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Neural fatigue

Lisa M James, Brian E Engdahl, Arthur C Leuthold, Apostolos P Georgopoulos
BACKGROUND: We recently reported that six alleles from class II genes of the Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) confer protection from Gulf War Illness (GWI) (Georgopoulos et al., 2015). The most significant effect is exerted on Neurological-Cognitive-Mood (NCM), Pain, and Fatigue symptoms, such that higher number of copies of the protective alleles are associated with lower symptom severity. Here we tested the hypothesis that this effect is exerted by modulating the strength of neural synchronicity...
October 14, 2016: EBioMedicine
Jason C Siegler, Paul W M Marshall, David Bishop, Greg Shaw, Simon Green
A large proportion of empirical research and reviews investigating the ergogenic potential of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) supplementation have focused predominately on performance outcomes and only speculate about underlying mechanisms responsible for any benefit. The aim of this review was to critically evaluate the influence of NaHCO3 supplementation on mechanisms associated with skeletal muscle fatigue as it translates directly to exercise performance. Mechanistic links between skeletal muscle fatigue, proton accumulation (or metabolic acidosis) and NaHCO3 supplementation have been identified to provide a more targeted, evidence-based approach to direct future research, as well as provide practitioners with a contemporary perspective on the potential applications and limitations of this supplement...
December 2016: Sports Medicine—Open
Alexandra L Clark, Lisa Delano-Wood, Scott F Sorg, Madeleine L Werhane, Karen L Hanson, Dawn M Schiehser
No known studies have directly examined white matter microstructural correlates of cognitive fatigue post-TBI in a Veteran sample. We therefore investigated the relationship between cognitive fatigue and white matter integrity in Veterans with history of mild to moderate TBI (mmTBI). 59 Veterans (TBI = 34, Veteran Controls [VCs] = 25]) with and without history of mmTBI underwent structural 3T DTI scans and completed questionnaires related to cognitive fatigue and psychiatric symptoms. Tractography was employed on six regions of interest, including the anterior and posterior limbs of the internal capsule; genu; body and splenium of the corpus callosum; and cingulum bundle...
October 6, 2016: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Kei Mizuno, Junko Kawatani, Kanako Tajima, Akihiro T Sasaki, Tetsuya Yoneda, Masanori Komi, Toshinori Hirai, Akemi Tomoda, Takako Joudoi, Yasuyoshi Watanabe
Motivational signals influence a wide variety of cognitive processes and components of behavioral performance. Cognitive dysfunction in patients with childhood chronic fatigue syndrome (CCFS) may be closely associated with a low motivation to learn induced by impaired neural reward processing. However, the extent to which reward processing is impaired in CCFS patients is unclear. The aim of the present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study was to determine whether brain activity in regions related to reward sensitivity is impaired in CCFS patients...
2016: NeuroImage: Clinical
Heidi C Meyer, David J Bucci
Contemporary models of behavioral regulation maintain that balanced activity between cognitive control areas (prefrontal cortex, PFC) and subcortical reward-related regions (nucleus accumbens, NAC) mediates the selection of appropriate behavioral responses, whereas imbalanced activity (PFC < NAC) results in maladaptive behavior [1-6]. Imbalance can arise from reduced engagement of PFC (via fatigue or stress [7]) or from excessive activity in NAC [8]. Additionally, a concept far less researched is that an imbalance can result from simultaneously low PFC activity and high NAC activity...
September 20, 2016: Current Biology: CB
Jaakko W Långsjö, Kai Lehtimäki, Jyrki Ruohonen, Anne Sajanti, Satu Sandell, Hannu T Heikkilä, Antti Brander, Kari Saarinen, Lauri Herrala
BACKGROUND: Insufficient understanding of the mechanisms of consciousness can make unconsciousness a diagnostic challenge, directly effecting the treatment and the outcome of the patient. Consciousness is a product of brainstem arousal (wakefulness, the level of consciousness) and cortical information integration (awareness, the contents of consciousness). The thalamus serves as a critical hub in the arousal pathway. The nuclei within the internal medullary lamina, together with the associated thalamocortical connections, have been implicated as being especially important for human consciousness...
September 28, 2016: Brain Injury: [BI]
Jeff Boissoneault, Janelle Letzen, Song Lai, Michael E Robinson, Roland Staud
Studies using arterial spin labelling (ASL) have shown that individuals with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) have decreased regional cerebral blood flow, which may be associated with changes in functional neural networks. Indeed, recent studies indicate disruptions in functional connectivity (FC) at rest in chronically fatigued patients including perturbations in static FC (sFC), that is average FC at rest between several brain regions subserving neurocognitive, motor and affect-related networks. Whereas sFC often provides information of functional network reorganization in chronic illnesses, investigations of temporal changes in functional connectivity between multiple brain areas may shed light on the dynamic characteristics of brain network activation associated with such maladies...
