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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089250/pathology-of-behavior-in-pd-what-is-known-and-what-is-not
#1
REVIEW
Kaylena A Ehgoetz Martens, Simon J G Lewis
Abnormal behavior in Parkinson's disease (PD) stems from a complex orchestration of impaired neural networks that result from PD-related neurodegeneration across multiple levels. Typically, cellular and tissue abnormalities generate neurochemical changes and disrupt specific regions of the brain, in turn creating impaired neural circuits and dysfunctional global networks. The objective of this chapter is to provide an overview of the array of pathological changes that have been linked to different behavioral symptoms of PD such as depression, anxiety, apathy, fatigue, impulse control disorders, psychosis, sleep disorders and dementia...
December 29, 2016: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064025/plantar-flexor-muscle-weakness-and-fatigue-in-spastic-cerebral-palsy-patients
#2
Daria Neyroud, Stéphane Armand, Geraldo De Coulon, Sarah R Dias Da Silva, Nicola A Maffiuletti, Bengt Kayser, Nicolas Place
BACKGROUND: Patients with cerebral palsy develop an important muscle weakness which might affect the aetiology and extent of exercise-induced neuromuscular fatigue. AIM: This study evaluated the aetiology and extent of plantar flexor neuromuscular fatigue in patients with cerebral palsy. METHODS: Ten patients with cerebral palsy and 10 age- and sex-matched healthy individuals (∼20 years old, 6 females) performed four 30-s maximal isometric plantar flexions interspaced by a resting period of 2-3s to elicit a resting twitch...
January 5, 2017: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28044431/abnormal-resting-state-neural-activity-and-connectivity-of-fatigue-in-parkinson-s-disease
#3
Jie-Jin Zhang, Jian Ding, Jun-Yi Li, Min Wang, Yong-Sheng Yuan, Li Zhang, Si-Ming Jiang, Xi-Xi Wang, Lin Zhu, Ke-Zhong Zhang
AIMS: Fatigue is a common burdensome problem in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), but its pathophysiological mechanisms are poorly understood. This study aimed at investigating the neural substrates of fatigue in patients with PD. METHODS: A total of 17 PD patients with fatigue, 32 PD patients without fatigue, and 25 matched healthy controls were recruited. The 9-item fatigue severity scale (FSS) was used for fatigue screening and severity rating. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (RS-fMRI) data were obtained from all subjects...
January 3, 2017: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008101/muscle-metabolic-and-neuromuscular-determinants-of-fatigue-during-cycling-in-different-exercise-intensity-domains
#4
Matthew I Black, Andrew M Jones, Jamie R Blackwell, Stephen J Bailey, Lee J Wylie, Sinead T J McDonagh, Christopher Thompson, James Kelly, Paul Sumners, Katya J Mileva, Joanna L Bowtell, Anni Vanhatalo
The lactate or gas exchange threshold (GET) and the critical power (CP) are closely associated with human exercise performance. We tested the hypothesis that the limit of tolerance (Tlim) during cycle exercise performed within the exercise intensity domains demarcated by GET and CP is linked to discrete muscle metabolic and neuromuscular responses. Eleven males performed a ramp incremental exercise test, 4-5 severe-intensity (SEV; >CP) constant-work-rate (CWR) tests until Tlim, a heavy-intensity (HVY; <CP but >GET) CWR test until Tlim, and a moderate-intensity (MOD; <GET) CWR test until Tlim Muscle biopsies revealed that a similar (P>0...
December 22, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000312/motor-adaptations-to-unilateral-quadriceps-fatigue-during-a-bilateral-pedaling-task
#5
N-P Brøchner Nielsen, F Hug, A Guével, V Fohanno, J Lardy, S Dorel
This study was designed to investigate how motor coordination adapts to unilateral fatigue of the quadriceps during a constant-load bilateral pedaling task. We first hypothesized that this local fatigue would not be compensated within the fatigued muscles leading to a decreased knee extension power. Then, we aimed to determine whether this decrease would be compensated by between-joints compensations within the ipsilateral leg and/or an increased contribution of the contralateral leg. Fifteen healthy volunteers were tested during pedaling at 350 W before and after a fatigue protocol consisting of 15 minutes of electromyostimulation on the quadriceps muscle...
