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cns lymphatic system

Rebecca M Izen, Tomoko Yamazaki, Yoko Nishinaka-Arai, Young-Kwon Hong, Yoh-Suke Mukouyama
BACKGROUND: Traditionally, the central nervous system (CNS) has been viewed as an immune-privileged environment with no lymphatic vessels. This view was partially overturned by the discovery of lymphatic vessels in the dural membrane that surrounds the brain, in contact with the interior surface of the skull. We here examine the distribution and developmental timing of these lymphatic vessels. RESULTS: Using the Prox1-GFP BAC transgenic reporter and immunostaining with antibodies to lymphatic markers LYVE-1, Prox1, and Podoplanin, we have carried out whole-mount imaging of dural lymphatic vasculature at postnatal stages...
March 1, 2018: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
Xiaoye Wang, Xun Li, Chuanhuo Hu
Gonadotropin inhibitory hormone (GnIH) has emerged as a novel hypothalamic neuropeptide that actively inhibits gonadotropin release in birds and mammals. Recent evidence indicates that GnIH not only acts as a key neurohormone that controls vertebrate reproduction but is also involved in stress response, food intake, and aggressive and sexual behaviors, suggesting a broad physiological role for this neuropeptide. To elucidate its multiple sites of action and potential functions, studying the detailed distribution of GnIH in different organs, except for the hypothalamus-pituitary-ovary/testis axis, is necessary...
February 24, 2018: Gene Expression Patterns: GEP
Jeremy J Pruzin, Peter T Nelson, Erin L Abner, Zoe Arvanitakis
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) and Alzheimer disease (AD) are both highly prevalent diseases worldwide, and each is associated with high-morbidity and high-mortality. Numerous clinical studies have consistently shown that T2D confers a two-fold increased risk for a dementia, including dementia attributable to AD. Yet, the mechanisms underlying this relationship, especially non-vascular mechanisms, remain debated. Cerebral vascular disease (CVD) is likely to be playing a role. But increased AD neuropathologic changes (ADNC), specifically neuritic amyloid plaques (AP) and neurofibrillary tangles (NFT), are also posited mechanisms...
February 8, 2018: Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology
Iben Lundgaard, Wei Wang, Allison Eberhardt, Hanna Sophia Vinitsky, Benjamin Cameron Reeves, Sisi Peng, Nanhong Lou, Rashad Hussain, Maiken Nedergaard
Prolonged intake of excessive amounts of ethanol is known to have adverse effects on the central nervous system (CNS). Here we investigated the effects of acute and chronic ethanol exposure and withdrawal from chronic ethanol exposure on glymphatic function, which is a brain-wide metabolite clearance system connected to the peripheral lymphatic system. Acute and chronic exposure to 1.5 g/kg (binge level) ethanol dramatically suppressed glymphatic function in awake mice. Chronic exposure to 1.5 g/kg ethanol increased GFAP expression and induced mislocation of the astrocyte-specific water channel aquaporin 4 (AQP4), but decreased the levels of several cytokines...
February 2, 2018: Scientific Reports
Jiang Lihua, Gao Feng, Mao Shanshan, Xu Jialu, Jiang Kewen
RATIONALE: Linear nevus sebaceous syndrome (LNSS) is a rare neurocutaneous syndrome, characterized by nevus sebaceous,central nervous system (CNS), ocular and skeletal abnormalities. The present study describes KRAS somatic mosaic mutation in a case of LNSS with lymphatic malformations (LMs). PATIENT CONCERNS: A 4-month-old female with a clinical diagnosis of LNSS presented with infantile spasms, mental retardation, skull dysplasia, ocular abnormalities, congenital atrial septal defect, and LMs...
November 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
Roy O Weller, Matthew M Sharp, Myron Christodoulides, Roxana O Carare, Kjeld Møllgård
Meninges that surround the CNS consist of an outer fibrous sheet of dura mater (pachymeninx) that is also the inner periosteum of the skull. Underlying the dura are the arachnoid and pia mater (leptomeninges) that form the boundaries of the subarachnoid space. In this review we (1) examine the development of leptomeninges and their role as barriers and facilitators in the foetal CNS. There are two separate CSF systems during early foetal life, inner CSF in the ventricles and outer CSF in the subarachnoid space...
