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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746792/the-modulation-of-corticospinal-excitability-and-inhibition-following-acute-resistance-exercise-in-males-and-females
#1
Christopher Latella, Ashlee Hendy, Dan Vanderwesthuizen, Wei-Peng Teo
OBJECTIVE: The acute responses to resistance training (RT) between males and females are poorly understood, especially from a neural perspective. Therefore, we aimed to compare the corticospinal and intracortical responses during fatigue and recovery following RT. METHODS: Twenty-two participants (12M, 10F) completed one-session of RT (3 × 12 repetition maximum) unilateral leg extensions with 60 s recovery. Single- and paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation measured changes in the motor-evoked potential (MEP), corticospinal silent period (CSP), CSP/MEP ratio, and intracortical facilitation/inhibition (ICF, SICI)...
May 10, 2018: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745525/-quantitative-assessment-of-motor-function-in-patients-with-parkinson-s-disease-using-wearable-sensors
#2
Tianyu Shen, Jiping Wang, Liquan Guo, Qifan Bai, Huijun Zhang, Shouyan Wang, Daxi Xiong
Motor dysfunction is the main clinical symptom and diagnosis basis of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). A total of 30 subjects were recruited in this study, including 15 PD patients (PD group) and 15 healthy subjects (control group). Then 5 wearable inertial sensor nodes were worn on the bilateral upper limbs, lower limbs and waist of subjects. When completing the 6 paradigm tasks, the acceleration and angular velocity signals from different parts of the body were acquired and analyzed to obtain 20 quantitative parameters which contain information about the amplitude, frequency, and fatigue degree of movements to assess the motor function...
April 1, 2018: Sheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue za Zhi, Journal of Biomedical Engineering, Shengwu Yixue Gongchengxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738794/motivational-fatigue-a-neurocognitive-framework-for-the-impact-of-effortful-exertion-on-subsequent-motivation
#3
Tanja Müller, Matthew A J Apps
Fatigue - a feeling of exhaustion arising from exertion - is a significant barrier to successful behaviour and one of the most prominent symptoms in primary care. During extended behaviours, fatigue increases over time, leading to decrements in performance in both physically and cognitively demanding tasks. However, to date, theoretical accounts of fatigue have not fully characterised the neuroanatomical basis of cognitive and physical fatigue nor placed results within broader discussions of the functional properties of the systems implicated...
May 5, 2018: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730417/myelin-injury-in-the-central-nervous-system-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#4
REVIEW
Sha-Sha Wang, Zhao Zhang, Tian-Bi Zhu, Shi-Feng Chu, Wen-Bin He, Nai-Hong Chen
Myelin is a membrane wrapped around the axon of the nerve cell, which is composed of the mature oligodendrocytes. The role of myelin is to insulate and prevent the nerve electrical impulses from the axon of the neurons to the axons of the other neurons, which is essential for the proper functioning of the nervous system. Minor changes in myelin thickness could lead to substantial changes in conduction speed and may thus alter neural circuit function. Demyelination is the myelin damage, which characterized by the loss of nerve sheath and the relative fatigue of the neuronal sheath and axon...
May 3, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718968/acute-attenuation-of-fatigue-after-sodium-bicarbonate-supplementation-does-not-manifest-into-greater-training-adaptations-after-10-weeks-of-resistance-training-exercise
#5
Jason C Siegler, Paul W M Marshall, Harrison Finn, Rebecca Cross, Kurt Mudie
PURPOSE: In two concurrent studies, we aimed to a) confirm the acute effect of 0.3 g·kg-1 body weight (BW) sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) supplementation on central and peripheral mechanisms associated with explosive power (Study 1) and b) determine whether chronic NaHCO3 supplementation would improve the adaptive response of the neuromuscular system during a 10-week resistance training program (Study 2). METHODS: Eight resistance trained participants volunteered after providing written consent...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704398/the-effect-of-ipc-on-central-and-peripheral-fatiguing-mechanisms-in-humans-following-sustained-maximal-isometric-exercise
#6
Samuel L Halley, Paul Marshall, Jason C Siegler
NEW FINDINGS: What is the central question of this study? Does ischemic preconditioning (IPC) influence central and peripheral fatiguing mechanisms during sustained maximal isometric exercise? What is the main finding and its importance? Voluntary activation and pre- to post-exercise reductions in resting twitch torque values were unchanged by IPC. However, an effect on tissue oxygenation was observed within the IPC trials where greater concentrations of deoxyhaemoglobin were recorded with concurrent upward trends of total haemoglobin concentrations...
April 28, 2018: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29701483/on-task-considerations-and-future-directions-for-studies-of-corticospinal-excitability-in-exercise-neuroscience-and-related-disciplines
#7
Jayne M Kalmar
Over the last few decades, transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has emerged as a conventional laboratory technique in human neurophysiological research. Exercise neuroscientists have used TMS to study central nervous system contributions to fatigue, training, and performance in health, injury, and disease. In such studies, corticospinal excitability is often assessed at rest or during simple isometric tasks with the implication that the results may be extrapolated to more functional and complex movement outside of the laboratory...
