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Central nervous system recovery

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530340/-can-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-be-prevented-with-glucocorticoids
#1
REVIEW
Hagit Cohen, Zeev Kaplan, Joseph Zohar
Glucocorticoids (GCs) play a major role in orchestrating the complex physiological and behavioral reactions essential for the maintenance of homeostasis. These compounds enable the organism to prepare for, respond to and cope with the acute demands of physical and emotional stressors. The appropriate GC release, commensurate with stressor severity, enables the body to properly contain stress responses so as to promote recovery by rapidly restoring homeostasis. Indeed, inadequate GC release following stress not only delays recovery by disrupting biological homeostasis in the short run but can also interfere with the processing or interpretation of stressful information that results in long-term disruptions in memory integration...
December 2016: Harefuah
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526435/the-bidirectional-gut-brain-microbiota-axis-as-a-potential-nexus-between-traumatic-brain-injury-inflammation-and-disease
#2
Mark H Sundman, Nan-Kuei Chen, Vignesh Subbian, Ying-Hui Chou
As head injuries and their sequelae have become an increasingly salient matter of public health, experts in the field have made great progress elucidating the biological processes occurring within the brain at the moment of injury and throughout the recovery thereafter. Given the extraordinary rate at which our collective knowledge of neurotrauma has grown, new insights may be revealed by examining the existing literature across disciplines with a new perspective. This article will aim to expand the scope of this rapidly evolving field of research beyond the confines of the central nervous system (CNS)...
May 16, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522760/on-the-existence-of-a-central-respiratory-oxygen-sensor
#3
Alexander V Gourine, Gregory D Funk
A commonly held view that dominates both the scientific and educational literature is that in terrestrial mammals the central nervous system lacks a physiological hypoxia sensor capable of triggering increases in lung ventilation in response to decreases in PO2 of the brain parenchyma. Indeed, a normocapnic hypoxic ventilatory response has never been observed in humans following bilateral resection of the carotid bodies. In contrast, almost complete or partial recovery of the hypoxic ventilatory response after denervation/removal of the peripheral respiratory oxygen chemoreceptors has been demonstrated in many experimental animals when assessed in an awake state...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522294/activating-transcription-factor-3-promotes-spinal-cord-regeneration-of-adult-zebrafish
#4
Lin-Fang Wang, Shu-Bing Huang, Hou-De Zhao, Chun-Jie Liu, Li Yao, Yan-Qin Shen
Zebrafish is an excellent model to study the mechanisms underlying successful central nervous system (CNS) regeneration. Previous study shows that activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) promotes neurite outgrowth and is involved in optic nerve regeneration in zebrafish. Here, we used zebrafish model to investigate the role of ATF3 in regeneration following spinal cord injury (SCI). Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and in situ hybridization revealed that ATF3 mRNA levels increased at 12 h and 6 d following SCI...
May 15, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514792/autonomic-dysregulation-in-burnout-and-depression-evidence-for-the-central-role-of-exhaustion
#5
Magdalena K Kanthak, Tobias Stalder, LaBarron K Hill, Julian F Thayer, Marlene Penz, Clemens Kirschbaum
Objectives Given the important role of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) in stress regulation, astonishingly little is known about ANS functioning in burnout, a condition arising after prolonged exposure to work-related stress. The current study sought to investigate ANS modulation, as indexed by vagally-mediated heart rate variability (HRV), in relation to burnout symptomatology to (i) distinguish associations between the three dimensions of burnout [emotional exhaustion (EE), cynicism, reduced personal accomplishment] and (ii) investigate overlap in associations with depressive symptomatology...
May 18, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512055/first-plasma-and-tissue-pharmacokinetic-study-of-the-ysnsg-cyclopeptide-a-new-integrin-antagonist-using-microdialysis
#6
Florian Slimano, Zoubir Djerada, Salim Bouchene, Laurence Van Gulick, Sylvie Brassart-Pasco, Sylvain Dukic
The YSNSG peptide is a synthetic peptide targeting αvβ3 integrin. This peptide exhibits promising activity in vitro and in vivo against melanoma. To determine pharmacokinetic parameters and predictive active doses in the central nervous system (CNS) and subcutaneous tissue (SC), we conducted microdialysis coupled with pharmacokinetic modeling and Monte Carlo simulation. After a recovery period of surgical procedures, a microdialysis probe was inserted in the caudate and in subcutaneous tissue. Plasma samples and dialysates collected 5h after YSNSG intravenous administration (10mg/kg) were analyzed by UPLC-MS/MS...
May 13, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511127/neurophysiology-of-synaptic-functioning-in-multiple-sclerosis
#7
REVIEW
Mario Stampanoni Bassi, Francesco Mori, Fabio Buttari, Girolama A Marfia, Andrea Sancesario, Diego Centonze, Ennio Iezzi
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory immune-mediate disorder of the central nervous system (CNS), primarily affecting the myelin sheath and followed by neurodegeneration. Synaptic alterations are emerging as critical determinants of early neurodegeneration in MS. Inflammation-induced alterations of synaptic transmission and plasticity have been investigated in vitro and also in human MS using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) techniques. Specific inflammatory cytokines alter glutamatergic and GABAergic transmission, resulting in synaptic hyperexcitability...
