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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904443/prognosis-estimation-under-the-light-of-metabolic-tumor-parameters-on-initial-fdg-pet-ct-in-patients-with-primary-extranodal-lymphoma
#1
Kursat Okuyucu, Sukru Ozaydın, Engin Alagoz, Gokhan Ozgur, Semra Ince, Fahrettin Guven Oysul, Ozlem Ozmen, Murat Tuncel, Mustafa Ozturk, Nuri Arslan
BACKGROUND: Non-Hodgkin's lymphomas arising from the tissues other than primary lymphatic organs are named primary extranodal lymphoma. Most of the studies evaluated metabolic tumor parameters in different organs and histopathologic variants of this disease generally for treatment response. We aimed to evaluate the prognostic value of metabolic tumor parameters derived from initial FDG-PET/CT in patients with a medley of primary extranodal lymphoma in this study. PATIENTS AND METHODS: There were 67 patients with primary extranodal lymphoma for whom FDG-PET/CT was requested for primary staging...
December 1, 2016: Radiology and Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27739621/african-trypanosomes-and-brain-infection%C3%A2-%C3%A2-the-unsolved-question
#2
Stefan Mogk, Christian M Boßelmann, Celestin N Mudogo, Jasmin Stein, Hartwig Wolburg, Michael Duszenko
African trypanosomes induce sleeping sickness. The parasites are transmitted during the blood meal of a tsetse fly and appear primarily in blood and lymph vessels, before they enter the central nervous system. During the latter stage, trypanosomes induce a deregulation of sleep-wake cycles and some additional neurological disorders. Historically, it was assumed that trypanosomes cross the blood-brain barrier and settle somewhere between the brain cells. The brain, however, is a strictly controlled and immune-privileged area that is completely surrounded by a dense barrier that covers the blood vessels: this is the blood-brain barrier...
October 14, 2016: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27699236/glymphatic-fluid-transport-controls-paravascular-clearance-of-aav-vectors-from-the-brain
#3
Giridhar Murlidharan, Andrew Crowther, Rebecca A Reardon, Juan Song, Aravind Asokan
Adeno-associated viruses (AAV) are currently being evaluated in clinical trials for gene therapy of CNS disorders. However, host factors that influence the spread, clearance, and transduction efficiency of AAV vectors in the brain are not well understood. Recent studies have demonstrated that fluid flow mediated by aquaporin-4 (AQP4) channels located on astroglial end feet is essential for exchange of solutes between interstitial and cerebrospinal fluid. This phenomenon, which is essential for interstitial clearance of solutes from the CNS, has been termed glial-associated lymphatic transport or glymphatic transport...
September 8, 2016: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27608759/lymphatics-in-neurological-disorders-a-neuro-lympho-vascular-component-of-multiple-sclerosis-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#4
REVIEW
Antoine Louveau, Sandro Da Mesquita, Jonathan Kipnis
Lymphatic vasculature drains interstitial fluids, which contain the tissue's waste products, and ensures immune surveillance of the tissues, allowing immune cell recirculation. Until recently, the CNS was considered to be devoid of a conventional lymphatic vasculature. The recent discovery in the meninges of a lymphatic network that drains the CNS calls into question classic models for the drainage of macromolecules and immune cells from the CNS. In the context of neurological disorders, the presence of a lymphatic system draining the CNS potentially offers a new player and a new avenue for therapy...
September 7, 2016: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27558973/relative-vascular-permeability-and-vascularity-across-different-regions-of-the-rat-nasal-mucosa-implications-for-nasal-physiology-and-drug-delivery
#5
Niyanta N Kumar, Mohan Gautam, Jeffrey J Lochhead, Daniel J Wolak, Vamsi Ithapu, Vikas Singh, Robert G Thorne
Intranasal administration provides a non-invasive drug delivery route that has been proposed to target macromolecules either to the brain via direct extracellular cranial nerve-associated pathways or to the periphery via absorption into the systemic circulation. Delivering drugs to nasal regions that have lower vascular density and/or permeability may allow more drug to access the extracellular cranial nerve-associated pathways and therefore favor delivery to the brain. However, relative vascular permeabilities of the different nasal mucosal sites have not yet been reported...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27522506/vascular-glial-and-lymphatic-immune-gateways-of-the-central-nervous-system
#6
REVIEW
Britta Engelhardt, Roxana O Carare, Ingo Bechmann, Alexander Flügel, Jon D Laman, Roy O Weller
Immune privilege of the central nervous system (CNS) has been ascribed to the presence of a blood-brain barrier and the lack of lymphatic vessels within the CNS parenchyma. However, immune reactions occur within the CNS and it is clear that the CNS has a unique relationship with the immune system. Recent developments in high-resolution imaging techniques have prompted a reassessment of the relationships between the CNS and the immune system. This review will take these developments into account in describing our present understanding of the anatomical connections of the CNS fluid drainage pathways towards regional lymph nodes and our current concept of immune cell trafficking into the CNS during immunosurveillance and neuroinflammation...