January 24, 2018: Acta Neuropathologica
Alex J McCarthy, Richard A Stabler, Peter W Taylor
Escherichia coli K1 strains are major causative agents of invasive disease of the new born. The age dependency of infection can be reproduced in the neonatal rat. Colonization of the small intestine following oral administration of K1 bacteria leads rapidly to invasion of the blood circulation; bacteria that avoid capture by the mesenteric lymphatic system and evade antibacterial mechanisms in the blood may disseminate to cause organ-specific infections such as meningitis. Some E. coli K1 surface constituents, in particular the polysialic acid capsule, are known to contribute to invasive potential but a comprehensive picture of the factors that determine the fully virulent phenotype has not so far emerged...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Bacteriology
Rajnish S Dave, Ravi K Sharma, Roshell R Muir, Elias Haddad, Sanjeev Gumber, Francois Villinger, Artinder P Nehra, Zafar K Khan, Brian Wigdahl, Aftab A Ansari, Siddappa N Byrareddy, Pooja Jain
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) drains via the lymphatic drainage pathway. This lymphatic pathway connects the central nervous system (CNS) to the cervical lymph node (CLN). As the CSF drains to CLN via the dural and nasal lymphatics, T cells and antigen presenting cells pass along the channels from the subarachnoid space through the cribriform plate. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) may also egress from the CNS along this pathway. As a result, HIV egressing from the CNS may accumulate within the CLN. Towards this objective, we analyzed CLNs isolated from rhesus macaques that were chronically-infected with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)...
December 29, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology: the Official Journal of the Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology
Benjamin A Plog, Maiken Nedergaard
The central nervous system (CNS) is unique in being the only organ system lacking lymphatic vessels to assist in the removal of interstitial metabolic waste products. Recent work has led to the discovery of the glymphatic system, a glial-dependent perivascular network that subserves a pseudolymphatic function in the brain. Within the glymphatic pathway, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) enters the brain via periarterial spaces, passes into the interstitium via perivascular astrocytic aquaporin-4, and then drives the perivenous drainage of interstitial fluid (ISF) and its solute...
January 24, 2018: Annual Review of Pathology
Daniel C Cole, Youngcheul Chung, Khatuna Gagnidze, Kaitlyn H Hajdarovic, Violeta Rayon-Estrada, Dewi Harjanto, Benedetta Bigio, Judit Gal-Toth, Teresa A Milner, Bruce S McEwen, F Nina Papavasiliou, Karen Bulloch
Microglia (MG), a heterogeneous population of phagocytic cells, play important roles in central nervous system (CNS) homeostasis and neural plasticity. Under steady-state conditions, MG maintain homeostasis by producing antiinflammatory cytokines and neurotrophic factors, support myelin production, and remove synapses and cellular debris, as well as participating in "cross-correction," a process that supplies neurons with key factors for executing autophagy-lysosomal function. As sentinels for the immune system, MG also detect "danger" signals (pathogenic or traumatic insult), become activated, produce proinflammatory cytokines, and recruit monocytes and dendritic cells to the site of damage through a breached blood-brain barrier or via brain lymphatics...
December 12, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Marie Blanchette, Richard Daneman
In this issue of JEM, Antila et al. ( demonstrate that central nervous system lymphatics develop in the mouse meninges during early postnatal periods and display remarkable plasticity in adult periods through manipulation of VEGF-C-VEGFR3 signaling.
December 4, 2017: Journal of Experimental Medicine
Giovanni Sotgiu, Dennis Falzon, Vahur Hollo, Csaba Ködmön, Nicolas Lefebvre, Andrei Dadu, Marieke van der Werf
BACKGROUND: We explored host-related factors associated with the site of tuberculosis (TB) disease using variables routinely collected by the 31 EU/EEA countries for national surveillance. METHODS: Logistic regression models were fitted to case-based surveillance data reported to the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control for TB cases notified from 2003 to 2014. Missing data on HIV infection and on susceptibility to isoniazid and rifampicin for many patients precluded the inclusion of these variables in the analysis...
2017: PloS One
Salli Antila, Sinem Karaman, Harri Nurmi, Mikko Airavaara, Merja H Voutilainen, Thomas Mathivet, Dmitri Chilov, Zhilin Li, Tapani Koppinen, Jun-Hee Park, Shentong Fang, Aleksanteri Aspelund, Mart Saarma, Anne Eichmann, Jean-Léon Thomas, Kari Alitalo
The recent discovery of meningeal lymphatic vessels (LVs) has raised interest in their possible involvement in neuropathological processes, yet little is known about their development or maintenance. We show here that meningeal LVs develop postnatally, appearing first around the foramina in the basal parts of the skull and spinal canal, sprouting along the blood vessels and cranial and spinal nerves to various parts of the meninges surrounding the central nervous system (CNS). VEGF-C, expressed mainly in vascular smooth muscle cells, and VEGFR3 in lymphatic endothelial cells were essential for their development, whereas VEGF-D deletion had no effect...
