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High frequency and meconium aspiration syndrome

Subhash Chettri, B Vishnu Bhat, B Adhisivam
In developing countries, meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality among neonates. The concepts of pathophysiology and management of meconium stained amniotic fluid (MSAF) and meconium aspiration syndrome have undergone tremendous change in recent years. Routine intranatal and postnatal endotracheal suctioning of meconium in vigorous infants is no longer recommended. Recent studies have challenged its role even in non-vigorous infants. Supportive therapy like oxygen supplementation, mechanical ventilation and intravenous fluids are the cornerstone in the management of meconium aspiration syndrome...
October 2016: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
X Liu, C D Lynch, W W Cheng, M B Landon
OBJECTIVE: To examine the trends of caesarean delivery (CD) after an intervention to lower the high rate of CD at a Chinese maternity hospital. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: A large tertiary obstetric centre in Shanghai, China, from 2007 to 2014. SAMPLE: 81 459 nulliparous women who delivered a term singleton infant. METHODS: Logistic regression was used to calculate the odds of CD while adjusting for confounders...
September 2016: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
D Mokra, L Tomcikova Mikusiakova, P Mikolka, P Kosutova, M Jurcek, M Kolomaznik, A Calkovska
Patients with acute lung injury are ventilated by conventional mechanical ventilation (CMV) rather than high-frequency jet ventilation (HFJV). This study estimated the potential usefulness of HFJV in acute lung injury. The issue was addressed by comparing the effects on lung function of CMV and HFJV in two rabbit models of neonatal acute lung injury: repetitive saline lung lavage (LAV) and meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS) induced by intratracheal meconium instillation. The animals were then ventilated with either HFJV or CMV for 4 h...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Nora Hofer, Katharina Jank, Volker Strenger, Jasmin Pansy, Bernhard Resch
INTRODUCTION: Meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS) is linked to inflammation, but data on the patterns of hematological indices and C-reactive protein (CRP) in MAS are lacking. The aim of the study was to evaluate CRP, white blood cell count (WBC), absolute neutrophil count (ANC), and immature-to-total neutrophil ratio (IT-ratio) in MAS and to assess their association with disease severity. METHODS: Retrospective cross-sectional study including 239 consecutively admitted neonates with MAS to a level III NICU...
June 2016: Pediatric Pulmonology
Dong-Mei Chen, Lian-Qiang Wu, Rui-Quan Wang
The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical efficiency of the use high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) combined with pulmonary surfactant (PS) for the treatment of neonatal meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS). Clinical data of 53 MAS patients admitted to neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) was collected and the patients were divided into 3 groups according to the different treatment approach: group 1 conventional mechanical ventilation (CMV); group 2 HFOV; group 3 HFOV + PS. By monitoring the changes in oxygenation function indicators such as inhaled oxygen concentration (FiO2), oxygenation index (OI) and arterial oxygen tension/alveolar arterial oxygen tension (a/ApO2) of three groups after 2, 12, 24, 48 h of treatment, the usage of the ventilator, duration of hospitalization, changes in clinical manifestations and outcomes of three groups were analyzed...
2015: International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Medicine
Arit Parkash, Nighat Haider, Zubair Ahmed Khoso, Abdul Sattar Shaikh
OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency, aetiology and outcome of respiratory distress in neonates in intensive care unit. METHODS: The descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted at the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, National Institute of Child Health, Karachi, from October 2009 to March 2010. It comprised neonates aged day 0 to 28 who were admitted to Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. The neonates were screened first for respiratory distress and presence of one or more signs and symptoms...
July 2015: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
L Tomcikova Mikusiakova, H Pistekova, P Kosutova, P Mikolka, A Calkovska, D Mokra
For treatment of severe neonatal meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS), lung-protective mechanical ventilation is essential. This study compared short-term effects of small-volume conventional mechanical ventilation and high-frequency oscillatory ventilation on lung function in experimentally-induced MAS. In conventionally-ventilated rabbits, MAS was induced by intratracheal instillation of meconium suspension (4 ml/kg, 25 mg/ml). Then, animals were ventilated conventionally with small-volume (f-50/min; VT-6 ml/kg) or with high frequency ventilation (f-10/s) for 4 h, with the evaluation of blood gases, ventilatory pressures, and pulmonary shunts...