April 24, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509118/anti-glomerular-basement-membrane-disease-accompanied-by-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-presenting-central-nervous-system-involvement
#8
Hirohito Sugawara, Hideki Takizawa, Yoshinosuke Shimamura, Norihito Moniwa, Koichi Hasegawa, Yayoi Ogawa
We report a case of rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis caused by anti-glomerular basement membrane (GBM) disease accompanied by systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) presenting central nervous system involvement in a 32-year-old Japanese male. He was admitted to our hospital because of a 3-week history of fever and rapidly failing renal function requiring hemodialysis (HD). Laboratory tests showed anti-GBM antibody elevation with a value of 16,385 units/ml. On day 85, he had generalized tonic-clonic seizure...
May 2017: CEN Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499701/should-we-stop-saying-glia-and-neuroinflammation
#9
REVIEW
Roser Masgrau, Carmen Guaza, Richard M Ransohoff, Elena Galea
Central nervous system (CNS) therapeutics based on the theoretical framework of neuroinflammation have only barely succeeded. We argue that a problem may be the wrong use of the term 'neuroinflammation' as a distinct nosological entity when, based on recent evidence, it may not explain CNS disease pathology. Indeed, the terms 'neuroinflammation' and 'glia' could be obsolete. First, unbiased molecular profiling of CNS cell populations and individual cells reveals striking phenotypic heterogeneity in health and disease...
May 9, 2017: Trends in Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498718/effects-of-regular-cannabis-use-on-neurocognition-brain-structure-and-function-a-systematic-review-of-findings-in-adults
#10
Danilo A Nader, Zila M Sanchez
BACKGROUND: Cannabis is the most used illicit drug worldwide. The long-standing consequences for the central nervous system associated with frequent cannabis use have not been well delineated and should be determined. OBJECTIVE: To review recent studies on the effects of regular cannabis use regarding its effects on cognition, brain structure, and function in adults. METHODS: A systematic literature review was conducted by performing electronic searches in the PubMed, LILACS, and SciELO databases (2010-2016)...
May 12, 2017: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489665/the-nogo-receptor-inhibits-proliferation-migration-and-axonal-extension-by-transcriptionally-regulating-wnk1-in-pc12-cells
#11
Tao Yang, Kai Zhao, Haifeng Shu, Xin Chen, Jingmin Cheng, Song Li, Ziyi Zhao, Yongqin Kuang, Sixun Yu
Neuronal regeneration and axonal regrowth mechanisms in the injured mammalian central nervous system are largely unknown. As part of a major pathway for inhibiting axonal regeneration, activated neuronal glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored Nogo receptor (NgR) interacts with LINGO-1 and p75NTR to form a complex at the cell surface. However, it was found in our previous report that upregulation of NgR stimulated by injury plays a key role in neuronal regeneration in the neonatal cortex freeze-lesion model, but its downstream signalling remains elusive...
May 6, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484568/concurrent-multiple-intracranial-and-intramedullary-conus-tuberculoma-a-rare-case-report
#12
Manish Jaiswal, Ashok Gandhi, Devendra Purohit, Radhey Shyam Mittal
Central nervous system (CNS) tuberculosis commonly manifests as tubercular meningitis. CNS tuberculomas are more common intracranially and less frequently involve the spinal cord. Combination of intramedullary with intracranial tuberculomas is extremely rare. We report a case of concurrent occurrence of intramedullary tuberculoma with multiple intracranial tuberculomas in a young 16-year-old boy, who presented with two weeks history of paresthesias and weakness of the lower limbs and diminution of vision in left eye, who had been treated for pulmonary tuberculosis...
April 2017: Asian Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481312/carotid-artery-stenting-and-blood-brain-barrier-permeability-in-subjects-with-chronic-carotid-artery-stenosis
#13
Arkadiusz Szarmach, Grzegorz Halena, Mariusz Kaszubowski, Maciej Piskunowicz, Michal Studniarek, Piotr Lass, Edyta Szurowska, Pawel J Winklewski
Failure of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a critical event in the development and progression of diseases such as acute ischemic stroke, chronic ischemia or small vessels disease that affect the central nervous system. It is not known whether BBB breakdown in subjects with chronic carotid artery stenosis can be restrained with postoperative recovery of cerebral perfusion. The aim of the study was to assess the short-term effect of internal carotid artery stenting on basic perfusion parameters and permeability surface area-product (PS) in such a population...
