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Definition of brain death

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232618/pediatric-medicolegal-autopsy-in-france-a-forensic-histopathological-approach
#1
Clémence Delteil, Lucile Tuchtan, Julia Torrents, Caroline Capuani, Marie-Dominique Piercecchi-Marti
The aim of postmortem medicolegal examination in pediatric death is primarily to establish the circumstances and causes of death and to exclude child abuse. In France, pediatric death is systematically documented by medicolegal or medical autopsy. In case of medicolegal autopsy, the complementary examinations, requested and financed by justice, are rarely limited to a histopathological examination. However in medical autopsies other tools are available to the pathologist as toxicology, biochemistry and molecular biology...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203753/-definition-and-treatment-of-stroke-over-the-centuries
#2
Anna Starostka-Tatar, Beata Łabuz-Roszak, Michał Skrzypek, Mariusz Gąsior, Marek Gierlotka
Stroke was already diagnosed in the ancient times. For hundreds of years the treatment of this disease has changed radically. According to the current WHO definition, stroke is a clinical syndrome caused by focal or generalized brain injury that lasts more than 24 hours or leads to death and has no other cause than vascular. Stroke constitutes a big social and economic problem, as it can lead to death or disability. In the highly developed countries stroke is the third most common cause of adult deaths, the second leading cause of dementia, and the most common cause of disability...
2017: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173286/an-airway-rapid-response-system-implementation-and-utilization-in-a-large-academic-trauma-center
#3
Joshua H Atkins, Christopher H Rassekh, Ara A Chalian, Jing Zhao
BACKGROUND: Rapid response teams mobilize resources to patients experiencing acute deterioration. Failed airway management results in death or anoxic brain injury. A codified, systems-based approach to bring personnel and equipment to the bedside for multidisciplinary airway assessment and rescue was reflected in the initial implementation of an airway rapid response (ARR) team. METHODS: A retrospective review of records of 117 ARR events in a 40-month period (August 2011-November 2014) was undertaken at the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, a 789-bed, academic, urban, tertiary care, Level 1 trauma center...
December 2017: Joint Commission Journal on Quality and Patient Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149948/knowledge-and-attitudes-toward-organ-donation-in-health-care-undergraduate-students-in-italy
#4
F Fontana, M Massari, L Giovannini, G Alfano, G Cappelli
INTRODUCTION: The number of organ donors in Italy is increasing, but with still disappointing living donation activity and relatively frequent objection by potential deceased donors' relatives to organ recovery. Few studies have assessed health care students' knowledge and attitude on donation. METHODS: We administered a questionnaire to medical (MS) and nursing students (NS) at University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Italy, and 749 students (406 MS and 343 NS) completed the questionnaire...
November 2017: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141794/short-term-outcome-of-adem-results-from-a-retrospective-cohort-study-from-south-india
#5
Mary Iype, P A Mohammed Kunju, Geetha Saradakutty, T S Anish, Mini Sreedharan, Shahanaz M Ahamed
INTRODUCTION: Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM), an immune mediated inflammatory disease is common in children. The profile and immediate outcome of children hospitalized with ADEM is scarce in the available literature. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to study the clinical profile of children with ADEM and to look for prognostic factors for outcome at discharge from hospital METHODS: We chose a retrospective cohort study of all children diagnosed with ADEM at our institution between January 2006 and December 2015, and they were evaluated, after excluding other diagnoses when they were summoned for a follow up visit...
November 2017: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136240/postmortem-autopsy-confirmation-of-antemortem-f-18-fddnp-pet-scans-in-a-football-player-with-chronic-traumatic-encephalopathy
#6
Bennet Omalu, Gary W Small, Julian Bailes, Linda M Ercoli, David A Merrill, Koon-Pong Wong, Sung-Cheng Huang, Nagichettiar Satyamurthy, Jennifer L Hammers, John Lee, Robert P Fitzsimmons, Jorge R Barrio
Currently, only presumptive diagnosis of chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) can be made in living patients. We present a modality that may be instrumental to the definitive diagnosis of CTE in living patients based on brain autopsy confirmation of [F-18]FDDNP-PET findings in an American football player with CTE. [F-18]FDDNP-PET imaging was performed 52 mo before the subject's death. Relative distribution volume parametric images and binding values were determined for cortical and subcortical regions of interest...