2015: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Ludwig Gortner
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2015: Klinische Pädiatrie
C Patry, S Hien, S Demirakca, J Reinhard, M Majorek, J Brade, T Schaible
BACKGROUND: Severe respiratory failure of the newborn requires adjunctive therapies as application of surfactant, inhalation of nitric oxide (iNO), high frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV), or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). We designed this study to analyze the the usage and effectiveness of adjunctive therapies and the mortality of severe respiratory failure. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The survey in Germany was done in collaboration with the "Erhebungseinheit für seltene pädiatrische Erkrankungen" (ESPED)...
January 2015: Klinische Pädiatrie
Amr I El Shahed, Peter A Dargaville, Arne Ohlsson, Roger Soll
BACKGROUND: Surfactant replacement therapy has been proven beneficial in the prevention and treatment of neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (RDS). The deficiency of surfactant or surfactant dysfunction may contribute to respiratory failure in a broader group of disorders, including meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS). OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effect of surfactant administration in the treatment of late preterm and term infants with meconium aspiration syndrome...
2014: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Uraiwan Chotigeat, Maneewan Champrasert, Meera Khorana, Varaporn Sangtaweesin, Wiboon Kanjanapattanakul
BACKGROUND: Persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN) is the most serious condition that causes high mortality in term and post term infants. The authors have an experience of using high frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) and inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) for treatment of this condition with a good result. However, due to high cost of iNo, other pulmonary vasodilators have been use. Sildenafil had some side effects of systemic hypotension. Thus, inhaled iloprost was introduced for treatment of PPHN at our institute...
June 2014: Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand, Chotmaihet Thangphaet
N Hofer, K Jank, E Resch, B Urlesberger, F Reiterer, B Resch
Aim of this study was to describe the course of perinatal factors in neonates with meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS) from 1990 to 2010 and to determine risk factors for a severe course of the disease.All neonates with MAS hospitalized in our level III neonatal intensive care unit from 1990 to 2010.Retrospective analysis of trends of perinatal factors in neonates with MAS over time and of the association of these factors with severe MAS (need for invasive mechanical ventilation for ≥7 days, or need for high frequency oscillation or need for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation)...
December 2013: Klinische Pädiatrie
Rathinaswamy B Govindan, An N Massaro, Nickie Niforatos, Adré du Plessis
In order to mitigate the effect of non-stationarity in frequency domain analysis of data, we propose a modification to the power spectral estimation, a widely used technique to characterize physiological signals. Spectral analysis requires partitioning data into smaller epochs determined by the desired frequency resolution. The modified approach proposed here involves dividing the data within each epoch by the standard deviation of the data for that epoch. We applied this modified approach to cardiac beat-to-beat interval data recorded from a newborn infant undergoing hypothermia treatment for birth asphyxia...
December 2013: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Javier Kattan, Alvaro González, Pedro Becker, Miriam Faunes, Alberto Estay, Paulina Toso, Soledad Urzúa, Andrés Castillo, Jorge Fabres
BACKGROUND: Severe hypoxic respiratory failure is a leading cause of neonatal mortality in Chile. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation improves survival in neonates with hypoxic respiratory failure. OBJECTIVE: To determine the impact of the establishment of a Neonatal Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Program on the outcome of newborns with severe hypoxic respiratory failure in a developing country. DESIGN/PATIENTS: Data of newborns (birthweight > 2,000 g and gestational age ≥ 35 wk) with hypoxic respiratory failure and oxygenation index greater than 25 were compared before and after extracorporeal membrane oxygenation was available...
