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Definition of brain death

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451153/effects-of-plasma-lipids-and-statins-on-cognitive-function
#1
REVIEW
Rui Li, Tian-Jun Wang, Pei-Yuan Lyu, Yang Liu, Wei-Hong Chen, Ming-Yue Fan, Jing Xu
Objective: Dementia is the fourth most common cause of death in developed countries. The relationship between plasma lipids and cognitive function is complex and controversial. Due to the increasing life expectancy of the population, there is an urgent need to control vascular risk factors and to identify therapies to prevent and treat both cognitive impairment and dementia. Here, we reviewed the effects of plasma lipids and statins on cognitive function. Data Sources: We searched the PubMed database for research articles published through November 2017 with key words including "plasma lipids," "hyperlipidemia," "hypercholesterolemia," "statins," and "cognition function...
February 20, 2018: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443965/a-molecular-atlas-of-cell-types-and-zonation-in-the-brain-vasculature
#2
Michael Vanlandewijck, Liqun He, Maarja Andaloussi Mäe, Johanna Andrae, Koji Ando, Francesca Del Gaudio, Khayrun Nahar, Thibaud Lebouvier, Bàrbara Laviña, Leonor Gouveia, Ying Sun, Elisabeth Raschperger, Markus Räsänen, Yvette Zarb, Naoki Mochizuki, Annika Keller, Urban Lendahl, Christer Betsholtz
Cerebrovascular disease is the third most common cause of death in developed countries, but our understanding of the cells that compose the cerebral vasculature is limited. Here, using vascular single-cell transcriptomics, we provide molecular definitions for the principal types of blood vascular and vessel-associated cells in the adult mouse brain. We uncover the transcriptional basis of the gradual phenotypic change (zonation) along the arteriovenous axis and reveal unexpected cell type differences: a seamless continuum for endothelial cells versus a punctuated continuum for mural cells...
February 14, 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443859/over-resuscitation-with-plasma-is-associated-with-sustained-fibrinolysis-shutdown-and-death-in-pediatric-traumatic-brain-injury
#3
Christine M Leeper, Matthew D Neal, Timothy R Billiar, Jason L Sperry, Barbara A Gaines
BACKGROUND: Elevated INR is a marker of poor outcome but not necessarily bleeding or clinical coagulopathy in injured children. Conversely, children with traumatic brain injury (TBI) tend to be hypercoagulable based on rapid thromboelastography (rTEG) parameters. Many clinicians continue to utilize INR as a treatment target. METHODS: Prospective observational study of severely-injured children age<18 with rTEG on arrival and daily thereafter for up to 7 days...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431872/interventions-to-prevent-hypothermia-at-birth-in-preterm-and-or-low-birth-weight-infants
#4
REVIEW
Emma M McCall, Fiona Alderdice, Henry L Halliday, Sunita Vohra, Linda Johnston
BACKGROUND: Newborn admission temperature is a strong predictor of outcomes across all gestations. Hypothermia immediately after birth remains a worldwide issue and, if prolonged, is associated with harm. Keeping preterm infants warm is difficult even when recommended routine thermal care guidelines are followed in the delivery room. OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy and safety of interventions designed for prevention of hypothermia in preterm and/or low birth weight infants applied within 10 minutes after birth in the delivery room, compared with routine thermal care or any other single/combination of intervention(s) also designed for prevention of hypothermia in preterm and/or low birth weight infants applied within 10 minutes after birth in the delivery room...
February 12, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429858/-neuropathology-of-sudden-infant-death-syndrome-review-of-the-literature-and-proposal-of-a-protocol-for-neuropathological-examination
#5
Clémence Delteil, David Meyronet, Andre Maues de Paula, Anne Jouvet, Marie-Dominique Piercecchi-Marti
According to the French High Authority for Health, sudden unexpected death in infants (SUDI) is defined as "a sudden death that occurs in an infant, whereas nothing in its known history could have predicted it". This is an exclusion diagnosis. There are great interregional disparities despite the professional recommendations established in February 2007. For the examination of the brain, instructions are not adapted to current and research practice. The role of the pathologist, like anyone involved in SUDI, is to eliminate an abuse head trauma and to determine the cause of death...
February 8, 2018: Annales de Pathologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29369063/long-term-outcome-following-decompressive-craniectomy-an-inconvenient-truth
#6
Stephen Honeybul, Kwok M Ho, Grant R Gillett
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: There is little doubt that decompressive craniectomy can reduce mortality following malignant middle cerebral infarction or severe traumatic brain injury. However, the concern has always been that the reduction in mortality comes at the cost of an increase in the number of survivors with severe neurological disability. RECENT FINDINGS: There has been a number of large multicentre randomized trials investigating surgical efficacy of the procedure...
