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Inflection derivation morphologically complex

Anastasia Klimovich-Gray, Mirjana Bozic, William D Marslen-Wilson
The processing of words containing inflectional affixes triggers morphophonological parsing and affix-related grammatical information processing. Increased perceptual complexity related to stem-affix parsing is hypothesized to create predominantly domain-general processing demands, whereas grammatical processing primarily implicates domain-specific linguistic demands. Exploiting the properties of Russian morphology and syntax, we designed an fMRI experiment to separate out the neural systems supporting these two demand types, contrasting inflectional complexity, syntactic (phrasal) complexity, and derivational complexity in three comparisons: (a) increase in parsing demands while controlling for grammatical complexity (inflections vs...
February 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
Francesca Carota, Mirjana Bozic, William Marslen-Wilson
Derivational morphology is a cross-linguistically dominant mechanism for word formation, combining existing words with derivational affixes to create new word forms. However, the neurocognitive mechanisms underlying the representation and processing of such forms remain unclear. Recent cross-linguistic neuroimaging research suggests that derived words are stored and accessed as whole forms, without engaging the left-hemisphere perisylvian network associated with combinatorial processing of syntactically and inflectionally complex forms...
December 2016: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
Ehsan Shafiee Zargar, Naoko Witzel
This study reports findings from two experiments testing whether a transposed-letter (TL) priming effect can be obtained when the transposition occurs across morphological boundaries. Previous studies have primarily tested derivationally complex words or compound words, but have not examined a more rule-based and productive morphological structure, i.e., inflectionally complex words, using masked priming. Experiment 1 tested TL priming with nonword primes and inflected targets (FOCUSING). Nonword primes were formed by transposing letters either within the root morpheme (fcousing) or across two morphemes (focuisng)...
February 2017: Journal of Psycholinguistic Research
Naama Friedmann, Aviah Gvion, Roni Nisim
We explored morphological decomposition in reading, the locus in the reading process in which it takes place and its nature, comparing different types of morphemes. We assessed these questions through the analysis of letter position errors in readers with letter position dyslexia (LPD). LPD is a selective impairment to letter position encoding in the early stage of word reading, which results in letter migrations (such as reading "cloud" for "could"). We used the fact that migrations in LPD occur mainly in word-interior letters, whereas exterior letters rarely migrate...
2015: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Elisabet Service, Sini Maury
Working memory (WM) has been described as an interface between cognition and action, or a system for access to a limited amount of information needed in complex cognition. Access to morphological information is needed for comprehending and producing sentences. The present study probed WM for morphologically complex word forms in Finnish, a morphologically rich language. We studied monomorphemic (boy), inflected (boy+'s), and derived (boy+hood) words in three tasks. Simple span, immediate serial recall of words, in Experiment 1, is assumed to mainly rely on information in the focus of attention...
2014: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Mirjam Ernestus, Anne Cutler
In an auditory lexical decision experiment, 5541 spoken content words and pseudowords were presented to 20 native speakers of Dutch. The words vary in phonological make-up and in number of syllables and stress pattern, and are further representative of the native Dutch vocabulary in that most are morphologically complex, comprising two stems or one stem plus derivational and inflectional suffixes, with inflections representing both regular and irregular paradigms; the pseudowords were matched in these respects to the real words...
2015: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Caroline M Whiting, William D Marslen-Wilson, Yury Shtyrov
Rapid and automatic processing of grammatical complexity is argued to take place during speech comprehension, engaging a left-lateralized fronto-temporal language network. Here we address how neural activity in these regions is modulated by the grammatical properties of spoken words. We used combined magneto- and electroencephalography to delineate the spatiotemporal patterns of activity that support the recognition of morphologically complex words in English with inflectional (-s) and derivational (-er) affixes (e...
2013: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Alina Leminen, Miika Leminen, Teija Kujala, Yury Shtyrov
We investigated neural distinctions between inflectional and derivational morphology and their interaction with lexical frequency using the mismatch negativity (MMN), an established neurophysiological index of experience-dependent linguistic memory traces and automatic syntactic processing. We presented our electroencephalography (EEG) study participants with derived and inflected words of variable lexical frequencies against their monomorphemic base forms in a passive oddball paradigm, along with acoustically matched pseudowords...
November 2013: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
Mirjana Bozic, Lorraine K Tyler, Li Su, Cai Wingfield, William D Marslen-Wilson
Current research suggests that language comprehension engages two joint but functionally distinguishable neurobiological processes: a distributed bilateral system, which supports general perceptual and interpretative processes underpinning speech comprehension, and a left hemisphere (LH) frontotemporal system, selectively tuned to the processing of combinatorial grammatical sequences, such as regularly inflected verbs in English [Marslen-Wilson, W. D., & Tyler, L. K. Morphology, language and the brain: The decompositional substrate for language comprehension...
October 2013: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
Alina Leminen, Minna Lehtonen, Miika Leminen, Päivi Nevalainen, Jyrki P Mäkelä, Teija Kujala
This study determined to what extent morphological processing of spoken inflected and derived words is attention-independent. To answer these questions EEG and MEG responses were recorded from healthy participants while they were presented with spoken Finnish inflected, derived, and monomorphemic words. In the non-attended task, the participants were instructed to ignore the incoming auditory stimuli and concentrate on the silent cartoon. In the attended task, previously reported by Leminen et al. (2011), the participants were to judge the acceptability of each stimulus...