September 28, 2016: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
Laura Anne Wortinger, Tor Endestad, Annika Maria D Melinder, Merete Glenne Øie, Dag Sulheim, Even Fagermoen, Vegard Bruun Wyller
INTRODUCTION: Studies of neurocognition suggest that abnormalities in cognitive control contribute to the pathophysiology of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) in adolescents, yet these abnormalities remain poorly understood at the neurobiological level. Reports indicate that adolescents with CFS are significantly impaired in conflict processing, a primary element of cognitive control. METHOD: In this study, we examine whether emotional conflict processing is altered on behavioral and neural levels in adolescents with CFS and a healthy comparison group...
September 20, 2016: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
Chanyi Lu, Yun Wang, Yun-Feng Zhang
Light sensory experience plays a crucial role in the regulation of mood, and light deficiency is considered as one important factor potentially leading to depression. Women are twice as likely as men to suffer from depression. However, the physiological mechanism underlying sex differences in the prevalence, incidence and morbidity risk of depression is still poorly understood. The potential causal relationship between sex dimorphic behavioral deficits and altered intrinsic electrophysiological properties of Layer V pyramidal cells (L5PCs) in the motor cortex was investigated using a mouse model with depression-like behavior that was induced by light deprivation...
October 28, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
Hau-Tieng Wu, Gregory F Lewis, Maria I Davila, Ingrid Daubechies, Stephen W Porges
BACKGROUND: With recent advances in sensor and computer technologies, the ability to monitor peripheral pulse activity is no longer limited to the laboratory and clinic. Now inexpensive sensors, which interface with smartphones or other computer-based devices, are expanding into the consumer market. When appropriate algorithms are applied, these new technologies enable ambulatory monitoring of dynamic physiological responses outside the clinic in a variety of applications including monitoring fatigue, health, workload, fitness, and rehabilitation...
October 17, 2016: Methods of Information in Medicine
Nicholas P Ryan, Miriam H Beauchamp, Richard Beare, Lee Coleman, Michael Ditchfield, Michael Kean, Timothy J Silk, Sila Genc, Cathy Catroppa, Vicki A Anderson
Cognitive fatigue is among the most profound and disabling sequelae of pediatric acquired brain disorders, however the neural correlates of these symptoms in children remains unexplored. One hypothesis suggests that cognitive fatigue may arise from dysfunction of cortico-striatal networks (CSNs) implicated in effort output and outcome valuation. Using pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI) as a model, this study investigated (i) the sub-acute effect of brain injury on CSN volume; and (ii) potential relationships between cognitive fatigue and sub-acute volumetric abnormalities of the CSN...
October 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
H van Ettinger-Veenstra
The Fourth Nordic MS symposium served as a platform to present an overview over the rise and impact of cognitive impairment in people with MS, from early stages on, impairing their quality of life. After discussing MS and cognitive impairment symptoms, a review on the pathophysiology underlying cognitive impairment was given, followed by a talk on neuroimaging highlighting cortical reorganization in MS-affected brains. As a conclusion, therapy and treatment options were discussed. The symposium presented several cutting-edge research studies providing or testing working models that appear successful in predicting and explaining cognitive impairment in MS, such as the disconnection syndrome...
September 2016: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica
Brenda Banwell, Douglas L Arnold, Jan-Mendelt Tillema, Maria A Rocca, Massimo Filippi, Bianca Weinstock-Guttman, Robert Zivadinov, Maria Pia Sormani
MRI plays a pivotal role in the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis (MS) in children, as it does in adults. The presence of multiple lesions in CNS locations commonly affected by MS, along with the presence of both enhancing and nonenhancing lesions, can facilitate a diagnosis of MS at the time of a first attack, whereas the accrual of serial lesions or new clinical attacks over time confirms the diagnosis in patients not meeting such criteria at onset. T2 and enhancing lesion accrual could serve as a primary outcome metric for pediatric MS clinical trials of selected therapies with anti-inflammatory activity in order to facilitate feasible trial size numbers...
