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Central nervous system recovery

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438669/the-effects-of-chinese-medicines-on-camp-pka-signaling-pathway-in-central-nervous-system-dysfunction
#1
REVIEW
Lin Li, Xiang Fan, Xi-Ting Zhang, Shao-Qian Yue, Zuo-Yan Sun, Jin-Qiang Zhu, Jun-Hua Zhang, Xiu-Mei Gao, Han Zhang
Neuropathological injury in adult mammal central nervous system (CNS) may cause axon disruption, neuronal death and produce lasting neurological deficits. Failure of axon regeneration is one of the major challenges for CNS function recovery. Recently, cAMP/PKA signaling pathway has been proven to be a critical regulator for neuronal regeneration, neuroplasticity and learning and memory ability. And previous studies have revealed the effects of Chinese medicines on prevention and treatment of CNS dysfunction medicated by cAMP/PKA signaling pathway partially...
April 21, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433385/perioperative-risks-of-narcolepsy-in-patients-undergoing-general-anesthesia-a-case-control-study
#2
Alexandre N Cavalcante, Ryan E Hofer, Maja Tippmann-Peikert, Juraj Sprung, Toby N Weingarten
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To compare the perioperative outcomes between patients with narcolepsy and matched controls undergoing anesthetic management. DESIGN: Retrospective 2:1 matched study design. SETTING: Large tertiary medical center. PATIENTS: Narcoleptic patients who underwent general anesthesia from January 1, 2011, through September 30, 2015, were matched with controls by age, sex, and type and year of surgery. MEASUREMENTS: Medical records were reviewed for episodes of respiratory depression during phase I recovery and for other meaningful perioperative outcomes...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Clinical Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426103/neurotoxicity-from-immune-checkpoint-inhibition-in-the-treatment-of-melanoma-a-single-centre-experience-and-review-of-the-literature
#3
L Spain, G Walls, M Julve, K O'Meara, T Schmid, E Kalaitzaki, S Turajlic, M Gore, J Rees, J Larkin
Background: Treatment with immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICPi) has greatly improved survival for patients with advanced melanoma in recent years. Anti-CTLA-4 and anti-PD1 antibodies have been approved following large Phase III trials. Immune-related neurological toxicity of varying severity has been reported in the literature. The cumulative incidence of neurotoxicity among ipilimumab, nivolumab and pembrolizumab is reported as <1% in published clinical trials. We aimed to identify the incidence of neurotoxicity in our institution across anti-CTLA4 and anti-PD-1 antibodies, including the combination of ipilimumab with nivolumab...
February 1, 2017: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425503/nerve-degeneration-and-regeneration-in-the-cephalopod-mollusc-octopus-vulgaris-the-case-of-the-pallial-nerve
#4
Pamela Imperadore, Sameer B Shah, Helen P Makarenkova, Graziano Fiorito
Regeneration is a process that restores structure and function of tissues damaged by injury or disease. In mammals complete regeneration is often unsuccessful, while most of the low phyla animals can re-grow many parts of their body after amputation. Cephalopod molluscs, and in particular Octopus vulgaris, are well known for their capacity to regenerate their arms and other body parts, including central and peripheral nervous system. To better understand the mechanism of recovery following nerve injury in this species we investigated the process of axon regrowth and nerve regeneration after complete transection of the Octopus pallial nerves...