November 10, 2017: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104559/optimizing-the-definitions-of-stroke-transient-ischemic-attack-and-infarction-for-research-and-application-in-clinical-practice
#7
Anne L Abbott, Mauro Silvestrini, Raffi Topakian, Jonathan Golledge, Alejandro M Brunser, Gert J de Borst, Robert E Harbaugh, Fergus N Doubal, Tatjana Rundek, Ankur Thapar, Alun H Davies, Anthony Kam, Joanna M Wardlaw
Background and purpose: Until now, stroke and transient ischemic attack (TIA) have been clinically based terms which describe the presence and duration of characteristic neurological deficits attributable to intrinsic disorders of particular arteries supplying the brain, retina, or (sometimes) the spinal cord. Further, infarction has been pathologically defined as death of neural tissue due to reduced blood supply. Recently, it has been proposed we shift to definitions of stroke and TIA determined by neuroimaging results alone and that neuroimaging findings be equated with infarction...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078106/the-first-3-minutes-optimising-a-short-realistic-paediatric-team-resuscitation-training-session
#8
Joanne T McKittrick, Sharon Kinney, Sally Lima, Meredith Allen
Inadequate resuscitation leads to death or brain injury. Recent recommendations for resuscitation team training to complement knowledge and skills training highlighted the need for development of an effective team resuscitation training session. This study aimed to evaluate and revise an interprofessional team training session which addressed roles and performance during provision of paediatric resuscitation, through incorporation of real-time, real team simulated training episodes. This study was conducted applying the principles of action research...
October 18, 2017: Nurse Education in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067599/legislative-enforcement-of-nonconsensual-determination-of-neurological-brain-death-in-muslim-patients-a-violation-of-religious-rights
#9
Mohamed Y Rady, Joseph L Verheijde
Death is defined in the Quran with a single criterion of irreversible separation of the ruh (soul) from the body. The Quran is a revelation from God to man, and the primary source of Islamic knowledge. The secular concept of death by neurological criteria, or brain death, is at odds with the Quranic definition of death. The validity of this secular concept has been contested scientifically and philosophically. To legitimize brain death for the purpose of organ donation and transplantation in Muslim communities, Chamsi-Pasha and Albar (concurring with the US President's Council on Bioethics) have argued that irreversible loss of capacity for consciousness and breathing (apneic coma) in brain death defines true death in accordance with Islamic sources...
October 24, 2017: Journal of Religion and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037851/cobalamin-associated-superoxide-scavenging-in-neuronal-cells-is-a-potential-mechanism-for-vitamin-b12-deprivation-optic-neuropathy
#10
Wesley Chan, Mohammadali Almasieh, Maria-Magdalena Catrinescu, Leonard A Levin
Chronic deficiency of vitamin B12 is the only nutritional deficiency definitively proved to cause optic neuropathy and loss of vision. The mechanism by which this occurs is unknown. Optic neuropathies are associated with death of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), neurons that project their axons along the optic nerve to the brain. Injury to RGC axons causes a burst of intracellular superoxide, which then signals RGC apoptosis. Vitamin B12 (cobalamin) was recently shown to be a superoxide scavenger, with a rate constant similar to superoxide dismutase...
October 14, 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016432/is-systemic-inflammatory-response-syndrome-relevant-to-pulmonary-complications-and-mortality-in-multiply-injured-children
#11
Waleed Al-Mahdi, Mazen M Ibrahim, David A Spiegel, Alexandre Arkader, Michael Nance, Keith Baldwin
BACKGROUND: Systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) is a well-recognized phenomenon in adult trauma populations. The "initial hit" of the traumatic event is often coupled with a systemic immune response characterized by changes in vital signs and laboratory indicators. A "second hit" from surgery during this time frame often results in acute lung injury, along with deterioration of the patient's clinical condition. We hypothesized that children and adolescents would experience SIRS physiology, but would not experience adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) or "second hit" related death to the extent seen in the adult populations...
October 9, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Orthopedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961316/reduced-infancy-and-childhood-epilepsy-following-hypothermia-treated-neonatal-encephalopathy
#12
Xun Liu, Sally Jary, Frances Cowan, Marianne Thoresen
OBJECTIVE: To investigate what proportion of a regional cohort of cooled infants with neonatal encephalopathy develop epilepsy (determined by the International League Against Epilepsy [ILAE] definition and the number of antiepileptic drugs [AEDs]) up to 8 years of age. METHODS: From 2006-2013, 151 infants with perinatal asphyxia underwent 72 h cooling. Clinical and amplitude-integrated electroencepalography (aEEG) with single-channel EEG-verified neonatal seizures were treated with AEDs...
November 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28960284/potential-years-lost-and-life-expectancy-in-adults-with-newly-diagnosed-epilepsy
#13
Claudia A Granbichler, Georg Zimmermann, Willi Oberaigner, Giorgi Kuchukhidze, Jean-Pierre Ndayisaba, Alexandra Taylor, Gerhard Luef, Arne C Bathke, Eugen Trinka
OBJECTIVE: Studies using relative measures, such as standardized mortality ratios, have shown that patients with epilepsy have an increased mortality. Reports on more direct and absolute measure such as life expectancy are sparse. We report potential years lost and how life expectancy has changed over 40 years in a cohort of patients with newly diagnosed epilepsy. METHODS: We analyzed life expectancy in a cohort of adult patients diagnosed with definite epilepsy between 1970 and 2010...
