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Elina Zakin, David Simpson
Botulinum toxin (BoNT) is a neurotoxin produced by the bacteria Clostridium botulinum that has become widely used for various neurologic indications. The four toxin formulations currently available for use in the United States (approved by the Food and Drug Administration) are onabotulinumtoxinA (Botox® ), abobotulinumtoxinA (Dysport® ), incobotulinumtoxinA (Xeomin® ), and rimabotulinumtoxinB (Myobloc® ). While the FDA-approved labels indicate that potency conversions should not be done, literature supports relative dose equivalents of approximately 1:1:2-4:50-100, respectively...
June 1, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
Sheldon Bradshaw
In their article "Importing Injectables" in the September 2014 issue of the Journal of Drugs in Dermatology, Dr. Kenneth Beer and Karen Rothschild highlighted the possible harm to patients and practitioners from the use of unapproved botulinum toxin products - eg, Botox, Dysport, Xeomin, and Myobloc - and other cosmetic prescription drug products purchased from foreign or unlicensed suppliers.1 In the intervening years, the accuracy of their critique has been repeatedly demonstrated, as the dangers to patients' health, as well as to cosmetic practitioners' liberty, has only increased...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Drugs in Dermatology: JDD
Joseph Jankovic
Botulinun neurotoxin (BoNT) has emerged as one of the most multipurpose therapeutic agents in modern medicine with more clinical applications than any other drug currently on the market. Initially developed in the treatment of strabismus and neurologic movement disorders, the use of botulinun neurotoxin has been expanding during the past 3 decades to include the treatment of a variety of ophthalmologic, gastrointestinal, urologic, orthopedic, dermatologic, dental, secretory, painful, cosmetic, and other conditions...
August 2017: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
Gonçalo S Duarte, Mafalda Castelão, Filipe B Rodrigues, Raquel E Marques, Joaquim Ferreira, Cristina Sampaio, Austen P Moore, João Costa
BACKGROUND: This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 2003. Cervical dystonia is the most common form of focal dystonia and is a disabling disorder characterised by painful involuntary head posturing. There are two available formulations of botulinum toxin, with botulinum toxin type A (BtA) usually considered the first line therapy for this condition. Botulinum toxin type B (BtB) is an alternative option, with no compelling theoretical reason why it might not be as- or even more effective - than BtA...
October 26, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Michael Z Lerner, Benjamin A Lerner, Amit A Patel, Andrew Blitzer
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: The objective of this study was to determine the influence of gender on onabotulinum toxin A dosing for the treatment of adductor spasmodic dysphonia symptoms. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective review. METHODS: A chart review of the senior author's database of botulinum toxin injections was performed. Patients diagnosed with adductor spasmodic dysphonia who received onabotulinum toxin A (BoNTA) injections to the thyroarytenoid muscle for at least 5 years were included for study...
May 2017: Laryngoscope
Yi Han, Andrea L Stevens, Khashayar Dashtipour, Robert A Hauser, Zoltan Mari
A systematic pair-wise comparison of all available botulinum toxin serotype A and B treatments for cervical dystonia (CD) was conducted, as direct head-to-head clinical trial comparisons are lacking. Five botulinum toxin products: Dysport(®) (abobotulinumtoxinA), Botox(®) (onabotulinumtoxinA), Xeomin(®) (incobotulinumtoxinA), Prosigne(®) (Chinese botulinum toxin serotype A) and Myobloc(®) (rimabotulinumtoxinB) have demonstrated efficacy for managing CD. A pair-wise efficacy and safety comparison was performed for all toxins based on literature-reported clinical outcomes...
April 2016: Journal of Neurology
Paul F Pasquina, Briana N Perry, Aimee L Alphonso, Sacha Finn, Kevin F Fitzpatrick, Jack W Tsao
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the use of rimabotulinumtoxinB (BoNT/B [Myobloc]) compared with placebo in treating hyperhidrosis in the residual limbs of individuals with amputation. DESIGN: Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study. SETTING: Military medical center. PARTICIPANTS: Male participants (N=9) with 11 major amputations of the lower limbs and who complained of excessive sweating in their residual limbs were enrolled in the study between September 24, 2008 to October 28, 2011...