September 2016: Acta Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27460561/how-do-meningeal-lymphatic-vessels-drain-the-cns
#7
REVIEW
Daniel Raper, Antoine Louveau, Jonathan Kipnis
The many interactions between the nervous and the immune systems, which are active in both physiological and pathological states, have recently become more clearly delineated with the discovery of a meningeal lymphatic system capable of carrying fluid, immune cells, and macromolecules from the central nervous system (CNS) to the draining deep cervical lymph nodes. However, the exact localization of the meningeal lymphatic vasculature and the path of drainage from the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) to the lymphatics remain poorly understood...
September 2016: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27314687/dna-methylation-a-new-player-in-multiple-sclerosis
#8
Xiang Li, Bing Xiao, Xing-Shu Chen
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a neurological and chronic inflammatory disease that is mediated by demyelination and axonal degeneration in the central nervous system (CNS). Studies have shown that immune system components such as CD4+, CD8+, CD44+ T cells, B lymphatic cells, and inflammatory cytokines play a critical role in inflammatory processes and myelin damage associated with MS. Nevertheless, the pathogenesis of MS remains poorly defined. DNA methylation, a significant epigenetic modification, is reported to be extensively involved in MS pathogenesis through the regulation of gene expression...
June 17, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27310015/remyelination-is-correlated-with-regulatory-t-cell-induction-following-human-embryoid-body-derived-neural-precursor-cell-transplantation-in-a-viral-model-of-multiple-sclerosis
#9
Warren C Plaisted, Angel Zavala, Edna Hingco, Ha Tran, Ronald Coleman, Thomas E Lane, Jeanne F Loring, Craig M Walsh
We have recently described sustained clinical recovery associated with dampened neuroinflammation and remyelination following transplantation of neural precursor cells (NPCs) derived from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) in a viral model of the human demyelinating disease multiple sclerosis. The hNPCs used in that study were derived by a novel direct differentiation method (direct differentiation, DD-NPCs) that resulted in a unique gene expression pattern when compared to hNPCs derived by conventional methods...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27245177/research-into-the-physiology-of-cerebrospinal-fluid-reaches-a-new-horizon-intimate-exchange-between-cerebrospinal-fluid-and-interstitial-fluid-may-contribute-to-maintenance-of-homeostasis-in-the-central-nervous-system
#10
Mitsunori Matsumae, Osamu Sato, Akihiro Hirayama, Naokazu Hayashi, Ken Takizawa, Hideki Atsumi, Takatoshi Sorimachi
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) plays an essential role in maintaining the homeostasis of the central nervous system. The functions of CSF include: (1) buoyancy of the brain, spinal cord, and nerves; (2) volume adjustment in the cranial cavity; (3) nutrient transport; (4) protein or peptide transport; (5) brain volume regulation through osmoregulation; (6) buffering effect against external forces; (7) signal transduction; (8) drug transport; (9) immune system control; (10) elimination of metabolites and unnecessary substances; and finally (11) cooling of heat generated by neural activity...
July 15, 2016: Neurologia Medico-chirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27197540/checkpoint-inhibition-in-meningiomas
#11
Wenya Linda Bi, Winona W Wu, Sandro Santagata, David A Reardon, Ian F Dunn
Meningiomas are increasingly appreciated to share similar features with other intra-axial central nervous system neoplasms as well as systemic cancers. Immune checkpoint inhibition has emerged as a promising therapy in a number of cancers, with durable responses of years in a subset of patients. Several lines of evidence support a role for immune-based therapeutic strategies in the management of meningiomas, especially high-grade subtypes. Meningiomas frequently originate juxtaposed to venous sinuses, where an anatomic conduit for lymphatic drainage resides...