August 30, 2016: Neurology
Sang Soo Cho, Kelly Aminian, Crystal Li, Anthony E Lang, Sylvain Houle, Antonio P Strafella
Fatigue is a common and disabling non-motor symptom in Parkinson's disease associated with a feeling of overwhelming lack of energy. The aim of this study was to identify the neural substrates that may contribute to the development of fatigue in Parkinson's disease. Twenty-three Parkinson's disease patients meeting UK Brain Bank criteria for the diagnosis of idiopathic Parkinson's disease were recruited and completed the 2-[(18) F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG)-PET scan. The metabolic activities of Parkinson's disease patients with fatigue were compared to those without fatigue using statistical parametric mapping analysis...
August 29, 2016: Human Brain Mapping
Rajashree Ranjita, Alex Hankey, H R Nagendra, Soubhagylaxmi Mohanty
BACKGROUND: Coal mine dust exposure causes chronic airflow limitation in coal miners resulting in dyspnea, fatigue, and eventually chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Yoga can alleviate dyspnea in COPD by improving ventilatory mechanics, reducing central neural drive, and partially restoring neuromechanical coupling of the respiratory system. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effectiveness of Integrated Approach of Yoga Therapy (IAYT) in the management of dyspnea and fatigue in coal miners with COPD...
July 2016: Journal of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine
Fidias E Leon-Sarmiento, Juan S Leon-Ariza, Diddier Prada, Daniel S Leon-Ariza, Carlos V Rizzo-Sierra
Myasthenia gravis is a paradigmatic muscle disorder characterized by abnormal fatigue and muscle weakness that worsens with activities and improves with rest. Clinical and research studies done on nicotinic acetylcholine receptors have advanced our knowledge of the muscle involvement in myasthenia. Current views still state that sensory deficits are not "features of myasthenia gravis". This article discusses the gap that exists on sensory neural transmission in myasthenia that has remained after >300years of research in this neurological disorder...
September 15, 2016: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
Li J Hou, Zheng Song, Zhu J Pan, Jia L Cheng, Yong Yu, Jun Wang
One aspect of motor fatigue is the exercise-induced reduction of neural activity to voluntarily drive the muscle or muscle group. Functional magnetic resonance imaging provides access to investigate the neural activation on the whole brain level and studies observed changes of activation intensity after exercise-induced motor fatigue in the sensorimotor cortex. However, in human, little evidence exists to demonstrate the role of subcortical brain regions in motor fatigue, which is contradict to abundant researches in rodent indicating that during simple movement, the activity of the basal ganglia is modulated by the state of motor fatigue...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Eduardo López-Larraz, Fernando Trincado-Alonso, Vijaykumar Rajasekaran, Soraya Pérez-Nombela, Antonio J Del-Ama, Joan Aranda, Javier Minguez, Angel Gil-Agudo, Luis Montesano
The closed-loop control of rehabilitative technologies by neural commands has shown a great potential to improve motor recovery in patients suffering from paralysis. Brain-machine interfaces (BMI) can be used as a natural control method for such technologies. BMI provides a continuous association between the brain activity and peripheral stimulation, with the potential to induce plastic changes in the nervous system. Paraplegic patients, and especially the ones with incomplete injuries, constitute a potential target population to be rehabilitated with brain-controlled robotic systems, as they may improve their gait function after the reinforcement of their spared intact neural pathways...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Scott B Hu, Deborah J L Wong, Aditi Correa, Ning Li, Jane C Deng
INTRODUCTION: Clinical deterioration (ICU transfer and cardiac arrest) occurs during approximately 5-10% of hospital admissions. Existing prediction models have a high false positive rate, leading to multiple false alarms and alarm fatigue. We used routine vital signs and laboratory values obtained from the electronic medical record (EMR) along with a machine learning algorithm called a neural network to develop a prediction model that would increase the predictive accuracy and decrease false alarm rates...
2016: PloS One
Abigail S L Stickford, Yoshiyuki Okada, Stuart A Best, Rosemary S Parker, Benjamin D Levine, Qi Fu
PURPOSE: Women with a history of hypertensive pregnancy are at greater risk for future cardiovascular events; however, the mechanisms for this increased risk are unknown. Evidence suggests that an exercise stimulus unmasks latent hypertensive tendencies, identifying individuals at the greatest risk for developing cardiovascular disease. The current study examined the hypothesis that women with a hypertensive pregnancy history exhibit an augmented exercise pressor response. METHODS: Normotensive women with a history of healthy pregnancy (CON; n = 9) and hypertensive pregnancy (HP+; n = 12) were studied during the mid-luteal phase of the menstrual cycle...
August 9, 2016: Clinical Autonomic Research: Official Journal of the Clinical Autonomic Research Society
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