May 2016: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
D Dressler
The global botulinum toxin (BT) market is currently undergoing rapid changes: this may be the time to review the history and the future of BT drug development. Since the early 1990s Botox(®) and Dysport(®) dominated the international BT market. Later, Myobloc(®)/NeuroBloc(®), a liquid BT type B drug, came out, but failed. Xeomin(®) is the latest major BT drug. It features removal of complexing proteins and improved neurotoxin purity. Several new BT drugs are coming out of Korea, China and Russia. Scientific challenges for BT drug development include modification of BT's duration of action, its transdermal transport and the design of BT hybrid drugs for specific target tissues...
March 2016: Journal of Neural Transmission
Joline E Brandenburg, Linda E Krach, Mark E Gormley
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to review the effect of rimabotulinum toxin (BoNT-B) for focal hypertonicity management in children with cerebral palsy and secondary nonresponse to onabotulinum toxin treated at the authors' tertiary care academic medical center. DESIGN: A retrospective review of the medical treatment of children was conducted at the authors' institution (March 16, 2001, to August 2, 2002) using the key words botulinum toxin B and Myobloc (Solstice Neurosciences Inc, South San Francisco, CA)...
October 2013: American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
Robert B Chinnapongse, Mark F Lew, Joaquim J Ferreira, Kristen L Gullo, Paul R Nemeth, Yuxin Zhang
OBJECTIVE: Therapeutic botulinum toxins are antigenic proteins with the potential to produce antibodies (Abs). It is, however, unclear whether Abs to Myobloc® (rimabotulinumtoxinB, botulinum toxin type B, BoNT-B) impact the efficacy and safety of BoNT-B treatment of cervical dystonia (CD). The objective was to determine if Abs to BoNT-B impact the efficacy or safety of long-term BoNT-B treatment of CD. METHODS: Four separate prospective clinical trials, with a combined total of 1134 subjects evaluable for immunogenicity over total treatment durations of up to 6+ years, were conducted studying the efficacy, safety, and immunogenicity of BoNT-B treatment of CD...
September 2012: Clinical Neuropharmacology
David Charles, Chandler E Gill
The therapeutic use of botulinum neurotoxin has exploded since the first US Food and Drug Administration indication was obtained in 1989, and today it represents the first-line therapy for several hyperkinetic movement disorders. Of the seven serotypes (A to G), types A and B have been approved for use in the United States. Two type A toxins, onabotulinumtoxinA (Botox) and abobotulinumtoxinA (Dysport), are available, and one type B toxin, rimabotulinumtoxinB (Myobloc) is available. The commercially available toxins differ by protein target, duration of action, and adverse event profile; no formula exists for interconversion...
February 2010: Continuum: Lifelong Learning in Neurology
A Sebastian Schroeder, Theresia Kling, Kristina Huss, Ingo Borggraefe, Inga K Koerte, Astrid Blaschek, Klaus Jahn, Florian Heinen, Steffen Berweck
Botulinum toxin (BoNT) is an established treatment option to reduce hypersalivation in children with chronic neurological disorders. Objective of this study was (1) to discriminate differences in efficacy and safety of repeated interventions using BoNT with a focus on different preparations used and (2) to look for effectiveness and treatment adherence from a qualitative research perspective in this single-center cohort study. We prospectively assessed goal attainment scaling, drooling severity and frequency score and the number of towels/day before, and 4 to 8 weeks after intervention...
February 2012: Neuropediatrics
M F Lew
Neck pain is reported in 75% is strongly associated with greater disability and decreased quality of life. Botulinum toxin type B (BoNT-B; Myobloc™) is a new botulinum toxin that has been proven safe and effective in reducing the pain, severity, and disability of patients with cervical dystonia. We analyzed a subset of efficacy data from two randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials. The first study consisted of three treatment groups in patients who were responders to the type A toxin, including placebo (<FORMULA>n=36</FORMULA>), 5000 units (U) (<FORMULA>n=36</FORMULA>), 10,000 U (<FORMULA>n=37</FORMULA>)...