2012: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Joanna Morris, Linnaea Stockall
Converging evidence from behavioral masked priming (Rastle & Davis, 2008), EEG masked priming (Morris, Frank, Grainger, & Holcomb, 2007) and single word MEG (Zweig & Pylkkänen, 2008) experiments has provided robust support for a model of lexical processing which includes an early, automatic, visual word form based stage of morphological parsing that applies to all derivationally affixed words. The mechanisms by which regularly (walked, birds) and irregularly (gave, geese) inflected forms are processed are less well established...
November 2012: Brain and Language
Simona Amenta, Davide Crepaldi
The last 40 years have witnessed a growing interest in the mechanisms underlying the visual identification of complex words. A large amount of experimental data has been amassed, but although a growing number of studies are proposing explicit theoretical models for their data, no comprehensive theory has gained substantial agreement among scholars in the field. We believe that this is due, at least in part, to the presence of several controversial pieces of evidence in the literature and, consequently, to the lack of a well-defined set of experimental facts that any theory should be able to explain...
2012: Frontiers in Psychology
Alina Leminen, Miika Leminen, Minna Lehtonen, Päivi Nevalainen, Sari Ylinen, Lilli Kimppa, Christian Sannemann, Jyrki P Mäkelä, Teija Kujala
The spatiotemporal dynamics of the neural processing of spoken morphologically complex words are still an open issue. In the current study, we investigated the time course and neural sources of spoken inflected and derived words using simultaneously recorded electroencephalography (EEG) and magnetoencephalography (MEG) responses. Ten participants (native speakers) listened to inflected, derived, and monomorphemic Finnish words and judged their acceptability. EEG and MEG responses were time-locked to both the stimulus onset and the critical point (suffix onset for complex words, uniqueness point for monomorphemic words)...
2011: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
R Harald Baayen, Petar Milin, Dusica Filipović Đurđević, Peter Hendrix, Marco Marelli
A 2-layer symbolic network model based on the equilibrium equations of the Rescorla-Wagner model (Danks, 2003) is proposed. The study first presents 2 experiments in Serbian, which reveal for sentential reading the inflectional paradigmatic effects previously observed by Milin, Filipović Đurđević, and Moscoso del Prado Martín (2009) for unprimed lexical decision. The empirical results are successfully modeled without having to assume separate representations for inflections or data structures such as inflectional paradigms...
July 2011: Psychological Review
Judit Druks, Karen Froud
We describe the reading performance of a patient who has selective deficits for reading nonwords, function words, and morphologically complex words in isolation. His reading of highly abstract nouns and verbs, however, is relatively well preserved. He can recognise and comprehend the meaning of written function words, of derivational morphology, and of most inflectional morphology. We suggest that his deficit in reading grammatical morphemes is unrelated to his problems in reading nonwords and cannot be explained by their low semanticity and imageability...
May 1, 2002: Cognitive Neuropsychology
A Cris Hamilton, H Branch Coslett
We report two patients with acquired phonological dyslexia who have great difficulty reading affixed words. Experiment 1 demonstrates that both patients' reading performance is influenced by the apparent morphological status of words by comparing the patients' reading of suffixed and pseudo-suffixed words. Experiment 2 was designed to examine reading performance of both regularly and irregularly inflected words. Experiment 3 examines the patients' reading of derivational forms with particular emphasis of the role of 'semantic transparency'...
2008: Neurocase
Jennifer Rabin, Hélène Deacon
The study reported here examined the manner in which children represent morphologically complex words in the lexicon. Children in grades 1 to 5 completed a fragment completion task to assess the priming effects of morphologically related words. Both inflected and derived words (e.g. needs and needy, respectively) were more effective primes than control words (e.g. needle) that share similar orthography and phonology with the target word (e.g. need). These effects were consistent across the developmental period studied...
May 2008: Journal of Child Language
Paola Marangolo, Fabrizio Piras
In the neuropsychological literature, there is converging evidence for a dominant role of the left hemisphere in morphological processing. However, two right hemisphere patients were described with a clear dissociation between impaired derivational morphology and preserved inflectional processing. A recent fMRI experiment confirmed the involvement of right hemispheric areas in derivational processing and also suggested that the right basal ganglia contribute to deriving nouns from verbs. The present investigation was aimed at further demonstrating the role of the right hemisphere in derivational processing...
January 15, 2008: Neuropsychologia
William D Marslen-Wilson, Lorraine K Tyler
This paper outlines a neurocognitive approach to human language, focusing on inflectional morphology and grammatical function in English. Taking as a starting point the selective deficits for regular inflectional morphology of a group of non-fluent patients with left hemisphere damage, we argue for a core decompositional network linking left inferior frontal cortex with superior and middle temporal cortex, connected via the arcuate fasciculus. This network handles the processing of regularly inflected words (such as joined or treats), which are argued not to be stored as whole forms and which require morpho-phonological parsing in order to segment complex forms into stems and inflectional affixes...
May 29, 2007: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
C R Marshall, H K J van der Lely
Although it is well-established that children with Specific Language Impairment characteristically optionally inflect forms that require tense and agreement marking, their abilities with regards to derivational suffixation are less well understood. In this paper we provide evidence from children with Grammatical-Specific Language Impairment (G-SLI) that derivational suffixes, unlike tense and agreement suffixes, are not omitted in elicitation tasks. We investigate two types of derivation - comparative/superlative formation and adjective-from-noun formation - and reveal that G-SLI children supply these suffixes at high rates, equivalent to their language matched peers...
February 2007: Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics
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