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Neural fatigue

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891205/the-membrane-potential-process-of-a-single-neuron-seen-as-a-cumulative-damage-process
#1
Mauricio Tejo, Sebastián Niklitschek-Soto
A simple integrate-and-fire mechanism of a single neuron can be compared with a cumulative damage process, where the spiking process is analogous to rupture sequences of a material under cycles of stress. Although in some cases lognormal-like patterns can be recognized in the inter-spike times under a simple integrate-and-fire mechanism, fatigue life models as the inverse Gaussian distribution and the Birnbaum-Saunders distribution (which was recently introduced in the neural activity framework) provide theoretical arguments that make them more suitable for the modeling of the resulting inter-spike times...
December 2016: Cognitive Neurodynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882640/physiological-markers-of-exercise-capacity-and-lung-disease-severity-in-cystic-fibrosis
#2
Laurie Smith, Charles C Reilly, Victoria MacBean, Caroline J Jolley, Caroline Elston, John Moxham, Gerrard F Rafferty
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Peak aerobic capacity (VO2 peak) is an important outcome measure in cystic fibrosis (CF), but measurement is not widely available and can be influenced by patient motivation, pain and fatigue. Alternative markers of disease severity would be helpful. Neural respiratory drive, measured using parasternal intercostal muscle electromyography (EMGpara), reflects the load to capacity balance of the respiratory system and provides a composite measure of pulmonary function impairment in CF...
November 24, 2016: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860516/assessment-of-the-brainstem-mediated-stapedius-muscle-reflex-in-andean-children-living-at-high-altitudes
#3
S Allen Counter, Leo H Buchanan, Fernando Ortega, Anthony B Jacobs, Göran Laurell
Counter, S. Allen, Leo H. Buchanan, Fernando Ortega, Anthony B. Jacobs, and Göran Laurell. Assessment of the brainstem-mediated stapedius muscle reflex in Andean children living at high altitudes. High Alt Med Biol. 16:000-000, 2016.-This study examined the physiological thresholds, amplitude growth, and contraction duration of the acoustic stapedius reflex (ASR) in Andean children aged 2-17 years living at altitudes of 2850 m (Altitude I Group) and 3973 m (Altitude II Group) as part of a general medical assessment of the health status of the children...
November 18, 2016: High Altitude Medicine & Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832610/diaphragm-electromyographic-activity-following-unilateral-mid-cervical-contusion-injury-in-rats
#4
Sabhya Rana, Gary C Sieck, Carlos B Mantilla
Contusion type injuries to the spinal cord are characterized by tissue loss and disruption of spinal pathways. Mid-cervical spinal cord injuries impair the function of respiratory muscles and may contribute to significant respiratory complications. This study systematically assessed the impact of a 100-kDy unilateral C4 contusion injury on diaphragm muscle activity across a range of motor behaviors in rats. Chronic diaphragm EMG was recorded prior to injury, and at 1 and 7 days post injury. Histological analyses assessed the extent of perineuronal net formation, white matter sparing and phrenic motoneuron loss...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830093/strengthened-corticosubcortical-functional-connectivity-during-muscle-fatigue
#5
Zhiguo Jiang, Xiao-Feng Wang, Guang H Yue
The present study examined functional connectivity (FC) between functional MRI (fMRI) signals of the primary motor cortex (M1) and each of the three subcortical neural structures, cerebellum (CB), basal ganglia (BG), and thalamus (TL), during muscle fatigue using the quantile regression technique. Understanding activation relation between the subcortical structures and the M1 during prolonged motor performance should help delineate how central motor control network modulates acute perturbations at peripheral sensorimotor system such as muscle fatigue...