November 2013: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
Mei-Jy Jeng, Yu-Sheng Lee, Pei-Chen Tsao, Wen-Jue Soong
Air leak syndrome includes pulmonary interstitial emphysema, pneumothorax, pneumomediastinum, pneumopericardium, pneumoperitoneum, subcutaneous emphysema, and systemic air embolism. The most common cause of air leak syndrome in neonates is inadequate mechanical ventilation of the fragile and immature lungs. The incidence of air leaks in newborns is inversely related to the birth weight of the infants, especially in very-low-birth-weight and meconium-aspirated infants. When the air leak is asymptomatic and the infant is not mechanically ventilated, there is usually no specific treatment...
November 2012: Journal of the Chinese Medical Association: JCMA
Olie Chowdhury, Catherine J Wedderburn, Silke Lee, Simon Hannam, Anne Greenough
Infants born at term requiring mechanical ventilation suffer significant mortality and morbidity, yet few studies have tried to identify the optimum respiratory support for such infants. We, therefore, hypothesised that practice would vary, particularly between different levels of neonatal care provision. The lead clinicians of all 212 UK neonatal units were asked to complete an electronic web-based survey regarding respiratory support practices for term-born infants. Survey questions included the level of neonatal care provided, number of term-born infants ventilated per annum, initial and rescue ventilation modes and whether surfactant or inhaled nitric oxide (NO) were used...
November 2012: European Journal of Pediatrics
Laurent Renesme, Christophe Elleau, Paul Nolent, Michael Fayon, Roger Marthan, Eric Dumas De La Roque
BACKGROUND: Meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS) remains a frequent cause of morbidity and mortality in term newborns. Our objective was to compare two modes of high-frequency ventilation, high-frequency oscillation (HFOV), and high-frequency percussive ventilation (HFPV) with conventional mechanical ventilation (CMV) in a piglet model of MAS. METHODS: Fifteen newborn piglets were anesthetized, paralyzed, and intubated. Following the instillation of a 3 ml/kg solution of meconium diluted to 30%, the piglets were randomized to one of three groups: high-frequency oscillation (HFOV; Sensormedics®), HFPV (Percussionaire®), or CMV (Siemens®)...
March 2013: Pediatric Pulmonology
Peter A Dargaville
Meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS) is a complex respiratory disease of the term and near-term neonate. Inhalation of meconium causes airway obstruction, atelectasis, epithelial injury, surfactant inhibition, and pulmonary hypertension, the chief clinical manifestations of which are hypoxaemia and poor lung compliance. Supplemental oxygen is the mainstay of therapy for MAS, with around one-third of infants requiring intubation and mechanical ventilation. For those ventilated, high ventilator pressures, as well as a relatively long inspiratory time and slow ventilator rate, may be necessary to achieve adequate oxygenation...
2012: International Journal of Pediatrics
C Fischer, C Rybakowski, C Ferdynus, P Sagot, J B Gouyon
The epidemiology of meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS) in term neonates is described in a population-based retrospective study of data recorded for all births from 2000 to 2007 in a French region (Burgundy). Of the 132 884 eligible term newborns, the rate of meconium-stained amniotic fluid (MSAF) was 7.93%. The prevalence of severe MAS was 0.067% in the overall population. MAS rate was 0.11% at 37-38 weeks of gestation (WG), 0.20% at 39-41 WG, and 0.49% at 42-43 WG. Factors independently associated with severe MAS were identified by a case-control study, that is, thick meconium amniotic fluid, fetal tachycardia, Apgar score ≤3 at 1 minute, and birth in a level III facility...
2012: International Journal of Pediatrics
Maria Katarzyna Kornacka, Katarzyna Kufel
Cesarean section is the most commonly performed procedure all over the world. Both American and European data reveal constant and steady increase of pregnancies resolved by a cesarean section. The reasons include: growing number of medical indications or requests of the pregnant women. Regardless of the fact that elective cesarean section decreases the risk of intrauterine hypoxia, meconium aspiration and injury during labor it remains a significant risk factor for respiratory failure in the course of transient tachypnea of the newborn, infant respiratory distress syndrome and pulmonary hypertension, both for term and late preterm infants...
August 2011: Ginekologia Polska
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