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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352650/cryptococcus-gattii-genotype-vgiia-infection-imported-from-vancouver-island-to-japan
#1
Tsuyoshi Kitaura, Masamichi Takahashi, Takashi Umeyama, Nozomi Takeshita, Yuichi Katanami, Saho Takaya, Kei Yamamoto, Satoshi Kutsuna, Kayoko Hayakawa, Yasuyuki Kato, Takahiro Yamauchi, Yoshitaka Narita, Yoshitsugu Miyazaki, Norio Ohmagari
A 71-year-old Japanese man with travel history to the Vancouver Island, Canada was diagnosed the pulmonary and central nervous system infections caused by Cryptococcus gattii genotype VGIIa. This is the first imported case of Cryptococcus gattii genotype VGIIa infection from endemic area of North America to Japan. He was recovery with no residual neurological dysfunction by early resection of brain mass and antifungal therapy. Early surgical resection of cerebellar cryptococcoma may shorten the length of induction therapy with antifungal drugs...
January 15, 2018: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352391/functional-recovery-by-application-of-human-dedifferentiated-fat-cells-on-cerebral-infarction-mice-model
#2
Tomoki Kakudo, Naotaka Kishimoto, Tomohiro Matsuyama, Yoshihiro Momota
Elderly people whose daily activities have declined due to a cerebrovascular disorder may suffer from dysphagia and may find oral hygiene difficult. Therefore, it is important to establish an effective therapy for the underlying cerebrovascular disorder. Dedifferentiated fat cells (DFAT) were obtained from mature adipocytes isolated from human buccal adipose pads in a ceiling culture. DFAT expressed the neural markers Nestin and SOX2. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that the cells had properties similar to mesenchymal stem cells...
January 19, 2018: Cytotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351450/cardiac-vanilloid-receptor-1-afferent-depletion-enhances-stellate-ganglion-neuronal-activity-and-efferent-sympathetic-response-to-cardiac-stress
#3
Koji Yoshie, Pradeep S Rajendran, Louis Massoud, OhJin Kwon, Vasudev Tadimeti, Siamak Salavatian, Jeffrey Laurence Ardell, Kalyanam Shivkumar, Olujimi A Ajijola
Afferent fibers expressing the vanilloid receptor 1 (VR1) channel are implicated in cardiac nociception, however, their role in modulating reflex responses to cardiac stress is not well-understood. We evaluated this role in Yorkshire pigs by percutaneous epicardial application of resiniferatoxin (RTX), a toxic activator of the VR1 channel, resulting in depletion of cardiac VR1-expressing afferents. Hemodynamics, epicardial activation recovery intervals (ARIs), and in vivo activity of stellate ganglion (SG) neurons (SGNs) were recorded in control and RTX-treated animals...
January 16, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342201/differentiation-of-glioblastoma-multiforme-metastases-and-primary-central-nervous-system-lymphomas-using-multiparametric-perfusion-and-diffusion-mr-imaging-of-a-tumor-core-and-a-peritumoral-zone-searching-for-a-practical-approach
#4
Małgorzata Neska-Matuszewska, Joanna Bladowska, Marek Sąsiadek, Anna Zimny
INTRODUCTION: In conventional MR examinations glioblastomas multiforme (GBMs), metastases and primary CNS lymphomas (PCNSLs) may show very similar appearance. The aim of the study was to evaluate usefulness of multiparametric T2*DSC perfusion and diffusion MR imaging in the preoperative differentiation of these tumors. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Seventy four solitary enhancing tumors (27 GBMs, 30 metastases, 17 PCNSLs) were enrolled in the study. Parameters of cerebral blood volume (rCBV), peak height (rPH), percentage of signal recovery (rPSR) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) were assessed from the tumor core and the peritumoral non-enhancing T2-hyperintense zone...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339415/genome-wide-identification-by-transposon-insertion-sequencing-of-escherichia-coli-k1-genes-essential-for-in-vitro-growth-gastrointestinal-colonizing-capacity-and-survival-in-serum
#5
Alex J McCarthy, Richard A Stabler, Peter W Taylor
Escherichia coli K1 strains are major causative agents of invasive disease of the new born. The age dependency of infection can be reproduced in the neonatal rat. Colonization of the small intestine following oral administration of K1 bacteria leads rapidly to invasion of the blood circulation; bacteria that avoid capture by the mesenteric lymphatic system and evade antibacterial mechanisms in the blood may disseminate to cause organ-specific infections such as meningitis. Some E. coli K1 surface constituents, in particular the polysialic acid capsule, are known to contribute to invasive potential but a comprehensive picture of the factors that determine the fully virulent phenotype has not so far emerged...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335614/reliability-of-pulse-waveform-separation-analysis-responses-to-an-orthostatic-challenge
#6
Lee Stoner, Keeron Stone, Erik D Hanson, James Faulkner, Simon Fryer, Daniel Credeur
Cardiovascular autonomic nervous system function can be assessed using an orthostatic challenge to induce arterial wave reflection. While arterial reflection is typically estimated using a central augmentation index, a superior estimation can be obtained using pulse wave separation analysis to estimate the aortic backward pressure wave (Pb). However, to be of value in a clinical or research setting, an assessment tool must be precise (reliable). Therefore, this study sought to determine the measurement precision of Pb responses to a modified tilt-table test...
