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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717161/development-and-characterization-of-a-novel-prox1-egfp-lymphatic-and-schlemm-s-canal-reporter-rat
#1
Eunson Jung, Daniel Gardner, Dongwon Choi, Eunkyung Park, Young Jin Seong, Sara Yang, Jorge Castorena-Gonzalez, Antoine Louveau, Zhao Zhou, Gene K Lee, David P Perrault, Sunju Lee, Maxwell Johnson, George Daghlian, Maria Lee, Yeo Jin Hong, Yukinari Kato, Jonathan Kipnis, Michael J Davis, Alex K Wong, Young-Kwon Hong
The lymphatic system plays a key role in tissue fluid homeostasis, immune cell trafficking, and fat absorption. We previously reported a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC)-based lymphatic reporter mouse, where EGFP is expressed under the regulation of the Prox1 promoter. This reporter line has been widely used to conveniently visualize lymphatic vessels and other Prox1-expressing tissues such as Schlemm's canal. However, mice have a number of experimental limitations due to small body size. By comparison, laboratory rats are larger in size and more closely model the metabolic, physiological, and surgical aspects of humans...
July 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710869/glymphatics-and-lymphatics-in-the-eye-and-central-nervous-system
#2
EDITORIAL
Dong An, William H Morgan, Dao-Yi Yu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2017: Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694171/repeated-dose-28-day-oral-toxicity-study-of-deae-dextran-in-mice-an-advancement-in-safety-chemotherapeutics
#3
Anita K Bakrania, Bhavesh C Variya, Prem Madan, Snehal S Patel
Cancer has emerged as a global threat with challenges for safe chemotherapeutics. Most of the currently available anti-cancer drugs exhibit significant toxicity. Amongst novel agents, interferons have exhibited anti-proliferative and cytoprotective roles. However, due to stability drawbacks of interferons, we have identified an interferon inducer DEAE-Dextran, which resolves the stability issues. Based on the previous history of toxicity pertaining to the current chemotherapeutic agents, it is equally essential to determine the safety of DEAE-Dextran...
July 8, 2017: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640199/the-role-of-peripheral-cns-directed-antibodies-in-promoting-inflammatory-cns-demyelination
#4
REVIEW
Silke Kinzel, Martin S Weber
In central nervous system (CNS) demyelinating disorders, such as multiple sclerosis (MS), neuromyelitis optica (NMO) and related NMO-spectrum disorders (NMO-SD), a pathogenic role for antibodies is primarily projected into enhancing ongoing CNS inflammation by directly binding to target antigens within the CNS. This scenario is supported at least in part, by antibodies in conjunction with complement activation in the majority of MS lesions and by deposition of anti-aquaporin-4 (AQP-4) antibodies in areas of astrocyte loss in patients with classical NMO...
June 22, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584006/activated-b-cells-participating-in-the-anti-myelin-response-are-excluded-from-the-inflamed-central-nervous-system-in-a-model-of-autoimmunity-that-allows-for-b-cell-recognition-of-autoantigen
#5
Yodit Tesfagiorgis, Sarah L Zhu, Rajiv Jain, Steven M Kerfoot
Once activated, T cells gain the ability to access both healthy and inflamed nonlymphoid tissues. They are then reactivated to remain in the tissue and exert their effector function only if they encounter their specific Ag. In this study, we set out to determine if the same is true for B cells using a mouse model of CNS autoimmunity that incorporates both T and B cell recognition of a myelin autoantigen. Both T and B cells were common infiltrates of spinal cords in diseased mice. However, unlike T cells, anti-myelin B cells were excluded from the inflamed tissue...