June 2016: Immunotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27150573/agora-a-data-and-biobank-for-birth-defects-and-childhood-cancer
#12
Iris A L M van Rooij, Loes F M van der Zanden, Ernie M H F Bongers, Kirsten Y Renkema, Charlotte H W Wijers, Michelle Thonissen, Elisabeth M J Dokter, Carlo L M Marcelis, Ivo de Blaauw, Marc H W A Wijnen, Peter M Hoogerbrugge, Jos P M Bokkerink, Michiel F Schreuder, Linda Koster-Kamphuis, Elisabeth A M Cornelissen, Livia Kapusta, Arno F J van Heijst, Kian D Liem, Robert P E de Gier, Anne Marie Kuijpers-Jagtman, Ronald J C Admiraal, Stefaan J Bergé, Jan Jaap van der Biezen, An Verdonck, Vincent Vander Poorten, Greet Hens, Jasmien Roosenboom, Marc R Lilien, Tom P de Jong, Paul Broens, Rene Wijnen, Alice Brooks, Barbara Franke, Han G Brunner, Carine E L Carels, Nine V A M Knoers, Wout F J Feitz, Nel Roeleveld
BACKGROUND: Research regarding the etiology of birth defects and childhood cancer is essential to develop preventive measures, but often requires large study populations. Therefore, we established the AGORA data- and biobank in the Netherlands. In this study, we describe its rationale, design, and ongoing data collection. METHODS: Children diagnosed with and/or treated for a structural birth defect or childhood cancer and their parents are invited to participate in the AGORA data- and biobank...
August 2016: Birth Defects Research. Part A, Clinical and Molecular Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27142645/absence-of-lymphatic-vessels-in-pcnsl-may-contribute-to-confinement-of-tumor-cells-to-the-central-nervous-system
#13
Martina Deckert, Anna Brunn, Manuel Montesinos-Rongen, Reiner Siebert
Primary central nervous system (CNS) lymphoma (PCNSL) is a mature lymphoma of the diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) type confined to the CNS. Despite cytomorphological similarities between PCNSL and systemic DLBCL, molecular differences between both entities have been identified. The exclusively topographical restriction of PCNSL to the CNS is an unexplained mystery. To address the question of whether the unique lymphatic drainage system of the CNS, which differs from that of other organs, may play a role for this peculiar behavior, we investigated a series of 20 PCNSLs for the presence of lymphatic vessels by immunohistochemistry for Lyve-1, podoplanin, and Prox-1 expression...
June 2016: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27031704/limited-amplification-of-chronic-wasting-disease-prions-in-the-peripheral-tissues-of-intracerebrally-inoculated-cattle
#14
Nicholas J Haley, Christopher Siepker, Justin J Greenlee, Jürgen A Richt
Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease, classified as a prion disease or transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) similar to bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). Cervids affected by CWD accumulate an abnormal protease-resistant prion protein throughout the central nervous system (CNS), as well as in both lymphatic and excretory tissues - an aspect of prion disease pathogenesis not observed in cattle with BSE. Using seeded amplification through real-time quaking-induced conversion, we investigated whether the bovine host or prion agent was responsible for this aspect of TSE pathogenesis...
July 2016: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27013354/expansion-of-brain-t-cells-in-homeostatic-conditions-in-lymphopenic-rag2-mice
#15
Chang Song, James D Nicholson, Sarah M Clark, Xin Li, Achsah D Keegan, Leonardo H Tonelli
The concept of the brain as an immune privileged organ is rapidly evolving in light of new findings outlining the sophisticated relationship between the central nervous and the immune systems. The role of T cells in brain development and function, as well as modulation of behavior has been demonstrated by an increasing number of studies. Moreover, recent studies have redefined the existence of a brain lymphatic system and the presence of T cells in specific brain structures, such as the meninges and choroid plexus...