January 15, 2018: Hypertension Research: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328364/genetically%C3%A2-modified-stem-cells-in-treatment-of-human-diseases-tissue-kallikrein-klk1-%C3%A2-based-targeted-therapy-review
#7
Marina Devetzi, Maria Goulielmaki, Nicolas Khoury, Demetrios A Spandidos, Georgia Sotiropoulou, Ioannis Christodoulou, Vassilis Zoumpourlis
The tissue kallikrein‑kinin system (KKS) is an endogenous multiprotein metabolic cascade which is implicated in the homeostasis of the cardiovascular, renal and central nervous system. Human tissue kallikrein (KLK1) is a serine protease, component of the KKS that has been demonstrated to exert pleiotropic beneficial effects in protection from tissue injury through its anti‑inflammatory, anti‑apoptotic, anti‑fibrotic and anti‑oxidative actions. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) or endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) constitute populations of well‑characterized, readily obtainable multipotent cells with special immunomodulatory, migratory and paracrine properties rendering them appealing potential therapeutics in experimental animal models of various diseases...
January 3, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323247/leakage-correction-improves-prognosis-prediction-of-dynamic-susceptibility-contrast-perfusion-mri-in-primary-central-nervous-system-lymphoma
#8
Yeon Soo Kim, Seung Hong Choi, Roh-Eul Yoo, Koung Mi Kang, Tae Jin Yun, Ji-Hoon Kim, Chul-Ho Sohn, Sung-Hye Park, Jae-Kyung Won, Tae Min Kim, Chul-Kee Park, Il Han Kim
To evaluate whether the cerebral blood volume (CBV) measurement with leakage correction from dynamic susceptibility contrast perfusion weighted imaging can be useful in predicting prognosis for primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL). 46 PCNSL patients were included and classified by radiation therapy (RT) stratification into RT (n = 30) and non-RT (n = 16) groups. The corresponding histogram parameters of normalized CBV (nCBV) maps with or without leakage correction were calculated on contrast-enhanced T1 weighted image (CE T1WI) or on fluid attenuated inversion recovery image...
January 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323028/surgical-reconstruction-of-spinal-cord-circuit-provides-functional-return-in-humans
#9
REVIEW
Thomas Carlstedt, Nicholas James, Mårten Risling
This mini review describes the current surgical strategy for restoring function after traumatic spinal nerve root avulsion in brachial or lumbosacral plexus injury in man. As this lesion is a spinal cord or central nervous injury functional return depends on spinal cord nerve cell growth within the central nervous system. Basic science, clinical research and human application has demonstrated good and useful motor function after ventral root avulsion followed by spinal cord reimplantation. Recently, sensory return could be demonstrated following spinal cord surgery bypassing the injured primary sensory neuron...