November 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917688/a-randomized-trial-of-pocket-echocardiography-integrated-mobile-health-device-assessments-in-modern-structural-heart-disease-clinics
#14
Sanjeev P Bhavnani, Srikanth Sola, David Adams, Ashwin Venkateshvaran, P K Dash, Partho P Sengupta
OBJECTIVES: This study sought to determine whether mobile health (mHealth) device assessments used as clinical decision support tools at the point-of-care can reduce the time to treatment and improve long-term outcomes among patients with rheumatic and structural heart diseases (SHD). BACKGROUND: Newly developed smartphone-connected mHealth devices represent promising methods to diagnose common diseases in resource-limited areas; however, the impact of technology-based care on long-term outcomes has not been rigorously evaluated...
September 9, 2017: JACC. Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911947/administration-of-albumin-solution-increases-serum-levels-of-albumin-in-patients-with-chronic-liver-failure-in-a-single-arm-feasibility-trial
#15
Louise China, Simon S Skene, Zainib Shabir, Alexander Maini, Yvonne Sylvestre, Kate Bennett, Scott Bevan, James O'Beirne, Ewan Forrest, Jim Portal, Steve Ryder, Gavin Wright, Derek W Gilroy, Alastair O'Brien
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Infections are life-threatening to patients with acute decompensation and acute-on-chronic liver failure (AD/ACLF). Patients with AD/ACLF have prostaglandin E2-mediated immune suppression, which can be reversed by administration of albumin; infusion of 20% human albumin solution (HAS) might improve outcomes of infections. We performed a feasibility study to determine optimal trial design, assess safety, and validate laboratory assessments of immune function to inform design of a phase 3 trial...
September 12, 2017: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883125/defining-optimal-brain-health-in-adults-a-presidential-advisory-from-the-american-heart-association-american-stroke-association
#16
REVIEW
Philip B Gorelick, Karen L Furie, Costantino Iadecola, Eric E Smith, Salina P Waddy, Donald M Lloyd-Jones, Hee-Joon Bae, Mary Ann Bauman, Martin Dichgans, Pamela W Duncan, Meighan Girgus, Virginia J Howard, Ronald M Lazar, Sudha Seshadri, Fernando D Testai, Stephen van Gaal, Kristine Yaffe, Hank Wasiak, Charlotte Zerna
Cognitive function is an important component of aging and predicts quality of life, functional independence, and risk of institutionalization. Advances in our understanding of the role of cardiovascular risks have shown them to be closely associated with cognitive impairment and dementia. Because many cardiovascular risks are modifiable, it may be possible to maintain brain health and to prevent dementia in later life. The purpose of this American Heart Association (AHA)/American Stroke Association presidential advisory is to provide an initial definition of optimal brain health in adults and guidance on how to maintain brain health...
October 2017: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852554/definitions-of-death-brain-death-and-what-matters-in-a-person
#17
Ben Sarbey
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Journal of Law and the Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843114/clinical-and-radiological-predictors-of-outcome-in-tubercular-meningitis-a-prospective-study-of-209-patients
#18
M Modi, K Sharma, S Prabhakar, M K Goyal, A Takkar, N Sharma, A Garg, S Faisal, N Khandelwal, P Singh, J Sachdeva, R Shree, V Rishi, V Lal
OBJECTIVES: The predictors of poor outcome in tuberculous meningitis (TBM) remain to be delineated. We determined role of various clinical, radiological and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) parameters in prediction of outcome in TBM. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Current study was a prospective observational study including 209 patients of TBM. All patients underwent detailed evaluation including Gadolinium enhanced Magnetic resonance imaging (GdMRI) of brain as well as tests to detect evidence of tuberculosis elsewhere in body...
October 2017: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843020/clinicopathologic-discrepancies-in-a-population-based-incidence-study-of-parkinsonism-in-olmsted-county-1991-2010
#19
Pierpaolo Turcano, Michelle M Mielke, Keith A Josephs, James H Bower, Joseph E Parisi, Bradley F Boeve, Rodolfo Savica
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine the discrepancies between the clinical diagnosis of parkinsonism and neuropathological findings in a population-based cohort with parkinsonian disorders. BACKGROUND: The specific clinical diagnosis of parkinsonism is challenging, and definite confirmation requires neuropathological evaluation. Currently, autopsies are seldom performed, and most brain autopsies represent atypical or diagnostically unresolved cases...
August 26, 2017: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28841633/extracorporeal-circulatory-support-in-acute-coronary-syndromes-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#20
REVIEW
Rita Pavasini, Chiara Cirillo, Gianluca Campo, Miguel Nobre Menezes, Simone Biscaglia, Elisabetta Tonet, Roberto Ferrari, Brijesh V Patel, Susanna Price
OBJECTIVES: Extracorporeal circulatory support is a life-saving technique, and its use is increasing in acute coronary syndromes. A meta-analysis on pooled event rate of short-term mortality and complications of acute coronary syndrome patients treated with extracorporeal circulatory support was performed. DATA SOURCES: Articles were searched in MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, Google Scholar, and Biomed Central. STUDY SELECTION: Inclusion criteria were observational studies on acute coronary syndrome patients treated with extracorporeal circulatory support...
November 2017: Critical Care Medicine
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