April 27, 2018: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29698051/the-variability-puzzle-in-human-memory
#8
Michael J Kahana, Eash V Aggarwal, Tung D Phan
Memory performance exhibits a high level of variability from moment to moment. Much of this variability may reflect inadequately controlled experimental variables, such as word memorability, past practice and subject fatigue. Alternatively, stochastic variability in performance may largely reflect the efficiency of endogenous neural processes that govern memory function. To help adjudicate between these competing views, the authors conducted a multisession study in which subjects completed 552 trials of a delayed free-recall task...
April 26, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684047/effect-of-hypnotic-suggestion-on-knee-extensor-neuromuscular-properties-in-resting-and-fatigued-states
#9
Naiandra Dittrich, Daniel Agostino, Roberta Antonini Philippe, Luiz Guilherme A Guglielmo, Nicolas Place
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate whether hypnotic suggestions can alter knee extensor neuromuscular function at rest and during exercise. METHODS: Thirteen healthy volunteers (8 men and 5 women, 27 ± 3 years old) took part in this counterbalanced, crossover study including two experimental (hypnosis and control) sessions. Knee extensor neuromuscular function was tested before and after hypnosis suggestion by using a combination of voluntary contraction, transcutaneous femoral nerve electrical stimulation and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644436/the-neural-effects-of-positively-and-negatively-re-experiencing-mental-fatigue-sensation-a-magnetoencephalography-study
#10
Akira Ishii, Takuya Ishizuka, Yuki Muta, Masaaki Tanaka, Emi Yamano, Yasuyoshi Watanabe
Fatigue sensation is an essential biological alarm that urges us to take rest to avoid disrupting homeostasis and thus plays an important role in maintaining well-being. However, there are situations in which the anticipation of unpleasant fatigue sensation undesirably reduces motivation for activity. The aim of this study was to examine whether thinking positively about the fatigue sensation would increase motivation to accomplish the workload. Fourteen healthy male volunteers participated in this study and performed a two-back test for 30 min to induce mental fatigue sensation...
April 11, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628071/fatigue-is-associated-with-altered-monitoring-and-preparation-of-physical-effort-in-patients-with-chronic-fatigue-syndrome
#11
Marieke E van der Schaaf, Karin Roelofs, Floris P de Lange, Dirk E M Geurts, Jos W M van der Meer, Hans Knoop, Ivan Toni
BACKGROUND: Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is characterized by disabling fatigue, which is suggested to be maintained by dysfunctional beliefs. Fatigue and its maintenance are recently conceptualized as arising from abnormally precise expectations about bodily inputs and from beliefs of diminished control over bodily states, respectively. This study used functional neuroimaging to identify the neural correlates of fatigue and its maintenance by beliefs during a physical effort task. METHODS: We isolated behavioral adjustments and cerebral activity during feedback processing and motor preparation, in the context of a task in which patients with CFS (n = 85) and healthy control subjects (n = 29) produced 30%, 50%, and 70% of their right-hand maximal voluntary contraction, and received directional feedback on performance (e...
April 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620381/the-cognitive-effort-expenditure-for-rewards-task-c-eefrt-a-novel-measure-of-willingness-to-expend-cognitive-effort
#12
Paula Lopez-Gamundi, Margaret C Wardle
Research in animals suggests that decisions about physical versus cognitive effort have distinct neural bases, but exploration of this question in humans is hampered by lack of parallel measures of physical and cognitive effort for rewards. We developed a novel measure of willingness to exert cognitive effort for rewards, the C-EEfRT, paralleling the validated physical effort expenditure for rewards task (EEfRT). To validate the C-EEfRT we: (a) tested whether EEfRT and C-EEfRT tasks were equivalently difficult; (b) tested whether decisions on the EEfRT and C-EEfRT were equivalently responsive to changes in reward; (c) examined relationships between the C-EEfRT and anhedonia, intelligence, and working memory...
April 5, 2018: Psychological Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618280/progressive-resistance-exercise-training-and-changes-in-resting-state-functional-connectivity-of-the-caudate-in-persons-with-multiple-sclerosis-and-severe-fatigue-a-proof-of-concept-study
#13
Nadine Akbar, Brian M Sandroff, Glenn R Wylie, Lauren B Strober, Angela Smith, Yael Goverover, Robert W Motl, John DeLuca, Helen Genova
Fatigue is one of the most disabling symptoms of multiple sclerosis (MS). While progressive resistance training (PRT) has been shown to reduce fatigue in persons with MS, it is not clear why these reductions occur. One hypothesis is that PRT may induce functional changes to the caudate, a region highly implicated in MS fatigue. The aim of the current study was to study the effects of PRT on overall fatigue impact and resting-state functional connectivity of the caudate in persons with MS reporting severe fatigue...