December 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321331/germline-igm-is-sufficient-but-not-required-for-antibody-mediated-alphavirus-clearance-from-the-central-nervous-system
#10
Voraphoj Nilaratanakul, Jie Chen, Oanh Tran, Victoria K Baxter, Elizabeth M Troisi, Jane X Yeh, Diane E Griffin
Sindbis virus (SINV) infection of neurons in the brain and spinal cord in mice provides a model system for investigating recovery from encephalomyelitis and antibody-mediated clearance of virus from the central nervous system (CNS). To determine the roles of IgM and IgG in recovery, we compared the responses of immunoglobulin-deficient activation-induced adenosine deaminase (AID)-/-, secretory IgM (sIgM)-/- and AID-/- sIgM-/- double knock out (DKO) mice with wild-type (WT) C57BL/6 mice for disease, clearance of infectious virus and viral RNA from brain and spinal cord, antibody responses and B cell infiltration into the CNS...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315368/treatment-with-the-neutralizing-antibody-against-repulsive-guidance-molecule-a-promotes-recovery-from-impaired-manual-dexterity-in-a-primate-model-of-spinal-cord-injury
#11
Hiroshi Nakagawa, Taihei Ninomiya, Toshihide Yamashita, Masahiko Takada
Axons in the mature mammalian central nervous system have only a limited capacity to grow/regenerate after injury, and spontaneous recovery of motor functions is therefore not greatly expected in spinal cord injury (SCI). To promote functional recovery after SCI, it is critical that corticospinal tract (CST) fibers reconnect properly with target spinal neurons through enhanced axonal growth/regeneration. Here, we applied antibody treatment against repulsive guidance molecule-a (RGMa) to a monkey model of SCI...
January 5, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307082/biomarkers-in-spinal-cord-injury-from-prognosis-to-treatment
#12
REVIEW
Leonardo Fonseca Rodrigues, Vivaldo Moura-Neto, Tania Cristina Leite de Sampaio E Spohr
Spinal cord injury (SCI) is considered an incurable condition, having a heterogenous recovery and uncertain prognosis. Therefore, a reliable prediction of the improvement in the acute phase could benefit patients. Physicians are unanimous in insisting that at the initial damage of the spinal cord (SC), the patient should be carefully evaluated in order to help selecting an appropriate neuroprotective treatment. However, currently, neurologic impairment after SCI is measured and classified by functional examination...
January 6, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303112/biomimetic-hydrogels-direct-spinal-progenitor-cell-differentiation-and-promote-functional-recovery-after-spinal-cord-injury
#13
Sydney A Geissler, Alexandra L Sabin, Rachel R Besser, Olivia M Gooden, Bryce D Shirk, Quan M Nguyen, Zin Z Khaing, Christine E Schmidt
Demyelination that results from disease or traumatic injury, such as spinal cord injury (SCI), can have a devastating effect on neural function and recovery. Many researchers are examining treatments to minimize demyelination by improving oligodendrocyte availability in vivo. Transplantation of stem and oligodendrocyte progenitor cells is a promising option, however, trials are plagued by undirected differentiation [1]. Here we introduce a biomaterial that has been optimized to direct the differentiation of neural progenitor cells (NPCs) toward oligodendrocytes as a cell delivery vehicle after SCI...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298279/severe-chronic-lithium-intoxication-in-patient-treated-for-bipolar-disorder
#14
Ivana Stetkarova, Vaclav Bocek, Alsu Gismatullina, Zuzana Svobodova, Tomas Peisker
OBJECTIVE: Lithium has been long used in psychiatry as an adjuvant treatment for bipolar disorder. Chronic lithium intoxication is very rare. DESIGN: We present the case of a 72-year-old female, treated with lithium for more than 10 years for bipolar disorder, who was admitted for gait impairment with weakness of limbs, myoclonus, speech impairment and memory disturbances. RESULTS: Diagnosis of lithium intoxication was based on clinical picture and determination of serum lithium levels...
December 4, 2017: Neuro Endocrinology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288597/fractionation-enhances-acute-oligodendrocyte-progenitor-cell-radiation-sensitivity-and-leads-to-long-term-depletion
#15
Sage Begolly, John A Olschowka, Tanzy Love, Jacqueline P Williams, M Kerry O'Banion
Ionizing radiation (IR) is commonly used to treat central nervous system (CNS) cancers and metastases. While IR promotes remission, frequent side effects including impaired cognition and white matter loss occur following treatment. Fractionation is used to minimize these CNS late side effects, as it reduces IR effects in differentiated normal tissue, but not rapidly proliferating normal or tumor tissue. However, side effects occur even with the use of fractionated paradigms. Oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) are a proliferative population within the CNS affected by radiation...
