solid electrolyte interface (SEI)...
June 21, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636387/novel-kiteplatin-pyrophosphate-derivatives-with-improved-efficacy
#11
Alessandra Curci, Valentina Gandin, Cristina Marzano, James D Hoeschele, Giovanni Natile, Nicola Margiotta
Two new Pt(II) derivatives of kiteplatin ([PtCl2(cis-1,4-DACH)]) with pyrophosphate as carrier ligand, one mononuclear (1) and one dinuclear (2), were synthesized with the aim of potentiating the efficacy of kiteplatin. Complex 1 resulted to be remarkably stable at physiological pH, but it undergoes a fast hydrolysis reaction at acidic pH releasing free pyrophosphate and (aquated) kiteplatin. The dinuclear compound 2 resulted to be less stable than 1 at both neutral and acidic pH forming 1 and (aquated) kiteplatin as first step...
June 21, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636191/-fast-track-development-and-approval-process-for-heart-failure-therapeutics
#12
L Papadimitriou, J Butler
Heart failure (HF) is a global epidemic, with a high mortality and morbidity burden. In such diseases, earlier access to lifesaving therapeutic regimens is imperative, and could be accomplished by improving the drug development and approval process, without jeopardizing patient safety. The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has already established mechanisms facilitating the latter, but further guidance to enhance and expedite the process holds promise to further improve patient outcomes.
June 21, 2017: Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635640/analysis-of-maneuvering-targets-with-complex-motions-by-two-dimensional-product-modified-lv-s-distribution-for-quadratic-frequency-modulation-signals
#13
Fulong Jing, Shuhong Jiao, Changbo Hou, Weijian Si, Yu Wang
For targets with complex motion, such as ships fluctuating with oceanic waves and high maneuvering airplanes, azimuth echo signals can be modeled as multicomponent quadratic frequency modulation (QFM) signals after migration compensation and phase adjustment. For the QFM signal model, the chirp rate (CR) and the quadratic chirp rate (QCR) are two important physical quantities, which need to be estimated. For multicomponent QFM signals, the cross terms create a challenge for detection, which needs to be addressed...
June 21, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635632/glucose-and-lipid-dysmetabolism-in-a-rat-model-of-prediabetes-induced-by-a-high-sucrose-diet
#14
Ana Burgeiro, Manuela G Cerqueira, Bárbara M Varela-Rodríguez, Sara Nunes, Paula Neto, Frederico C Pereira, Flávio Reis, Eugénia Carvalho
Glucotoxicity and lipotoxicity are key features of type 2 diabetes mellitus, but their molecular nature during the early stages of the disease remains to be elucidated. We aimed to characterize glucose and lipid metabolism in insulin-target organs (liver, skeletal muscle, and white adipose tissue) in a rat model treated with a high-sucrose (HSu) diet. Two groups of 16-week-old male Wistar rats underwent a 9-week protocol: HSu diet (n = 10)-received 35% of sucrose in drinking water; Control (n = 12)-received vehicle (water)...
June 21, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635629/light-emitting-marker-for-robust-vision-based-on-the-spot-bacterial-growth-detection
#15
Kyukwang Kim, Jieum Hyun, Jessie S Jeon
Simple methods using the striped pattern paper marker and FFT (fast Fourier transformation) have been proposed as alternatives to measuring the optical density for determining the level of bacterial growth. The marker-based method can be easily automated, but due to image-processing-base of the method, the presence of light or the color of the culture broth can disturb the detection process. This paper proposes a modified version of marker-FFT-based growth detection that uses a light emitting diode (LED) array as a marker...
June 21, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635281/reactions-of-criegee-intermediates-with-alcohols-at-air-aqueous-interfaces
#16
Shinichi Enami, Agustin J Colussi
The fate of Criegee intermediates (CIs) from the gas-phase ozonolysis of unsaturated organic compounds in the troposphere is largely controlled by their reactions with water vapor. We recently found that against all expectations carboxylic acids compete at millimolar concentrations with water for CIs at the air-liquid interface of aqueous organic media. This outcome is consistent with both the low water concentration in the outermost interfacial layers and the enrichment of the competing acids therein. Here we show, via on-line electrospray mass spectrometric detection, that CIs generated in situ in the fast ozonolysis of sesquiterpenes (C15H24) on the surface of water:acetonitrile microjets react with n ≥ 4 linear alcohols CnH2n+1OH to produce high molecular weight Cn+15 ethers in one-step...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634575/association-between-plasmatic-ceramides-profile-and-ast-alt-ratio-c14-0-ceramide-as-predictor-of-hepatic-steatosis-in-adolescents-independently-of-obesity
#17
Jorge Maldonado-Hernández, Gabriela E Saldaña-Dávila, Mónica I Piña-Aguero, Benjamín A Núñez-García, Mardia G López-Alarcón
OBJECTIVE: To assess the association between plasma ceramides and hepatic steatosis (HS) in adolescents, independently of obesity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ninety-four adolescents from two previous studies conducted and published by our crew were included. Study subjects were stratified in three groups: normal weight (n = 18), obesity (n = 34), and obesity + HS (n = 42). The presence of HS was defined when ALT/AST ratio was <1. Ceramides subspecies (C14:0, C16:0, C18:0, C24:0, and C24:1) were determined by LC/MS...
2017: Canadian Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634459/cognitive-correlates-of-different-mentalizing-abilities-in-individuals-with-high-and-low-trait-schizotypy-findings-from-an-extreme-group-design
#18
Krisztina Kocsis-Bogár, Simone Kotulla, Susanne Maier, Martin Voracek, Kristina Hennig-Fast
Mentalizing or Theory of Mind (ToM) deficits in schizophrenia have been studied to great extent, but studies involving samples of trait schizotypy yield ambiguous results. Executive functions like cognitive inhibition, cognitive flexibility, and agency are all prerequisites of mentalizing, and it is assumed that the impairment of these functions contributes to ToM deficits in schizophrenia. Whether these impairments influence the ToM performance of people with high trait schizotypy remains unclear. Although impaired self-agency has repeatedly been identified in people with schizotypy, its role in mentalizing is yet to be investigated...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634378/compact-acceleration-of-energetic-neutral-atoms-using-high-intensity-laser-solid-interaction
#19
Malay Dalui, T Madhu Trivikram, James Colgan, John Pasley, M Krishnamurthy
Recent advances in high-intensity laser-produced plasmas have demonstrated their potential as compact charge particle accelerators. Unlike conventional accelerators, transient quasi-static charge separation acceleration fields in laser produced plasmas are highly localized and orders of magnitude larger. Manipulating these ion accelerators, to convert the fast ions to neutral atoms with little change in momentum, transform these to a bright source of MeV atoms. The emittance of the neutral atom beam would be similar to that expected for an ion beam...
June 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634366/quantifying-non-ergodicity-of-anomalous-diffusion-with-higher-order-moments
#20
Maria Schwarzl, Aljaž Godec, Ralf Metzler
Anomalous diffusion is being discovered in a fast growing number of systems. The exact nature of this anomalous diffusion provides important information on the physical laws governing the studied system. One of the central properties analysed for finite particle motion time series is the intrinsic variability of the apparent diffusivity, typically quantified by the ergodicity breaking parameter EB. Here we demonstrate that frequently EB is insufficient to provide a meaningful measure for the observed variability of the data...
June 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
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