June 5, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466758/the-glymphatic-pathway
#6
Helene Benveniste, Hedok Lee, Nora D Volkow
The overall premise of this review is that cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is transported within a dedicated peri-vascular network facilitating metabolic waste clearance from the central nervous system while we sleep. The anatomical profile of the network is complex and has been defined as a peri-arterial CSF influx pathway and peri-venous clearance routes, which are functionally coupled by interstitial bulk flow supported by astrocytic aquaporin 4 water channels. The role of the newly discovered system in the brain is equivalent to the lymphatic system present in other body organs and has been termed the "glymphatic pathway" or "(g)lymphatics" because of its dependence on glial cells...
January 1, 2017: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28451478/t-cell-histiocyte-rich-large-b-cell-lymphoma-presented-as-t-lymphoid-hyperplasia-involving-the-central-nervous-system
#7
Mayumi Kubota, Makoto Taniguchi, Shinsuke Tobisawa, Yasuhiro Nakata, Muneo Nakaya, Hiroyuki Tamogami, Manabu Matsunawa, Takashi Komori
We herein report a case of T-cell/histiocyte-rich large B-cell lymphoma which initially presented as a self-limiting T-lymphoproliferative disorder involving multiple extranodal and extrapulmonary organs, such as the salivary gland, the liver, and the central nervous system. Repeated biopsies only revealed polyclonal T-lymphocytosis without the presence of atypical B-cells. Angiocentric cellular infiltration was absent, thus ruling out lymphomatoid granulomatosis. A recurrence in the lymphatic system finally revealed a small population of pathognomonic atypical B-cells, which led to the diagnosis...
March 26, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418841/circulating-uric-acid-levels-and-subsequent-development-of-cancer-in-493-281-individuals-findings-from-the-amoris-study
#8
Andrew Yiu, Mieke Van Hemelrijck, Hans Garmo, Lars Holmberg, Håkan Malmström, Mats Lambe, Niklas Hammar, Göran Walldius, Ingmar Jungner, Wahyu Wulaningsih
OBJECTIVES: Serum uric acid has been suggested to be associated with cancer risk. We aimed to study the association between serum uric acid and cancer incidence in a large Swedish cohort. RESULTS: A positive association was found between uric acid levels and overall cancer risk, and results were similar with adjustment for glucose, triglycerides and BMI. Hazard ratio (HR) for overall cancer for the 4th quartile of uric acid compared to the 1st was 1.08 (95% CI: 1...
June 27, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399903/overexpression-of-syndecan-1-muc-1-and-putative-stem-cell-markers-in-breast-cancer-leptomeningeal-metastasis-a-cerebrospinal-fluid-flow-cytometry-study
#9
Iole Cordone, Serena Masi, Valentina Summa, Mariantonia Carosi, Antonello Vidiri, Alessandra Fabi, Alessia Pasquale, Laura Conti, Immacolata Rosito, Carmine Maria Carapella, Veronica Villani, Andrea Pace
BACKGROUND: Cancer is a mosaic of tumor cell subpopulations, where only a minority is responsible for disease recurrence and cancer invasiveness. We focused on one of the most aggressive circulating tumor cells (CTCs) which, from the primitive tumor, spreads to the central nervous system (CNS), evaluating the expression of prognostic and putative cancer stem cell markers in breast cancer (BC) leptomeningeal metastasis (LM). METHODS: Flow cytometry immunophenotypic analysis of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples (4...
April 11, 2017: Breast Cancer Research: BCR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391718/mixed-lymphangioma-and-cavernous-hemangioma-within-the-ulnar-nerve-a-case-report
#10
Michael Canaan Prater, Brian A Janz
BACKGROUND: Lymphangiomas are benign lymphatic vessel hamartomas typically found in the skin or subcutaneous tissue of the head and neck. Although mostly seen in a congenital context, acquired forms have been reported. By contrast, cavernous hemangiomas are benign hamartomas of endothelial origin. They can arise anywhere in the body, but are typically described as arising from the central nervous system. METHODS: We report the case of a young patient who developed a mixed lymphangioma and cavernous hemangioma within the ulnar nerve...