December 30, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286415/improved-3d-hydrogel-cultures-of-primary-glial-cells-for-in-vitro-modelling-of-neuroinflammation
#16
Kyle M Koss, Matthew A Churchward, Andrea F Jeffery, Vivian K Mushahwar, Anastasia L Elias, Kathryn G Todd
In the central nervous system, numerous acute injuries and neurodegenerative disorders, as well as implanted devices or biomaterials engineered to enhance function result in the same outcome: excess inflammation leads to gliosis, cytotoxicity, and/or formation of a glial scar that collectively exacerbate injury or prevent healthy recovery. With the intent of creating a system to model glial scar formation and study inflammatory processes, we have generated a 3D cell scaffold capable of housing primary cultured glial cells: microglia that regulate the foreign body response and initiate the inflammatory event, astrocytes that respond to form a fibrous scar, and oligodendrocytes that are typically vulnerable to inflammatory injury...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283022/cns-injury-posttranslational-modification-of-the-tau-protein-as-a-biomarker
#17
Mitchell T Caprelli, Andrea J Mothe, Charles H Tator
The ideal biomarker for central nervous system (CNS) trauma in patients would be a molecular marker specific for injured nervous tissue that would provide a consistent and reliable assessment of the presence and severity of injury and the prognosis for recovery. One candidate biomarker is the protein tau, a microtubule-associated protein abundant in the axonal compartment of CNS neurons. Following axonal injury, tau becomes modified primarily by hyperphosphorylation of its various amino acid residues and cleavage into smaller fragments...
November 1, 2017: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282439/diffuse-nocardial-spinal-subdural-empyema-diagnostic-dilemma-and-treatment-options
#18
Zaid Aljuboori, Mayur Sharma, Thomas Altstadt
Nocardiosis of the central nervous system and spine, in particular, is a rare infection with significant morbidity and mortality. Treatment is usually with antibiotics and surgical drainage or biopsy. The authors report a case of a 49-year-old man who presented with chronic lower back pain and paraplegia. He was found to have spinal subdural empyema caused by Nocardia farcinica. Laminectomy and sampling of the subdural collection were performed, and the patient was treated with triple intravenous antibiotics (linezolid, amikacin and ciprofloxacin)...
October 24, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259705/the-roles-of-rgma-neogenin-signaling-in-inflammation-and-angiogenesis
#19
REVIEW
Yuki Fujita, Toshihide Yamashita
Repulsive guidance molecule (RGM) is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored glycoprotein that has diverse functions in the developing and pathological central nervous system (CNS). The binding of RGM to its receptor neogenin regulates axon guidance, neuronal differentiation, and survival during the development of the CNS. In the pathological state, RGM expression is induced after spinal cord injury, and the inhibition of RGM promotes axon growth and functional recovery. Furthermore, RGM expression is also observed in immune cells, and RGM regulates inflammation and neurodegeneration in autoimmune encephalomyelitis...
2017: Inflammation and Regeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29251352/microfluidic-platforms-for-the-study-of-neuronal-injury-in-vitro
#20
REVIEW
Anil B Shrirao, Frank H Kung, Anton Omelchenko, Rene S Schloss, Nada N Boustany, Jeffrey D Zahn, Martin L Yarmush, Bonnie L Firestein
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) affects 5.3 million people in the United States, and there are 12,500 new cases of spinal cord injury (SCI) every year. There is yet a significant need for in vitro models of TBI and SCI in order to understand the biological mechanisms underlying central nervous system (CNS) injury and to identify and test therapeutics to aid in recovery from neuronal injuries. While TBI or SCI studies have been aided with traditional in vivo and in vitro models, the innate limitations in specificity of injury, isolation of neuronal regions, and reproducibility of these models can decrease their usefulness in examining the neurobiology of injury...
December 18, 2017: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
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