April 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425221/conceptualizing-movement-by-expert-bobath-instructors-in-neurological-rehabilitation
#5
Julie Vaughan-Graham, Kara Patterson, Karl Zabjek, Cheryl A Cott
RATIONALE, AIMS, AND OBJECTIVES: Movement, a core aspect of physiotherapy practice, and integral to the clinical reasoning process has undergone limited theoretical development. Instead, research has focused on intervention effectiveness embedded within the positivist paradigm. The purpose of this study was to explore how expert neurorehabilitation therapists conceptualize movement as part of their clinical reasoning. METHOD: A qualitative interpretive descriptive approach consisting of stimulated recall using video-recorded treatment sessions and in-depth interviews was used...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413743/real-time-fluoroscopic-and-c-arm-computed-tomography-evaluation-of-ommaya-reservoir-integrity
#6
Adrienne M Moraff, Melanie Hayden Gephart, Larry M Shuer, Jeremy J Heit
We describe a case of a 24-year-old patient with relapsed acute myelogenous leukemia involving the central nervous system. After placement of an Ommaya reservoir for intrathecal chemotherapy administration, the patient developed progressive headache, nausea, and drowsiness and was found to have an enlarging subdural collection underlying the Ommaya. To exclude leakage of the Ommaya system into the subdural space, real-time fluoroscopic and C-arm computed tomographic evaluation of the Ommaya reservoir was performed after iodinated contrast injection into the reservoir...
March 15, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412968/interleukin-1-primes-human-mesenchymal-stem-cells-towards-an-anti-inflammatory-and-pro-trophic-phenotype-in-vitro
#7
Elena Redondo-Castro, Catriona Cunningham, Jonjo Miller, Licia Martuscelli, Sarah Aoulad-Ali, Nancy J Rothwell, Cay M Kielty, Stuart M Allan, Emmanuel Pinteaux
BACKGROUND: Inflammation is a key contributor to central nervous system (CNS) injury such as stroke, and is a major target for therapeutic intervention. Effective treatments for CNS injuries are limited and applicable to only a minority of patients. Stem cell-based therapies are increasingly considered for the treatment of CNS disease, because they can be used as in-situ regulators of inflammation, and improve tissue repair and recovery. One promising option is the use of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), which can secrete anti-inflammatory and trophic factors, can migrate towards inflamed and injured sites or can be implanted locally...
April 17, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408816/zonisamide-loaded-triblock-copolymer-nanomicelles-as-a-novel-drug-delivery-system-for-the-treatment-of-acute-spinal-cord-injury
#8
JingLun Li, JiaoJiao Deng, JinXian Yuan, Jie Fu, XiaoLing Li, AiPing Tong, YueLong Wang, YangMei Chen, Gang Guo
Spinal cord injury (SCI) commonly leads to lifelong disability due to the limited regenerative capacity of the adult central nervous system. Nanomicelles can be used as therapeutic systems to provide effective treatments for SCI. In this study, a novel triblock monomethyl poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(l-lactide)-poly(trimethylene carbonate) copolymer was successfully synthesized. Next, polymeric nanomicelles loaded with zonisamide (ZNS), a Food and Drug Administration-approved antiepileptic drug, were prepared and characterized...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392360/matrine-promotes-nt3-expression-in-cns-cells-in-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis
#9
Ming-Liang Zhang, Xiao-Jian Zhang, Jian Kang, Hui-Jun Zhang, Xiao-Long Chen, Nan Liu, Shu-Qing Liu, Wen-Di Ma, Guang-Xian Zhang, Lin Zhu
Neurotrophin 3 (NT3) is a potent neurotrophic factor for promoting remyelination and recovery of neuronal function; upregulation of its expression in the central nervous system (CNS) is thus of major therapeutic importance for neurological deficits. Matrine (MAT), a quinolizidine alkaloid derived from the herb Radix Sophorae Flavescent, has been recently reported to effectively ameliorate clinical signs in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of multiple sclerosis (MS), by secreting antiinflammatory cytokines...
April 6, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391498/neurological-complications-and-sequelae-of-ebola-virus-disease
#10
Bridgette Jeanne Billioux
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The recent 2014-2016 outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD) has led to many discoveries regarding Ebola. Although neurological symptoms during EVD had been previously described, many reports since this outbreak have made clear that EVD can lead to neurological issues. This article will review the various neurological manifestations of EVD. RECENT FINDINGS: Recently, many neurological symptoms have been described during acute EVD, including altered mental status, seizures, and meningoencephalitis, among others; survivors of EVD also may develop neurological sequelae, such as persistent headache and memory loss and can exhibit abnormalities on neurological exam...