October 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27010315/neuromedin-b-and-its-receptor-gene-cloning-tissue-distribution-and-expression-levels-of-the-reproductive-axis-in-pigs
#16
Zhiyu Ma, Juan Su, Tingting Guo, Mengmeng Jin, Xiang Li, Zhihai Lei, Yuanlong Hou, Xiaoliang Li, Cuicui Jia, Zheng Zhang, Ejlal Ahmed
Neuromedin B is one member of a family of bombesin-like peptides, which performs a variety of physiological functions via their receptor (NMBR) in most mammals. However, the genes encoding NMB and NMBR and their functions especially reproduction of the pigs are currently not fully understood. To research the physiological functions of NMB, we cloned and analyzed the NMB and NMBR genes, and systematically investigated the expression levels of NMB and NMBR mRNA using relative real-time PCR and the distribution of NMBR by immunohistochemistry (IHC)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26951748/italian-cancer-figures-report-2015-the-burden-of-rare-cancers-in-italy
#17
Susanna Busco, Carlotta Buzzoni, Sandra Mallone, Annalisa Trama, Marine Castaing, Francesca Bella, Rosalba Amodio, Sabrina Bizzoco, Tiziana Cassetti, Claudia Cirilli, Rosanna Cusimano, Roberta De Angelis, Mario Fusco, Gemma Gatta, Valerio Gennaro, Adriano Giacomin, Paolo Giorgi Rossi, Lucia Mangone, Salvatore Mannino, Silvia Rossi, Daniela Pierannunzio, Andrea Tavilla, Sandro Tognazzo, Rosario Tumino, Massimo Vicentini, Maria Francesca Vitale, Emanuele Crocetti, Luigino DalMaso
OBJECTIVES This collaborative study, based on data collected by the network of Italian Cancer Registries (AIRTUM), describes the burden of rare cancers in Italy. Estimated number of new rare cancer cases yearly diagnosed (incidence), proportion of patients alive after diagnosis (survival), and estimated number of people still alive after a new cancer diagnosis (prevalence) are provided for about 200 different cancer entities. MATERIALS AND METHODS Data herein presented were provided by AIRTUM population- based cancer registries (CRs), covering nowadays 52%of the Italian population...
January 2016: Epidemiologia e Prevenzione
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26932603/angiopoietin-2-induced-blood-brain-barrier-compromise-and-increased-stroke-size-are-rescued-by-ve-ptp-dependent-restoration-of-tie2-signaling
#18
Stefanie Gurnik, Kavi Devraj, Jadranka Macas, Maiko Yamaji, Julia Starke, Alexander Scholz, Kathleen Sommer, Mariangela Di Tacchio, Rajkumar Vutukuri, Heike Beck, Michel Mittelbronn, Christian Foerch, Waltraud Pfeilschifter, Stefan Liebner, Kevin G Peters, Karl H Plate, Yvonne Reiss
The homeostasis of the central nervous system is maintained by the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Angiopoietins (Ang-1/Ang-2) act as antagonizing molecules to regulate angiogenesis, vascular stability, vascular permeability and lymphatic integrity. However, the precise role of angiopoietin/Tie2 signaling at the BBB remains unclear. We investigated the influence of Ang-2 on BBB permeability in wild-type and gain-of-function (GOF) mice and demonstrated an increase in permeability by Ang-2, both in vitro and in vivo...
May 2016: Acta Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26909581/corrigendum-structural-and-functional-features-of-central-nervous-system-lymphatic-vessels
#19
Antoine Louveau, Igor Smirnov, Timothy J Keyes, Jacob D Eccles, Sherin J Rouhani, J David Peske, Noel C Derecki, David Castle, James W Mandell, Kevin S Lee, Tajie H Harris, Jonathan Kipnis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 12, 2016: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26903808/expression-of-lymphatic-markers-in-the-adult-rat-spinal-cord
#20
Alexandra Kaser-Eichberger, Falk Schroedl, Lara Bieler, Andrea Trost, Barbara Bogner, Christian Runge, Herbert Tempfer, Pia Zaunmair, Christina Kreutzer, Andreas Traweger, Herbert A Reitsamer, Sebastien Couillard-Despres
Under physiological conditions, lymphatic vessels are thought to be absent from the central nervous system (CNS), although they are widely distributed within the rest of the body. Recent work in the eye, i.e., another organ regarded as alymphatic, revealed numerous cells expressing lymphatic markers. As the latter can be involved in the response to pathological conditions, we addressed the presence of cells expressing lymphatic markers within the spinal cord by immunohistochemistry. Spinal cord of young adult Fisher rats was scrutinized for the co-expression of the lymphatic markers PROX1 and LYVE-1 with the cell type markers Iba1, CD68, PGP9...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
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