December 20, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990123/brief-rewarming-blunts-hypothermia-induced-alterations-in-sensation-motor-drive-and-cognition
#6
Marius Brazaitis, Henrikas Paulauskas, Albertas Skurvydas, Henning Budde, Laura Daniuseviciute, Nerijus Eimantas
Background: It is well known that cold exposure experienced during occupational or recreational activities may adversely affect motor, cognitive performance, and health. Most research has used prolonged passive external rewarming modalities and focused on the direct effects on the kinetics of physiological and psychological responses in hypothermic subjects. However, the brief whole body rewarming effects on physiological and psychological responses in parallel with functional consequences on cognitive and neurophysiological functions have not been investigated...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990107/a-novel-striated-muscle-specific-myosin-blocking-drug-for-the-study-of-neuromuscular-physiology
#7
Dante J Heredia, Douglas Schubert, Siddhardha Maligireddy, Grant W Hennig, Thomas W Gould
The failure to transmit neural action potentials (APs) into muscle APs is referred to as neuromuscular transmission failure (NTF). Although synaptic dysfunction occurs in a variety of neuromuscular diseases and impaired neurotransmission contributes to muscle fatigue, direct evaluation of neurotransmission by measurement of successfully transduced muscle APs is difficult due to the subsequent movements produced by muscle. Moreover, the voltage-gated sodium channel inhibitor used to study neurotransmitter release at the adult neuromuscular junction is ineffective in embryonic tissue, making it nearly impossible to precisely measure any aspect of neurotransmission in embryonic lethal mouse mutants...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981752/the-effect-of-physical-fatigue-on-oscillatory-dynamics-of-the-sensorimotor-cortex
#8
Adam Fry, Karen J Mullinger, George C O'Neill, Matthew J Brookes, Jonathan P Folland
AIM: While physical fatigue is known to arise in part from supraspinal mechanisms within the brain exactly how brain activity is modulated during fatigue is not well understood. Therefore, this study examined how typical neural oscillatory responses to voluntary muscle contractions were affected by fatigue. METHODS: Eleven healthy adults (age 27±4 years) completed two experimental sessions in a randomised crossover design. Both sessions first assessed baseline maximal voluntary isometric wrist-flexion force (MVFb )...
December 16, 2016: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932676/recovery-of-central-and-peripheral-neuromuscular-fatigue-after-exercise
#9
Timothy John Carroll, Janet L Taylor, Simon C Gandevia
Sustained physical exercise leads to a reduced capacity to produce voluntary force that typically outlasts the exercise bout. This "fatigue" can be due both to impaired muscle function, termed "peripheral fatigue", and a reduction in the capacity of the central nervous system to activate muscles, termed "central fatigue". In this mini-review we consider the factors that determine the recovery of voluntary force generating capacity after various types of exercise. After brief, high-intensity exercise there is typically a rapid restitution of force that is due to recovery of central fatigue (typically within 2min) and aspects of peripheral fatigue associated with excitation-contraction coupling and re-perfusion of muscles (typically within 3-5 min)...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928208/the-interaction-of-fatigue-and-potentiation-following-an-acute-bout-of-unilateral-squats
#10
Samantha K Andrews, Jesse M Horodyski, Daniel A MacLeod, Joseph Whitten, David G Behm
A prior conditioning resistance exercise can augment subsequent performance of the affected muscles due to the effects of post-activation potentiation (PAP). The non-local muscle fatigue literature has illustrated the global neural effects of unilateral fatigue. However, no studies have examined the possibility of acute non-local performance enhancements. The objective of the study was to provide a conditioning stimulus in an attempt to potentiate the subsequent jump performance of the affected limb and determine if there were performance changes in the contralateral limb...
December 2016: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891205/the-membrane-potential-process-of-a-single-neuron-seen-as-a-cumulative-damage-process
#11
Mauricio Tejo, Sebastián Niklitschek-Soto
A simple integrate-and-fire mechanism of a single neuron can be compared with a cumulative damage process, where the spiking process is analogous to rupture sequences of a material under cycles of stress. Although in some cases lognormal-like patterns can be recognized in the inter-spike times under a simple integrate-and-fire mechanism, fatigue life models as the inverse Gaussian distribution and the Birnbaum-Saunders distribution (which was recently introduced in the neural activity framework) provide theoretical arguments that make them more suitable for the modeling of the resulting inter-spike times...
December 2016: Cognitive Neurodynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882640/physiological-markers-of-exercise-capacity-and-lung-disease-severity-in-cystic-fibrosis
#12
Laurie Smith, Charles C Reilly, Victoria MacBean, Caroline J Jolley, Caroline Elston, John Moxham, Gerrard F Rafferty
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Peak aerobic capacity (VO2 peak) is an important outcome measure in cystic fibrosis (CF), but measurement is not widely available and can be influenced by patient motivation, pain and fatigue. Alternative markers of disease severity would be helpful. Neural respiratory drive, measured using parasternal intercostal muscle electromyography (EMGpara), reflects the load to capacity balance of the respiratory system and provides a composite measure of pulmonary function impairment in CF...
November 24, 2016: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860516/assessment-of-the-brainstem-mediated-stapedius-muscle-reflex-in-andean-children-living-at-high-altitudes
#13
S Allen Counter, Leo H Buchanan, Fernando Ortega, Anthony B Jacobs, Göran Laurell
Counter, S. Allen, Leo H. Buchanan, Fernando Ortega, Anthony B. Jacobs, and Göran Laurell. Assessment of the brainstem-mediated stapedius muscle reflex in Andean children living at high altitudes. High Alt Med Biol. 16:000-000, 2016.-This study examined the physiological thresholds, amplitude growth, and contraction duration of the acoustic stapedius reflex (ASR) in Andean children aged 2-17 years living at altitudes of 2850 m (Altitude I Group) and 3973 m (Altitude II Group) as part of a general medical assessment of the health status of the children...