May 2017: Current Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383320/the-effects-of-patterned-electrical-stimulation-combined-with-voluntary-contraction-on-spinal-reciprocal-inhibition-in-healthy-individuals
#11
Yoko Takahashi, Toshiyuki Fujiwara, Tomofumi Yamaguchi, Michiyuki Kawakami, Katsuhiro Mizuno, Meigen Liu
The aim of this study was to examine the effects of voluntary contraction (VC) on the modulation of reciprocal inhibition induced by patterned electrical stimulation (PES) in healthy individuals. Twelve healthy volunteers participated in this study. PES was applied to the common peroneal nerve with a train of 10 pulses at 100 Hz every 2 s for 20 min. VC comprised repetitive ankle dorsiflexion at a frequency of 0.5 Hz for 20 min. All participants performed the following three tasks: (i) VC alone, (ii) PES alone, and (iii) PES combined with VC (PES+VC)...
May 24, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383046/systemic-administration-of-induced-neural-stem-cells-regulates-complement-activation-in-mouse-closed-head-injury-models
#12
Mou Gao, Qin Dong, Hui Yao, Yingzhou Lu, Xinchao Ji, Mingming Zou, Zhijun Yang, Minhui Xu, Ruxiang Xu
Complement activation plays important roles in the pathogenesis of central nervous system (CNS) diseases. Patients face neurological disorders due to the development of complement activation, which contributes to cell apoptosis, brain edema, blood-brain barrier dysfunction and inflammatory infiltration. We previously reported that induced neural stem cells (iNSCs) can promote neurological functional recovery in closed head injury (CHI) animals. Remarkably, we discovered that local iNSC grafts have the potential to modulate CNS inflammation post-CHI...
April 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379644/radiotherapy-after-high-dose-chemotherapy-with-autologous-hematopoietic-cell-rescue-quality-assessment-of-head-start-iii
#13
Kenneth K Wong, Sean All, Jonathan Waxer, Arthur J Olch, Rajkumar Venkatramani, Girish Dhall, Tom Belle Davidson, Wafik Zaky, Jonathan L Finlay
BACKGROUND: The use of high-dose chemotherapy with autologous hematopoietic cell rescue (AuHCR) in Head Start III is a potentially curative approach for the management of young children with central nervous system neoplasms. We report the potential influence of quality and timing of radiation therapy on the survival of patients treated on the study. PROCEDURE: Between 2003 and 2009, 220 children with newly diagnosed central nervous system neoplasms were enrolled on the study...
April 5, 2017: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379162/old-maids-aging-and-its-impact-on-microglia-function
#14
REVIEW
Edward C Koellhoffer, Louise D McCullough, Rodney M Ritzel
Microglia are highly active and vigilant housekeepers of the central nervous system that function to promote neuronal growth and activity. With advanced age, however, dysregulated inflammatory signaling and defects in phagocytosis impede their ability to perform the most essential of homeostatic functions, including immune surveillance and debris clearance. Microglial activation is one of the hallmarks of the aging brain and coincides with age-related neurodegeneration and cognitive decline. Age-associated microglial dysfunction leads to cellular senescence and can profoundly alter the response to sterile injuries and immune diseases, often resulting in maladaptive responses, chronic inflammation, and worsened outcomes after injury...
April 5, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373550/resistance-to-action-potential-depression-of-a-rat-axon-terminal-in-vivo
#15
Martijn C Sierksma, J Gerard G Borst
The shape of the presynaptic action potential (AP) has a strong impact on neurotransmitter release. Because of the small size of most terminals in the central nervous system, little is known about the regulation of their AP shape during natural firing patterns in vivo. The calyx of Held is a giant axosomatic terminal in the auditory brainstem, whose biophysical properties have been well studied in slices. Here, we made whole-cell recordings from calyceal terminals in newborn rat pups. The calyx showed a characteristic burst firing pattern, which has previously been shown to originate from the cochlea...