2016: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821022/the-sensory-tolerance-limit-a-hypothetical-construct-determining-exercise-performance
#6
Thomas J Hureau, Lee M Romer, Markus Amann
Neuromuscular fatigue compromises exercise performance and is determined by central and peripheral mechanisms. Interactions between the two components of fatigue can occur via neural pathways, including feedback and feedforward processes. This brief review discusses the influence of feedback and feedforward mechanisms on exercise limitation. In terms of feedback mechanisms, particular attention is given to group III/IV sensory neurons which link limb muscle with the central nervous system. Central corollary discharge, a copy of the neural drive from the brain to the working muscles, provides a signal from the motor system to sensory systems and is considered a feedforward mechanism that might influence fatigue and consequently exercise performance...
November 7, 2016: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27789383/differential-responses-of-spinal-motoneurons-to-fatigue-induced-by-short-lasting-repetitive-and-isometric-tasks
#7
Antonio Madrid, Josep Valls-Solé, Antonio Oliviero, Javier Cudeiro, Pablo Arias
Compared to isometric activities, the neural basis of fatigue induced by repetitive tasks has been scarcely studied. Recently, we showed that during short-lasting repetitive tasks at the maximal possible rate (finger tapping for 10 and 30s), tapping rate and maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) force decrease at the end of finger tapping. We also observed larger silent periods (SP) induced by transcranial magnetic stimulation during MVC post finger tapping. However, if SP were induced by cervicomedullary stimulation (CMS) they remained unchanged...
December 17, 2016: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784689/central-vs-peripheral-determinants-of-sympathetic-neural-recruitment-insights-from-static-handgrip-exercise-and-postexercise-circulatory-occlusion
#8
Mark B Badrov, T Dylan Olver, J Kevin Shoemaker
Sympathetic outflow is modified during acute homeostatic stress through increased firing of low-threshold axons, recruitment of latent axons, and synaptic delay modifications. However, the role of central mechanisms versus peripheral reflex control over sympathetic recruitment remains unknown. Here, we examined sympathetic discharge patterns during fatiguing static handgrip (SHG) exercise and postexercise circulatory occlusion (PECO) to study the central vs. peripheral reflex elements of sympathetic neural coding...
December 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27765642/brain-correlates-of-human-leukocyte-antigen-hla-protection-in-gulf-war-illness-gwi
#9
Lisa M James, Brian E Engdahl, Arthur C Leuthold, Apostolos P Georgopoulos
BACKGROUND: We recently reported that six alleles from class II genes of the Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) confer protection from Gulf War Illness (GWI) (Georgopoulos et al., 2015). The most significant effect is exerted on Neurological-Cognitive-Mood (NCM), Pain, and Fatigue symptoms, such that higher number of copies of the protective alleles are associated with lower symptom severity. Here we tested the hypothesis that this effect is exerted by modulating the strength of neural synchronicity...
October 14, 2016: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27747796/mechanistic-insights-into-the-efficacy-of-sodium-bicarbonate-supplementation-to-improve-athletic-performance
#10
Jason C Siegler, Paul W M Marshall, David Bishop, Greg Shaw, Simon Green
A large proportion of empirical research and reviews investigating the ergogenic potential of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) supplementation have focused predominately on performance outcomes and only speculate about underlying mechanisms responsible for any benefit. The aim of this review was to critically evaluate the influence of NaHCO3 supplementation on mechanisms associated with skeletal muscle fatigue as it translates directly to exercise performance. Mechanistic links between skeletal muscle fatigue, proton accumulation (or metabolic acidosis) and NaHCO3 supplementation have been identified to provide a more targeted, evidence-based approach to direct future research, as well as provide practitioners with a contemporary perspective on the potential applications and limitations of this supplement...