January 1, 2002: Journal of Back and Musculoskeletal Rehabilitation
Richard L Wynn
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2011: General Dentistry
(no author information available yet)
The FDA has approved incobotulinumtoxinA (Xeomin--Merz) for treatment of cervical dystonia and blepharospasm in adults. It has been commercially available in Germany since 2005. Several formulations of botulinum toxin type A (Botox; Dysport) and type B (Myobloc) are already marketed for treatment of cervical dystonia. Botox is also approved for treatment of blepharospasm.
November 15, 2010: Medical Letter on Drugs and Therapeutics
G Kranz, A Paul, B Voller, M Posch, C Windischberger, E Auff, T Sycha
BACKGROUND: Mouse units (mU) are used for quantification of the biological activity of botulinum A and B toxin preparations. However, in human tissue, mU values between preparations are not equivalent and lack of clarity concerning efficacy and safety remains with regard to their respective potencies, duration of drug effect and diffusion qualities. OBJECTIVES: To compare short-term and long-term effects of Botox(®) (BOT; Allergan Inc., Irvine, CA, U.S.A.) and Neurobloc(®)/Myobloc(®) (NBC; Solstice Neurosciences Inc...
January 2011: British Journal of Dermatology
D Dressler
Botulinum toxin (BT) is used in various medical specialties. However, dystonia is still one of the most important indications for BT therapy. BT drugs consist of botulinum neurotoxin, complexing proteins and excipients. Botox, Dysport and Xeomin are BT type A drugs and produce similar therapeutic and adverse effects (AE). Neurobloc/MyoBloc is based upon BT type B. Its use is limited by substantial systemic anticholinergic AE. The potency of BT drugs may be compared as follows: Botox:Xeomin:Dysport:Neuobloc/MyoBloc = 1:1:3:40...
July 2010: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
Timothy Corcoran Flynn
Patient satisfaction with botulinum toxin treatment is a key success factor in aesthetic procedures and is governed by the interaction of numerous variables. Duration of effect is important because it influences retreatment intervals as well as affecting cost and convenience to the patient. In order to review the evidence on the duration of benefit associated with various commercial formulations of botulinum toxin, MEDLINE was searched using the following terms: 'botulinum' and 'duration'/'retreatment' (limits: 'clinical trials,' 'meta-analyses,' 'English')...
2010: American Journal of Clinical Dermatology
R Benecke
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Botulinum toxin type A (BoNT/A) is a highly effective and well-tolerated treatment for focal dystonias. The BoNT/A in Botox and Dysport is part of a high-molecular-weight complex that contains hemagglutinins and other non-toxic proteins, whilst Xeomin is a highly purified BoNT/A free of such complexing proteins. In the largest controlled study of BoNT/A published to date (Neurology 2005; 64: 1949), it was demonstrated that Xeomin is non-inferior to Botox and has 1:1 efficacy in the treatment of cervical dystonia...
December 2009: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
Alan Matarasso, David Shafer
The key points to remember about abobotulinumtoxinA are as follows: BoNTA-ABO (abobotulinumtoxinA [Dysport]; Medicis Aesthetics, Scottsdale, AZ) and BoNTA-ONA (onabotulinumtoxin A [Botox Cosmetic]; Allergan, Irvine, CA) are both derivatives of botulinum toxin A produced from different strains of the bacterium Clostridium botulinum through proprietary manufacturing processes, and both are approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). BoNTA-ABO and BoNTA-ONA, which are both type A botulinum toxins, should be further differentiated from Myobloc (Solstice Neurosciences, San Francisco, CA), which is the only FDA-approved type B botulinum toxin...
November 2009: Aesthetic Surgery Journal
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