January 23, 2018: Current Opinion in Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349556/neuropathology-correlates-of-cognitive-assessments
#7
Francesca M Brett, Hugh Kearney
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease and other dementias are the fourth largest contributors to neurological disability and the second largest contributor to deaths from neurological disease. Described in the 1980s as 'the silent epidemic' these disorders principally, though not exclusively, affect persons 80 years or older, and in developed countries, this 'old old' population continues to grow. Definitive diagnosis of the underlying cause of the neurodegenerative disease relies on neuropathological evaluation...
January 18, 2018: Irish Journal of Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341020/mri-in-the-study-of-animal-models-of-stroke
#8
Pedro Ramos-Cabrer, Daniel Padro
Stroke consists of the loss of cerebral functions resulting from the interruption of blood supply to a region of the brain, and represents the second cause of death and the leading cause of major disability in adults in Europe. Stroke is a very active field of research at preclinical and clinical levels, and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is one of the most powerful tools that scientist and clinicians have for the study of the onset, evolution and consequences of this devastating disease, as well as for the monitoring of the success of available treatments, or for the development of novel therapeutic strategies...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336029/sudden-unexpected-death-in-epilepsy-in-patients-treated-with-brain-responsive-neurostimulation
#9
Orrin Devinsky, Daniel Friedman, Robert B Duckrow, Nathan B Fountain, Ryder P Gwinn, James W Leiphart, Anthony M Murro, Paul C Van Ness
OBJECTIVE: To study the incidence and clinical features of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) in patients treated with direct brain-responsive stimulation with the RNS System. METHODS: All deaths in patients treated in clinical trials (N = 256) or following U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval (N = 451) through May 5, 2016, were adjudicated for SUDEP. RESULTS: There were 14 deaths among 707 patients (2208 postimplantation years), including 2 possible, 1 probable, and 4 definite SUDEP events...
January 16, 2018: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274051/stroke-and-craniectomy
#10
Eelco F M Wijdicks
Neurosurgical involvement in the care of major stroke complications has yielded striking results in the subtentorial region but equivocal outcomes in the supratentorial compartment. Most neurosurgeons want to see some degree of deterioration before proceeding; thus, timing will be debated. Viewpoints have changed over the years regarding surgical or medical intervention, but in many patients the procedure has not produced a definitive change in outcome other than preventing death from terminal brainstem shift...
December 22, 2017: Neurocritical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248376/postoperative-radiosurgery-for-the-treatment-of-metastatic-brain-tumor-evaluation-of-local-failure-and-leptomeningeal-disease
#11
Paul M Foreman, Bradford E Jackson, Karan P Singh, Andrew K Romeo, Barton L Guthrie, Winfield S Fisher, Kristen O Riley, James M Markert, Christopher D Willey, Markus Bredel, John B Fiveash
In patients undergoing surgical resection of a metastatic brain tumor, whole brain radiation therapy reduces the risk of recurrence and neurologic death. Focal radiation has the potential to mitigate neurocognitive side effects. We present an institutional experience of postoperative radiosurgery for the treatment of brain metastases. A retrospective review of a prospectively maintained institutional radiosurgery database was performed for the years 2005-2015 identifying all adult patients treated with postoperative radiosurgery to the tumor bed...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232618/pediatric-medicolegal-autopsy-in-france-a-forensic-histopathological-approach
#12
Clémence Delteil, Lucile Tuchtan, Julia Torrents, Caroline Capuani, Marie-Dominique Piercecchi-Marti
The aim of postmortem medicolegal examination in pediatric death is primarily to establish the circumstances and causes of death and to exclude child abuse. In France, pediatric death is systematically documented by medicolegal or medical autopsy. In case of medicolegal autopsy, the complementary examinations, requested and financed by justice, are rarely limited to a histopathological examination. However in medical autopsies other tools are available to the pathologist as toxicology, biochemistry and molecular biology...
January 2018: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203753/-definition-and-treatment-of-stroke-over-the-centuries
#13
Anna Starostka-Tatar, Beata Łabuz-Roszak, Michał Skrzypek, Mariusz Gąsior, Marek Gierlotka
Stroke was already diagnosed in the ancient times. For hundreds of years the treatment of this disease has changed radically. According to the current WHO definition, stroke is a clinical syndrome caused by focal or generalized brain injury that lasts more than 24 hours or leads to death and has no other cause than vascular. Stroke constitutes a big social and economic problem, as it can lead to death or disability. In the highly developed countries stroke is the third most common cause of adult deaths, the second leading cause of dementia, and the most common cause of disability...
2017: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173286/an-airway-rapid-response-system-implementation-and-utilization-in-a-large-academic-trauma-center
#14
Joshua H Atkins, Christopher H Rassekh, Ara A Chalian, Jing Zhao
BACKGROUND: Rapid response teams mobilize resources to patients experiencing acute deterioration. Failed airway management results in death or anoxic brain injury. A codified, systems-based approach to bring personnel and equipment to the bedside for multidisciplinary airway assessment and rescue was reflected in the initial implementation of an airway rapid response (ARR) team. METHODS: A retrospective review of records of 117 ARR events in a 40-month period (August 2011-November 2014) was undertaken at the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, a 789-bed, academic, urban, tertiary care, Level 1 trauma center...