April 4, 2018: Neuropsychological Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29601888/reward-sensitivity-following-boredom-and-cognitive-effort-a-high-powered-neurophysiological-investigation
#14
Marina Milyavskaya, Michael Inzlicht, Travis Johnson, Michael J Larson
What do people feel like doing after they have exerted cognitive effort or are bored? Here, we empirically test whether people are drawn to rewards (at the neural level) following cognitive effort and boredom. This elucidates the experiences and consequences of engaging in cognitive effort, and compares it to the consequences of experiencing boredom, an affective state with predicted similar motivational consequences. Event-related potentials were recorded after participants (N=243) were randomized into one of three conditions - boredom (passively observing strings of numbers), cognitive effort (adding 3 to each digit of a four-digit number), or control...
March 27, 2018: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29596487/involvement-of-the-olfactory-system-in-the-induction-of-anti-fatigue-effects-by-odorants
#15
Naoko Saito, Emi Yamano, Akira Ishii, Masaaki Tanaka, Junji Nakamura, Yasuyoshi Watanabe
Some components of the neural circuits underlying innate odor-evoked responses have recently been elucidated. Odor information detected by the olfactory receptors is transmitted from the olfactory bulb to the cortical amygdala, where physiological and emotional states such as attraction or avoidance are controlled. Thus, activation of specific olfactory receptors can elicit changes in physiological and/or psychological state. Here, we examined on the odorant Hex-Hex Mix, which has been reported to induce anti-fatigue effects...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29596017/mechanisms-for-the-increased-fatigability-of-the-lower-limb-in-people-with-type-2-diabetes
#16
Jonathon Senefeld, Steven B Magill, April Harkins, Alison Rosemary Harmer, Sandra K Hunter
Fatiguing exercise is the basis of exercise training and a cornerstone of management of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D), however, little is known about the fatigability of limb muscles and the involved mechanisms in people with T2D. The purpose was to compare fatigability of knee extensor muscles between people with T2D and controls without diabetes and determine the neural and muscular mechanisms for a dynamic fatiguing task. Seventeen people with T2D (10 men, 7 women: 59.6{plus minus}9.0 years) and 21 age-, BMI- and physical activity-matched controls (11 men, 10 women: 59...
March 29, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29594521/cortical-neural-arousal-is-differentially-affected-by-type-of-physical-exercise-performed
#17
Nicholas J Hanson, Lindsey E Short, Lauren T Flood, Nicholas P Cherup, Michael G Miller
Critical flicker frequency (CFF) threshold is a visual discrimination task designed to assess cortical neural arousal, where higher values are associated with increased information processing and improved cognitive function. Previous studies using CFF assessments before and after exercise have only used one type of exercise (e.g., short, fatiguing, steady state, time to exhaustion, etc.). Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the effect of exercise type and intensity on neural arousal. 22 recreational runners (10 men, 12 women; age 25 ± 6 years) volunteered to participate in the study...
March 28, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593637/structural-and-functional-brain-patterns-of-non-motor-syndromes-in-parkinson-s-disease
#18
REVIEW
Tino Prell
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common, progressive and multisystem neurodegenerative disorder characterized by motor and non-motor symptoms. Advanced magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography, and functional magnetic resonance imaging can render the view toward understanding the neural basis of these non-motor syndromes, as they help to understand the underlying pathophysiological abnormalities. This review provides an up-to-date description of structural and functional brain alterations in patients with PD with cognitive deficits, visual hallucinations, fatigue, impulsive behavior disorders, sleep disorders, and pain...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29550562/muscle-fibers-and-their-synapses-differentially-adapt-to-aging-and-endurance-training
#19
Michael R Deschenes, Shuhan Li, Matthew A Adan, Jane J Oh, Hailey C Ramsey
BACKGROUND: This project aimed to determine the adaptability of the neuromuscular system to the stimuli of exercise training, and aging. METHODS: Young adult, and aged male rats were randomly assigned to either exercise training, or sedentary control groups. Exercise training featured an 8 week program of treadmill running. At the end of the intervention period, neuromuscular function was quantified with ex vivo stimulation procedures on isolated soleus muscles...
March 14, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29526169/factors-associated-with-fatal-outcome-of-children-with-enterovirus-a71-infection-a-case-series
#20
S D Yang, P Q Li, Y G Huang, W Li, L Z Ma, L Wu, N Wang, J M Lu, W Q Chen, Guang-Ming Liu, Y M Xiong, Y L Chen, Ying Zhang
Enterovirus A-71 (EV-A71) may be fatal, but the natural history, symptoms, and signs are poorly understood. This study aimed to examine the natural history of fatal EV-A71 infection and to identify the symptoms and signs of early warning of deterioration. This was a clinical observational study of fatal cases of EV-A71 infection treated at five Chinese hospitals between 1 January 2010 and 31 December 2012. We recorded and analysed 91 manifestations of EV-A71 infection in order to identify early prognosis indicators...
April 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
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