December 2016: Sports Medicine—Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27738990/cognitive-fatigue-is-associated-with-reduced-anterior-internal-capsule-integrity-in-veterans-with-history-of-mild-to-moderate-traumatic-brain-injury
#11
Alexandra L Clark, Lisa Delano-Wood, Scott F Sorg, Madeleine L Werhane, Karen L Hanson, Dawn M Schiehser
No known studies have directly examined white matter microstructural correlates of cognitive fatigue post-TBI in a Veteran sample. We therefore investigated the relationship between cognitive fatigue and white matter integrity in Veterans with history of mild to moderate TBI (mmTBI). 59 Veterans (TBI = 34, Veteran Controls [VCs] = 25]) with and without history of mmTBI underwent structural 3T DTI scans and completed questionnaires related to cognitive fatigue and psychiatric symptoms. Tractography was employed on six regions of interest, including the anterior and posterior limbs of the internal capsule; genu; body and splenium of the corpus callosum; and cingulum bundle...
October 6, 2016: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27709065/low-putamen-activity-associated-with-poor-reward-sensitivity-in-childhood-chronic-fatigue-syndrome
#12
Kei Mizuno, Junko Kawatani, Kanako Tajima, Akihiro T Sasaki, Tetsuya Yoneda, Masanori Komi, Toshinori Hirai, Akemi Tomoda, Takako Joudoi, Yasuyoshi Watanabe
Motivational signals influence a wide variety of cognitive processes and components of behavioral performance. Cognitive dysfunction in patients with childhood chronic fatigue syndrome (CCFS) may be closely associated with a low motivation to learn induced by impaired neural reward processing. However, the extent to which reward processing is impaired in CCFS patients is unclear. The aim of the present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study was to determine whether brain activity in regions related to reward sensitivity is impaired in CCFS patients...
2016: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27693139/imbalanced-activity-in-the-orbitofrontal-cortex-and-nucleus-accumbens-impairs-behavioral-inhibition
#13
Heidi C Meyer, David J Bucci
Contemporary models of behavioral regulation maintain that balanced activity between cognitive control areas (prefrontal cortex, PFC) and subcortical reward-related regions (nucleus accumbens, NAC) mediates the selection of appropriate behavioral responses, whereas imbalanced activity (PFC < NAC) results in maladaptive behavior [1-6]. Imbalance can arise from reduced engagement of PFC (via fatigue or stress [7]) or from excessive activity in NAC [8]. Additionally, a concept far less researched is that an imbalance can result from simultaneously low PFC activity and high NAC activity...
October 24, 2016: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27680211/critical-neural-targets-for-the-level-of-human-consciousness-arousal-arrest-and-unconsciousness-after-sumatriptan-administration
#14
Jaakko W Långsjö, Kai Lehtimäki, Jyrki Ruohonen, Anne Sajanti, Satu Sandell, Hannu T Heikkilä, Antti Brander, Kari Saarinen, Lauri Herrala
BACKGROUND: Insufficient understanding of the mechanisms of consciousness can make unconsciousness a diagnostic challenge, directly effecting the treatment and the outcome of the patient. Consciousness is a product of brainstem arousal (wakefulness, the level of consciousness) and cortical information integration (awareness, the contents of consciousness). The thalamus serves as a critical hub in the arousal pathway. The nuclei within the internal medullary lamina, together with the associated thalamocortical connections, have been implicated as being especially important for human consciousness...
September 28, 2016: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27678090/static-and-dynamic-functional-connectivity-in-patients-with-chronic-fatigue-syndrome-use-of-arterial-spin-labelling-fmri
#15
Jeff Boissoneault, Janelle Letzen, Song Lai, Michael E Robinson, Roland Staud
Studies using arterial spin labelling (ASL) have shown that individuals with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) have decreased regional cerebral blood flow, which may be associated with changes in functional neural networks. Indeed, recent studies indicate disruptions in functional connectivity (FC) at rest in chronically fatigued patients including perturbations in static FC (sFC), that is average FC at rest between several brain regions subserving neurocognitive, motor and affect-related networks. Whereas sFC often provides information of functional network reorganization in chronic illnesses, investigations of temporal changes in functional connectivity between multiple brain areas may shed light on the dynamic characteristics of brain network activation associated with such maladies...