December 2017: Joint Commission Journal on Quality and Patient Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149948/knowledge-and-attitudes-toward-organ-donation-in-health-care-undergraduate-students-in-italy
#15
F Fontana, M Massari, L Giovannini, G Alfano, G Cappelli
INTRODUCTION: The number of organ donors in Italy is increasing, but with still disappointing living donation activity and relatively frequent objection by potential deceased donors' relatives to organ recovery. Few studies have assessed health care students' knowledge and attitude on donation. METHODS: We administered a questionnaire to medical (MS) and nursing students (NS) at University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Italy, and 749 students (406 MS and 343 NS) completed the questionnaire...
November 2017: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141794/short-term-outcome-of-adem-results-from-a-retrospective-cohort-study-from-south-india
#16
Mary Iype, P A Mohammed Kunju, Geetha Saradakutty, T S Anish, Mini Sreedharan, Shahanaz M Ahamed
INTRODUCTION: Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM), an immune mediated inflammatory disease is common in children. The profile and immediate outcome of children hospitalized with ADEM is scarce in the available literature. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to study the clinical profile of children with ADEM and to look for prognostic factors for outcome at discharge from hospital METHODS: We chose a retrospective cohort study of all children diagnosed with ADEM at our institution between January 2006 and December 2015, and they were evaluated, after excluding other diagnoses when they were summoned for a follow up visit...
November 2017: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136240/postmortem-autopsy-confirmation-of-antemortem-f-18-fddnp-pet-scans-in-a-football-player-with-chronic-traumatic-encephalopathy
#17
Bennet Omalu, Gary W Small, Julian Bailes, Linda M Ercoli, David A Merrill, Koon-Pong Wong, Sung-Cheng Huang, Nagichettiar Satyamurthy, Jennifer L Hammers, John Lee, Robert P Fitzsimmons, Jorge R Barrio
Currently, only presumptive diagnosis of chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) can be made in living patients. We present a modality that may be instrumental to the definitive diagnosis of CTE in living patients based on brain autopsy confirmation of [F-18]FDDNP-PET findings in an American football player with CTE. [F-18]FDDNP-PET imaging was performed 52 mo before the subject's death. Relative distribution volume parametric images and binding values were determined for cortical and subcortical regions of interest...
November 10, 2017: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104559/optimizing-the-definitions-of-stroke-transient-ischemic-attack-and-infarction-for-research-and-application-in-clinical-practice
#18
Anne L Abbott, Mauro Silvestrini, Raffi Topakian, Jonathan Golledge, Alejandro M Brunser, Gert J de Borst, Robert E Harbaugh, Fergus N Doubal, Tatjana Rundek, Ankur Thapar, Alun H Davies, Anthony Kam, Joanna M Wardlaw
Background and purpose: Until now, stroke and transient ischemic attack (TIA) have been clinically based terms which describe the presence and duration of characteristic neurological deficits attributable to intrinsic disorders of particular arteries supplying the brain, retina, or (sometimes) the spinal cord. Further, infarction has been pathologically defined as death of neural tissue due to reduced blood supply. Recently, it has been proposed we shift to definitions of stroke and TIA determined by neuroimaging results alone and that neuroimaging findings be equated with infarction...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078106/the-first-3-minutes-optimising-a-short-realistic-paediatric-team-resuscitation-training-session
#19
Joanne T McKittrick, Sharon Kinney, Sally Lima, Meredith Allen
Inadequate resuscitation leads to death or brain injury. Recent recommendations for resuscitation team training to complement knowledge and skills training highlighted the need for development of an effective team resuscitation training session. This study aimed to evaluate and revise an interprofessional team training session which addressed roles and performance during provision of paediatric resuscitation, through incorporation of real-time, real team simulated training episodes. This study was conducted applying the principles of action research...
October 18, 2017: Nurse Education in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067599/legislative-enforcement-of-nonconsensual-determination-of-neurological-brain-death-in-muslim-patients-a-violation-of-religious-rights
#20
Mohamed Y Rady, Joseph L Verheijde
Death is defined in the Quran with a single criterion of irreversible separation of the ruh (soul) from the body. The Quran is a revelation from God to man, and the primary source of Islamic knowledge. The secular concept of death by neurological criteria, or brain death, is at odds with the Quranic definition of death. The validity of this secular concept has been contested scientifically and philosophically. To legitimize brain death for the purpose of organ donation and transplantation in Muslim communities, Chamsi-Pasha and Albar (concurring with the US President's Council on Bioethics) have argued that irreversible loss of capacity for consciousness and breathing (apneic coma) in brain death defines true death in accordance with Islamic sources...
October 24, 2017: Journal of Religion and Health
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