May 8, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479741/effect-of-naringenin-a-naturally-occurring-flavanone-against-pilocarpine-induced-status-epilepticus-and-oxidative-stress-in-mice
#14
Sheeba Shakeel, Muneeb U Rehman, Nahida Tabassum, Umar Amin, Manzoor Ur Rahman Mir
BACKGROUND: Epilepsy is a disorder of the central nervous system characterized by recurrent seizures. It is a very common disease in which approximately 30% of patients do not respond favourably to treatment with anticonvulsants. Oxidative stress is associated with neuronal damage arising from epileptic seizures. The present study investigated the effects of naringenin in pilocarpine-induced epilepsy in mice. Naringenin, one of the most frequently occurring flavanone in citrus fruits, was evaluated for its shielding effect against the pilocarpine induced behavioural, oxidative and histopathological alterations in rodent model of epilepsy...
January 2017: Pharmacognosy Magazine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479305/increasing-human-neural-stem-cell-transplantation-dose-alters-oligodendroglial-and-neuronal-differentiation-after-spinal-cord-injury
#15
Katja M Piltti, Gabriella M Funes, Sabrina N Avakian, Ara A Salibian, Kevin I Huang, Krystal Carta, Noriko Kamei, Lisa A Flanagan, Edwin S Monuki, Nobuko Uchida, Brian J Cummings, Aileen J Anderson
Multipotent human central nervous system-derived neural stem cells transplanted at doses ranging from 10,000 (low) to 500,000 (very high) cells differentiated predominantly into the oligodendroglial lineage. However, while the number of engrafted cells increased linearly in relationship to increasing dose, the proportion of oligodendrocytic cells declined. Increasing dose resulted in a plateau of engraftment, enhanced neuronal differentiation, and increased distal migration caudal to the transplantation sites...
May 3, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474539/induced-neural-activity-promotes-an-oligodendroglia-regenerative-response-in-the-injured-spinal-cord-and-improves-motor-function-after-spinal-cord-injury
#16
Qun Li, Thierry Houdayer, Su Liu, Visar Belegu
Myelination in central nervous system (CNS) is a dynamic process that includes birth of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs), their differentiation into oligodendrocytes, and ensheathment of axons. Regulation of myelination by neuronal activity has emerged as a new mechanism of CNS plasticity. Indeed, activity-dependent myelination has been shown to regulate sensory, motor and cognitive functions. In this work, we aimed to employ this mechanism of CNS plasticity by utilizing induced neuronal activity to promote remyelination and functional recovery in a subchronic model of SCI...
May 5, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465080/long-spinal-cord-lesions-in-a-patient-with-pathologically-proven-multiple-sclerosis
#17
Junji Komatsu, Kenji Sakai, Mitsutoshi Nakada, Kazuo Iwasa, Masahito Yamada
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. We report the case of a 50-year-old man who presented with progressive gait ataxia. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) on fluid-attenuated inversion recovery revealed a hyperintense lesion in the right temporal white matter. The spinal cord showed a long hyperintense lesion between the vertebral levels C6 and L1 on T2-weighted MRI. Biopsied tissues from the brain lesion demonstrated features of inflammatory demyelination with preservation of astrocytes, consistent with typical MS...
April 29, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461125/modulation-of-neurogenesis-via-neurotrophic-factors-in-acupuncture-treatments-for-neurological-diseases
#18
REVIEW
Hwa Kyoung Shin, Sae-Won Lee, Byung Tae Choi
Acupuncture is one of the main healing arts in Oriental medicine. It has long been used in East Asian countries, including Korea and China, and is thought to be an effective alternative treatment for various neurological diseases. The therapeutic effects of acupuncture come from inserting a needle at specific acupoints on the body surface, with subsequent delivery of stimulation via manual rotation or electric pulses (electroacupuncture, EA). In various neurological disease models, peripheral nerve stimulation using acupuncture or EA may have protective effects on neural tissues by increasing expression of neurotrophic factors (NTFs), such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor and glial-derived neurotrophic factor, in the central nervous system, especially the brain...
April 29, 2017: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453483/remyelination-a-potential-therapeutic-strategy-for-alzheimer-s-disease
#19
Junjun Sun, Hong Zhou, Feng Bai, Zhijun Zhang, Qingguo Ren
Myelin is a lipid-rich multilamellar membrane that wraps around long segments of neuronal axons and it increases the conduction of action potentials, transports the necessary trophic support to the neuronal axons, and reduces the energy consumed by the neuronal axons. Together with axons, myelin is a prerequisite for the higher functions of the central nervous system and complex forms of network integration. Myelin impairments have been suggested to lead to neuronal dysfunction and cognitive decline. Accumulating evidence, including brain imaging and postmortem and genetic association studies, has implicated myelin impairments in Alzheimer's disease (AD)...
April 28, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28451778/central-nervous-system-melioidosis-in-the-pediatric-age-group-review
#20
REVIEW
G Lakshmi Prasad, Pushpa Kini, Divya S
PURPOSE: Melioidosis is a potentially fatal infectious disease caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei. Neurologic involvement in pediatric age group is very rare, and only a handful of cases have been reported in literature. We sought to provide a systematic review of pediatric neurologic melioidosis. METHODS: Literature review was performed to analyze reported cases of pediatric neurologic melioidosis (≤16 years) by searching online database (PubMed/MEDLINE). RESULTS: Twenty-seven cases were analyzed...
April 27, 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
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