November 18, 2016: High Altitude Medicine & Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832610/diaphragm-electromyographic-activity-following-unilateral-mid-cervical-contusion-injury-in-rats
#14
Sabhya Rana, Gary C Sieck, Carlos B Mantilla
Contusion type injuries to the spinal cord are characterized by tissue loss and disruption of spinal pathways. Mid-cervical spinal cord injuries impair the function of respiratory muscles and may contribute to significant respiratory complications. This study systematically assessed the impact of a 100-kDy unilateral C4 contusion injury on diaphragm muscle activity across a range of motor behaviors in rats. Chronic diaphragm EMG was recorded prior to injury, and at 1 and 7 days post injury. Histological analyses assessed the extent of perineuronal net formation, white matter sparing and phrenic motoneuron loss...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830093/strengthened-corticosubcortical-functional-connectivity-during-muscle-fatigue
#15
Zhiguo Jiang, Xiao-Feng Wang, Guang H Yue
The present study examined functional connectivity (FC) between functional MRI (fMRI) signals of the primary motor cortex (M1) and each of the three subcortical neural structures, cerebellum (CB), basal ganglia (BG), and thalamus (TL), during muscle fatigue using the quantile regression technique. Understanding activation relation between the subcortical structures and the M1 during prolonged motor performance should help delineate how central motor control network modulates acute perturbations at peripheral sensorimotor system such as muscle fatigue...
2016: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821022/the-sensory-tolerance-limit-a-hypothetical-construct-determining-exercise-performance
#16
Thomas J Hureau, Lee M Romer, Markus Amann
Neuromuscular fatigue compromises exercise performance and is determined by central and peripheral mechanisms. Interactions between the two components of fatigue can occur via neural pathways, including feedback and feedforward processes. This brief review discusses the influence of feedback and feedforward mechanisms on exercise limitation. In terms of feedback mechanisms, particular attention is given to group III/IV sensory neurons which link limb muscle with the central nervous system. Central corollary discharge, a copy of the neural drive from the brain to the working muscles, provides a signal from the motor system to sensory systems and is considered a feedforward mechanism that might influence fatigue and consequently exercise performance...
November 7, 2016: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27789383/differential-responses-of-spinal-motoneurons-to-fatigue-induced-by-short-lasting-repetitive-and-isometric-tasks
#17
Antonio Madrid, Josep Valls-Solé, Antonio Oliviero, Javier Cudeiro, Pablo Arias
Compared to isometric activities, the neural basis of fatigue induced by repetitive tasks has been scarcely studied. Recently, we showed that during short-lasting repetitive tasks at the maximal possible rate (finger tapping for 10 and 30s), tapping rate and maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) force decrease at the end of finger tapping. We also observed larger silent periods (SP) induced by transcranial magnetic stimulation during MVC post finger tapping. However, if SP were induced by cervicomedullary stimulation (CMS) they remained unchanged...
December 17, 2016: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784689/central-vs-peripheral-determinants-of-sympathetic-neural-recruitment-insights-from-static-handgrip-exercise-and-postexercise-circulatory-occlusion
#18
Mark B Badrov, T Dylan Olver, J Kevin Shoemaker
Sympathetic outflow is modified during acute homeostatic stress through increased firing of low-threshold axons, recruitment of latent axons, and synaptic delay modifications. However, the role of central mechanisms versus peripheral reflex control over sympathetic recruitment remains unknown. Here, we examined sympathetic discharge patterns during fatiguing static handgrip (SHG) exercise and postexercise circulatory occlusion (PECO) to study the central vs. peripheral reflex elements of sympathetic neural coding...
December 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27765642/brain-correlates-of-human-leukocyte-antigen-hla-protection-in-gulf-war-illness-gwi
#19
Lisa M James, Brian E Engdahl, Arthur C Leuthold, Apostolos P Georgopoulos
BACKGROUND: We recently reported that six alleles from class II genes of the Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) confer protection from Gulf War Illness (GWI) (Georgopoulos et al., 2015). The most significant effect is exerted on Neurological-Cognitive-Mood (NCM), Pain, and Fatigue symptoms, such that higher number of copies of the protective alleles are associated with lower symptom severity. Here we tested the hypothesis that this effect is exerted by modulating the strength of neural synchronicity...
November 2016: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27747796/mechanistic-insights-into-the-efficacy-of-sodium-bicarbonate-supplementation-to-improve-athletic-performance
#20
REVIEW
Jason C Siegler, Paul W M Marshall, David Bishop, Greg Shaw, Simon Green
A large proportion of empirical research and reviews investigating the ergogenic potential of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) supplementation have focused predominately on performance outcomes and only speculate about underlying mechanisms responsible for any benefit. The aim of this review was to critically evaluate the influence of NaHCO3 supplementation on mechanisms associated with skeletal muscle fatigue as it translates directly to exercise performance. Mechanistic links between skeletal muscle fatigue, proton accumulation (or metabolic acidosis) and NaHCO3 supplementation have been identified to provide a more targeted, evidence-based approach to direct future research, as well as provide practitioners with a contemporary perspective on the potential applications and limitations of this supplement...
December 2016: Sports Medicine—Open
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