December 4, 2017: Journal of Experimental Medicine
Dominic Nistal, J Mocco
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2018: World Neurosurgery
Hayrettin Tumani, André Huss, Franziska Bachhuber
The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) space consists of the intracerebral ventricles, subarachnoid spaces of the spine and brain (e.g., cisterns and sulci), and the central spinal cord canal. The CSF protects the central nervous system (CNS) in different ways involving metabolic homeostasis, supply of nutrients, functioning as lymphatic system, and regulation of intracranial pressure. CSF is produced by the choroid plexus, brain interstitium, and meninges, and it circulates in a craniocaudal direction from ventricles to spinal subarachnoid space from where it is removed via craniocaudal lymphatic routes and the venous system...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Harvey B Sarnat, Morris H Scantlebury
Though the term "inflammation" is traditionally defined as proliferation or infiltration of lymphatic cells of the lymphatic immune system and macrophages or as immunoreactive proteins including cytokines, interleukins and major histocompatibility complexes, recently recognized reactions to tissue injury also are inflammation, often occurring in the central nervous system in conditions where they previously were not anticipated and where they may play a role in both pathogenesis and repair. We highlight 4 such novel inflammatory conditions revealed by neuropathologic studies: (1) inflammatory markers and cells in the brain of human fetuses with tuberous sclerosis complex and perhaps other disorders of the mechanistic target of rapamycin genetic or metabolic pathway, (2) inflammatory markers in the brain related to febrile seizures of infancy and early childhood, (3) heat-shock protein upregulation in glial cells and neurons at sites of chronic epileptic foci, and (4) the emerging role of astrocytes in the presence of and participation in inflammation...
August 2017: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology
A Hänninen
Multiple sclerosis is a multifaceted inflammatory-autoimmune disease, which shows remarkable heterogeneity in its clinical presentation, disease progression and in tissue lesions in the CNS. Focal lesions in white matter consist of immune effector cells, antibodies, and complement deposits in varying combinations, suggesting that immune mechanisms related to CNS pathology are multiple. Although adaptive immunity to myelin antigens is essential in MS pathogenesis, innate immune mechanisms are likely involved in its initiation and perpetuation...
November 2017: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica
Zhongli Shi, Wayne K Greene, Philip K Nicholls, Dailun Hu, Janina E E Tirnitz-Parker, Qionglan Yuan, Changfu Yin, Bin Ma
The central nervous system (CNS) influences the immune system in a general fashion by regulating the systemic concentration of humoral substances, whereas the autonomic nervous system communicates specifically with the immune system according to local interactions. Data concerning the mechanisms of this bidirectional crosstalk of the peripheral nervous system (PNS) and immune system remain limited. To gain a better understanding of local interactions of the PNS and immune system, we have used immunofluorescent staining of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), coupled with confocal microscopy, to investigate the non-myelinating Schwann cell (NMSC)-immune cell interactions in mouse mesenteric lymph nodes...
August 7, 2017: European Journal of Histochemistry: EJH
Martina Absinta, Seung-Kwon Ha, Govind Nair, Pascal Sati, Nicholas J Luciano, Maryknoll Palisoc, Antoine Louveau, Kareem A Zaghloul, Stefania Pittaluga, Jonathan Kipnis, Daniel S Reich
Here, we report the existence of meningeal lymphatic vessels in human and nonhuman primates (common marmoset monkeys) and the feasibility of noninvasively imaging and mapping them in vivo with high-resolution, clinical MRI. On T2-FLAIR and T1-weighted black-blood imaging, lymphatic vessels enhance with gadobutrol, a gadolinium-based contrast agent with high propensity to extravasate across a permeable capillary endothelial barrier, but not with gadofosveset, a blood-pool contrast agent. The topography of these vessels, running alongside dural venous sinuses, recapitulates the meningeal lymphatic system of rodents...
October 3, 2017: ELife
Neema Negi, Bimal K Das
The cardinal dogma of central nervous system (CNS) immunology believed brain is an immune privileged site, but scientific evidences gathered so far have overturned this notion proving that CNS is no longer an immune privileged site, but rather an actively regulated site of immune surveillance. Landmark discovery of lymphatic system surrounding the duramater of the brain, made possible by high resolution live imaging technology has given new dimension to neuro-immunology. Here, we discuss the immune privilege status of CNS in light of the previous and current findings, taking into account the differences between a healthy state and changes that occur during an inflammatory response...
September 29, 2017: International Reviews of Immunology
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