April 1, 2017: Hand: Official Journal of the American Association for Hand Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367623/emerging-insights-for-better-delivery-of-chemicals-and-stem-cells-to-the-brain
#11
Abdul Mannan Baig
The human central nervous system and its vascularity has evolved a complex yet useful barricade, called the blood-brain barrier. The understanding of this barrier and the transport proteins that allow a selective access across it remains fundamental in designing chemicals and molecules that could cross it and prove therapeutically beneficial. After the recent findings of the brain-lymphatic link and the movement of chemical molecules from the central nervous system into general circulation, the model of the blood-brain barrier needs to be revisited...
June 21, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328134/somatic-pik3ca-mutations-in-seven-patients-with-pik3ca-related-overgrowth-spectrum
#12
Kit San Yeung, Janice Jing Kun Ip, Chin Pang Chow, Evelyn Yue Ling Kuong, Paul Kwong-Hang Tam, Godfrey Chi-Fung Chan, Brian Hon-Yin Chung
Somatic mutations in PIK3CA cause many overgrowth syndromes that have been recently coined the "PIK3CA-Related Overgrowth Spectrum." Here, we present seven molecularly confirmed patients with PIK3CA-Related Overgrowth Spectrum, including patients with Congenital Lipomatous Overgrowth, Vascular Malformations, Epidermal Nevi, Scoliosis/Skeletal and Spinal syndrome, Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome, lymphatic malformation and two with atypical phenotypes that cannot be classified into existing disease categories. The literature on PIK3CA-Related Overgrowth Spectrum, suggests that PIK3CA c...
April 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323646/endothelial-cells-and-lymphatics-at-the-interface-between-the-immune-and-central-nervous-systems-implications-for-multiple-sclerosis
#13
Céline Meyer, Guillaume Martin-Blondel, Roland S Liblau
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The central nervous system (CNS) has a unique relationship with the immune system. This review highlights the distinct roles of lymphatic vessels and endothelial cells in the interface between CNS and immune cells and invites to revisit the concept of CNS immune privilege. RECENT FINDINGS: T cells can follow several routes to penetrate the CNS parenchyma but may also benefit, together with antigen-loaded presenting cells, from the newly described lymphatic network to exit the CNS...
June 2017: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284342/insights-into-ccl21-s-roles-in-immunosurveillance-and-immunotherapy-for-gliomas
#14
REVIEW
Thien Nguyen, Carlito Lagman, Lawrance K Chung, Cheng Hao Jacky Chen, Jessica Poon, Vera Ong, Brittany L Voth, Isaac Yang
Chemokine (C-C) motif ligand 21 (CCL21) is involved in immunosurveillance and has recently garnered the attention of neuro-oncologists and neuroscientists. CCL21 contains an extended C-terminus, which increases binding to lymphatic glycosaminoglycans and provides a mechanism for cell trafficking by forming a stationary chemokine concentration gradient that allows cell migration via haptotaxis. CCL21 is expressed by endothelial cells of the blood-brain barrier in physiologic and pathologic conditions. CCL21 has also been implicated in leukocyte extravasation into the central nervous system...
April 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161508/contribution-of-neuroinflammation-and-immunity-to-brain-aging-and-the-mitigating-effects-of-physical-and-cognitive-interventions
#15
REVIEW
Svetlana Di Benedetto, Ludmila Müller, Elisabeth Wenger, Sandra Düzel, Graham Pawelec
It is widely accepted that the brain and the immune system continuously interact during normal as well as pathological functioning. Human aging is commonly accompanied by low-grade inflammation in both the immune and central nervous systems, thought to contribute to many age-related diseases. This review of the current literature focuses first on the normal neuroimmune interactions occurring in the brain, which promote learning, memory and neuroplasticity. Further, we discuss the protective and dynamic role of barriers to neuroimmune interactions, which have become clearer with the recent discovery of the meningeal lymphatic system...