September 28, 2016: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27647312/emotional-conflict-processing-in-adolescent-chronic-fatigue-syndrome-a-pilot-study-using-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#16
Laura Anne Wortinger, Tor Endestad, Annika Maria D Melinder, Merete Glenne Øie, Dag Sulheim, Even Fagermoen, Vegard Bruun Wyller
INTRODUCTION: Studies of neurocognition suggest that abnormalities in cognitive control contribute to the pathophysiology of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) in adolescents, yet these abnormalities remain poorly understood at the neurobiological level. Reports indicate that adolescents with CFS are significantly impaired in conflict processing, a primary element of cognitive control. METHOD: In this study, we examine whether emotional conflict processing is altered on behavioral and neural levels in adolescents with CFS and a healthy comparison group...
September 20, 2016: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27639958/light-deprivation-produces-a-sexual-dimorphic-effect-on-neural-excitability-and-depression-like-behavior-in-mice
#17
Chanyi Lu, Yun Wang, Yun-Feng Zhang
Light sensory experience plays a crucial role in the regulation of mood, and light deficiency is considered as one important factor potentially leading to depression. Women are twice as likely as men to suffer from depression. However, the physiological mechanism underlying sex differences in the prevalence, incidence and morbidity risk of depression is still poorly understood. The potential causal relationship between sex dimorphic behavioral deficits and altered intrinsic electrophysiological properties of Layer V pyramidal cells (L5PCs) in the motor cortex was investigated using a mouse model with depression-like behavior that was induced by light deprivation...
October 28, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27626806/optimizing-estimates-of-instantaneous-heart-rate-from-pulse-wave-signals-with-the-synchrosqueezing-transform
#18
Hau-Tieng Wu, Gregory F Lewis, Maria I Davila, Ingrid Daubechies, Stephen W Porges
BACKGROUND: With recent advances in sensor and computer technologies, the ability to monitor peripheral pulse activity is no longer limited to the laboratory and clinic. Now inexpensive sensors, which interface with smartphones or other computer-based devices, are expanding into the consumer market. When appropriate algorithms are applied, these new technologies enable ambulatory monitoring of dynamic physiological responses outside the clinic in a variety of applications including monitoring fatigue, health, workload, fitness, and rehabilitation...
October 17, 2016: Methods of Information in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27603573/uncovering-cortico-striatal-correlates-of-cognitive-fatigue-in-pediatric-acquired-brain-disorder-evidence-from-traumatic-brain-injury
#19
Nicholas P Ryan, Miriam H Beauchamp, Richard Beare, Lee Coleman, Michael Ditchfield, Michael Kean, Timothy J Silk, Sila Genc, Cathy Catroppa, Vicki A Anderson
Cognitive fatigue is among the most profound and disabling sequelae of pediatric acquired brain disorders, however the neural correlates of these symptoms in children remains unexplored. One hypothesis suggests that cognitive fatigue may arise from dysfunction of cortico-striatal networks (CSNs) implicated in effort output and outcome valuation. Using pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI) as a model, this study investigated (i) the sub-acute effect of brain injury on CSN volume; and (ii) potential relationships between cognitive fatigue and sub-acute volumetric abnormalities of the CSN...
October 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27580899/cumulative-evidence-for-ms-as-a-neural-network-disconnection-syndrome-consistent-with-cognitive-impairment-mechanisms-and-the-confounding-role-of-fatigue-and-depression-outlook-from-the-fourth-nordic-ms-symposium
#20
REVIEW
H van Ettinger-Veenstra
The Fourth Nordic MS symposium served as a platform to present an overview over the rise and impact of cognitive impairment in people with MS, from early stages on, impairing their quality of life. After discussing MS and cognitive impairment symptoms, a review on the pathophysiology underlying cognitive impairment was given, followed by a talk on neuroimaging highlighting cortical reorganization in MS-affected brains. As a conclusion, therapy and treatment options were discussed. The symposium presented several cutting-edge research studies providing or testing working models that appear successful in predicting and explaining cognitive impairment in MS, such as the disconnection syndrome...
September 2016: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica
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