April 3, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365473/pioglitazone-treatment-following-spinal-cord-injury-maintains-acute-mitochondrial-integrity-and-increases-chronic-tissue-sparing-and-functional-recovery
#16
Samir P Patel, David H Cox, Jenna L Gollihue, William M Bailey, Werner J Geldenhuys, John C Gensel, Patrick G Sullivan, Alexander G Rabchevsky
Pioglitazone is an FDA-approved PPAR-γ agonist drug used to treat diabetes, and it has demonstrated neuroprotective effects in multiple models of central nervous system (CNS) injury. Acute treatment after spinal cord injury (SCI) in rats is reported to suppress neuroinflammation, rescue injured tissues, and improve locomotor recovery. In the current study, we additionally assessed the protective efficacy of pioglitazone treatment on acute mitochondrial respiration, as well as functional and anatomical recovery after contusion SCI in adult male C57BL/6 mice...
March 30, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329104/vascular-cerebral-damage-in-frail-older-adults-the-amimage-study
#17
José Alberto Avila-Funes, Amandine Pelletier, Céline Meillon, Gwénaëlle Catheline, Olivier Periot, Irene Trevin O-Frenk, Magali Gonzalez-Colaço, Jean-François Dartigues, Karine Pérès, Michèle Allard, Bixente Dilharreguy, Hélène Amieva
Background: Frailty has been associated with increased risk of adverse-health related outcomes including cognitive impairment. However, little is know about the pathogenesis relating frailty to cognitive decline. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to investigate the association between vascular cerebral damage and frailty. Methods: Cross-sectional study involving 176 community-dwelling participants aged 67-86 years, participating in the AMImage Study, an ancillary neuro-imaging project of the AMI cohort, a French prospective cohort including older farmers living in rural areas...
January 21, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324999/surface-electromyography-based-muscle-fatigue-analysis-for-stroke-patients-at-different-brunnstrom-stages
#18
Yinjun Tu, Zhe Zhang, Xudong Gu, Qiang Fang
Muscle fatigue analysis has been an important topic in sport and rehabilitation medicine due to its role in muscle performance evaluation and pathology investigation. This paper proposes a surface electromyography (sEMG) based muscle fatigue analysis approach which was specifically designed for stroke rehabilitation applications. 14 stroke patients from 5 different Brunnstrom recovery stage groups were involved in the experiment and features including median frequency and mean power frequency were extracted from the collected sEMG samples for investigation...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324618/thermogelling-chitosan-lactate-hydrogel-improves-functional-recovery-after-a-c2-spinal-cord-hemisection-in-rat
#19
Katarzyna Nawrotek, Tanguy Marqueste, Zofia Modrzejewska, Roman Zarzycki, Agnieszka Rusak, Patrick Decherchi
The present study was designed to provide an appropriate micro-environment for regenerating axotomized neurons and proliferating/migrating cells. Because of its intrinsic permissive properties, biocompatibility and biodegradability, we chose to evaluate the therapeutic effectiveness of a chitosan-based biopolymer. The biomaterial toxicity was measured through in vitro test based on fibroblast cell survival on thermogelling chitosan lactate hydrogel substrate and then polymer was implanted into a C2 hemisection of the rat spinal cord...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319881/40hz-auditory-steady-state-responses-in-patients-with-disorders-of-consciousness-correlation-between-phase-locking-index-and-coma-recovery-scale-revised-score
#20
Marek Binder, Urszula Górska, Inga Griskova-Bulanova
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to elucidate whether 40Hz auditory steady-state response (ASSR) could be sensitive to the state of patients with disorders of consciousness (DOC) as estimated with Coma Recovery Scale-Revised (CRS-R) diagnostic tool. METHODS: Fifteen DOC patients and 24 healthy controls took part in the study. The 40Hz click trains were used to evoke ASSRs. Mean evoked amplitude (EA) and phase-locking index (PLI) within 38-42Hz window were calculated for 100ms bins, starting from -200 to 700ms relative to stimulus onset...
May 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
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