April 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138136/t-cell-responses-in-the-central-nervous-system
#16
REVIEW
Thomas Korn, Axel Kallies
T cells are required for immune surveillance of the central nervous system (CNS); however, they can also induce severe immunopathology in the context of both viral infections and autoimmunity. The mechanisms that are involved in the priming and recruitment of T cells to the CNS are only partially understood, but there has been renewed interest in this topic since the 'rediscovery' of lymphatic drainage from the CNS. Moreover, tissue-resident memory T cells have been detected in the CNS and are increasingly recognized as an autonomous line of host defence...
March 2017: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092374/the-movers-and-shapers-in-immune-privilege-of-the-cns
#17
REVIEW
Britta Engelhardt, Peter Vajkoczy, Roy O Weller
Discoveries leading to an improved understanding of immune surveillance of the central nervous system (CNS) have repeatedly provoked dismissal of the existence of immune privilege of the CNS. Recent rediscoveries of lymphatic vessels within the dura mater surrounding the brain, made possible by modern live-cell imaging technologies, have revived this discussion. This review emphasizes the fact that understanding immune privilege of the CNS requires intimate knowledge of its unique anatomy. Endothelial, epithelial and glial brain barriers establish compartments in the CNS that differ strikingly with regard to their accessibility to immune-cell subsets...
February 2017: Nature Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904443/prognosis-estimation-under-the-light-of-metabolic-tumor-parameters-on-initial-fdg-pet-ct-in-patients-with-primary-extranodal-lymphoma
#18
Kursat Okuyucu, Sukru Ozaydın, Engin Alagoz, Gokhan Ozgur, Semra Ince, Fahrettin Guven Oysul, Ozlem Ozmen, Murat Tuncel, Mustafa Ozturk, Nuri Arslan
BACKGROUND: Non-Hodgkin's lymphomas arising from the tissues other than primary lymphatic organs are named primary extranodal lymphoma. Most of the studies evaluated metabolic tumor parameters in different organs and histopathologic variants of this disease generally for treatment response. We aimed to evaluate the prognostic value of metabolic tumor parameters derived from initial FDG-PET/CT in patients with a medley of primary extranodal lymphoma in this study. PATIENTS AND METHODS: There were 67 patients with primary extranodal lymphoma for whom FDG-PET/CT was requested for primary staging...
December 1, 2016: Radiology and Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27739621/african-trypanosomes-and-brain-infection%C3%A2-%C3%A2-the-unsolved-question
#19
Stefan Mogk, Christian M Boßelmann, Celestin N Mudogo, Jasmin Stein, Hartwig Wolburg, Michael Duszenko
African trypanosomes induce sleeping sickness. The parasites are transmitted during the blood meal of a tsetse fly and appear primarily in blood and lymph vessels, before they enter the central nervous system. During the latter stage, trypanosomes induce a deregulation of sleep-wake cycles and some additional neurological disorders. Historically, it was assumed that trypanosomes cross the blood-brain barrier and settle somewhere between the brain cells. The brain, however, is a strictly controlled and immune-privileged area that is completely surrounded by a dense barrier that covers the blood vessels: this is the blood-brain barrier...
October 14, 2016: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27699236/glymphatic-fluid-transport-controls-paravascular-clearance-of-aav-vectors-from-the-brain
#20
Giridhar Murlidharan, Andrew Crowther, Rebecca A Reardon, Juan Song, Aravind Asokan
Adeno-associated viruses (AAV) are currently being evaluated in clinical trials for gene therapy of CNS disorders. However, host factors that influence the spread, clearance, and transduction efficiency of AAV vectors in the brain are not well understood. Recent studies have demonstrated that fluid flow mediated by aquaporin-4 (AQP4) channels located on astroglial end feet is essential for exchange of solutes between interstitial and cerebrospinal fluid. This phenomenon, which is essential for interstitial clearance of solutes from the CNS, has been termed glial-associated lymphatic transport or glymphatic transport...
September 8, 2016: JCI Insight
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