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Salmonella pathogenicity

Christoph Jans, Eleonora Sarno, Lucie Collineau, Leo Meile, Katharina D C Stärk, Roger Stephan
Background: Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in bacteria is an increasing health concern. The spread of AMR bacteria (AMRB) between animals and humans via the food chain and the exchange of AMR genes requires holistic approaches for risk mitigation. The AMRB exposure of humans via food is currently only poorly understood leaving an important gap for intervention design. Method: This study aimed to assess AMRB prevalence in retail food and subsequent exposure of Swiss consumers in a systematic literature review of data published between 1996 and 2016 covering the Swiss agriculture sector and relevant imported food...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Myron M Levine, Raphael Simon
Klemm et al. (mBio 9:e00105-18, 2018, present comprehensive antibiotic sensitivity patterns and genomic sequence data on Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi blood culture isolates from typhoid fever cases during an epidemic in Pakistan. Microbiologic and genomic data pinpoint the identities and locations of the antimicrobial resistance genes and the outbreak strain's lineage. They propose that Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi be added to the list of bacterial pathogens of public health importance that have become extensively drug resistant (XDR)...
March 20, 2018: MBio
Anthony J Mannion, Heather R Martin, Zeli Shen, Ellen M Buckley, JoAnn L Dzink-Fox, Alexis Garcia, Robert P Marini, Mary M Patterson, James G Fox
Non-human primates (NHPs) for biomedical research are commonly infected with Shigella spp. that can cause acute dysentery or chronic episodic diarrhea. These animals are often prophylactically and clinically treated with quinolone antibiotics to eradicate these possible infections. However, chromosomally- and plasmid-mediated antibiotic resistance has become an emerging concern for species in the family Enterobacteriaceae . In this study, five individual isolates of multi-drug resistant Shigella flexneri were isolated from the feces of three macaques...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Feng Yang, Yonggen Jiang, Lihua Yang, Juanxiu Qin, Mingquan Guo, Yuxia Lu, Hongyou Chen, Yuan Zhuang, Jinghao Zhang, Hong Zhang, Zhaoyun Dai, Min Li, Changqing Yang, Min Chen, Yanmei Zhang, Hu Zhao
Objective: To investigate prevalence of acute diarrhea in Shanghai and analyze virulence associated-genes and antibiotic resistance of major enteropathogens using combination of conventional and molecular epidemiology methods. Method: The 412 stool specimens were obtained by systematic sampling from diarrhea patients throughout entire year 2016. Bacterial and viral pathogens were identified and bacterial isolates were cultured and screened for antibiotic resistance profiles. Two most prevalent bacteria, Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Salmonella were further typed by multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) and analyzed for presence of virulence-associated genes...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
María M Banda, Carolina López, Rubiceli Manzo, Gadea Rico-Pérez, Pablo García, Roberto Rosales-Reyes, Miguel A De la Cruz, Fernando C Soncini, Francisco García-Del Portillo, Víctor H Bustamante
When Salmonella is grown in the nutrient-rich lysogeny broth (LB), the AraC-like transcriptional regulator HilD positively controls the expression of genes required for Salmonella invasion of host cells, such as the Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 (SPI-1) genes. However, in minimal media, the two-component system PhoP/Q activates the expression of genes necessary for Salmonella replication inside host cells, such as the SPI-2 genes. Recently, we found that the SL1344_1872 hypothetical gene, located in a S...
March 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Shannon McGinnis, Susan Spencer, Aaron Firnstahl, Joel Stokdyk, Mark Borchardt, David T McCarthy, Heather M Murphy
Combined sewer overflows (CSOs) are a known source of human fecal pollution and human pathogens in urban water bodies, which may present a significant public health threat. To monitor human fecal contamination in water, bacterial fecal indicator organisms (FIOs) are traditionally used. However, because FIOs are not specific to human sources and do not correlate with human pathogens, alternative fecal indicators detected using qPCR are becoming of interest to policymakers. For this reason, this study measured correlations between the number and duration of CSOs and mm of rainfall, concentrations of traditional FIOs and alternative indicators, and the presence of human pathogens in two urban creeks...
February 28, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Michal M Dykas, Stuti K Desai, Abhijeet Patra, Mallikarjuna Rao Motapothula, Kingshuk Poddar, Linda J Kenney, Thirumalai Venkatesan
With the rise in nosocomial infections worldwide, research on materials with an intrinsic ability to inhibit biofilm formation has been generating a great deal of interest. In the present work, we describe how thin film material libraries generated by pulsed laser deposition can be used for simultaneously screening several novel metal oxide mixtures that inhibit biofilm formation in a common human pathogen, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. We discovered that in a material library constructed using two metal oxides, the net effect on biofilm formation can be modelled as an addition of the activities of the individual oxides weighted to their relative composition at that particular point on the library...
March 19, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Akiko Yamazaki, Mioko Honda, Naoki Kobayashi, Naoto Ishizaki, Hiroshi Asakura, Yoshiko Sugita-Konishi
The expansion of the wild deer population is a major problem for the Japanese farm and forestry industries because their damage to farm products and vegetation results in huge economic loss. To promote game meat consumption, hygiene inspections should be performed to detect main bacterial pathogens before products are shipped. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the ability of commercial test kits to genetically detect EHEC, Salmonella and Listeria monocytogenes in venison. Our results demonstrated that the kits for three pathogens could be useful for venison as well as other domestic meat products...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
Siyue Gao, Brooke Pearson, Lili He
The existence of pathogenic bacteria in drinking water has been a threat to the safety of human well-being. Traditional methods to detect bacteria are standard plate counts or rapid methods such as ELISA and PCR. However, those methods can be time-consuming or require pre-enrichment when detecting low concentrations of bacteria. Filter membrane has been used for bacteria collection and culturing when monitoring environmental water samples. In this study, we applied surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) to rapidly screen bacteria cells on a filter membrane based on the unique signal from an indicator molecule, 4-mercaptophenylboronic acid (4-mpba), that can specifically bind to the surface of bacteria through diol group in its structure and give off consistent SERS signal...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Microbiological Methods
Sasikumar Arunachalam Palaniyandi, Karthiyaini Damodharan, Joo-Won Suh, Seung Hwan Yang
The present study was focused on the production, characterization and in vitro prebiotic evaluation of exopolysaccharide (EPS) from Bacillus sonorensis MJM60135isolated from Ganjang (fermented soy sauce). StrainMJM60135 showed the highest production(8.4±0.8 g/L) of EPS compared to other isolates that were screened for EPS production based on ropy culture morphology. Further, MJM60135 was cultured in 5L medium and EPS was extracted by ethanol precipitation. Emulsification activity of EPS was higher in toluene than o -xylene...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
Ashokkumar Sekar, Myoungjin Kim, Hyeong Chul Jeong, Keun Kim
Lactobacillus pentosus K1-23 was selected from among 25 lactic acid bacterial strains due to its high inhibitory activity against several pathogenic bacteria, including Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, S. gallinarum, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Clostridium perfringens , and Listeria monocytogenes . Additionally, among 13 strains of Aureobasidium spp., A. pullulans NRRL 58012 was shown to produce the highest amount of β-glucan (15.45 ± 0.07%) and was selected. Next, the optimal conditions for a solid-phase mixed culture with these two different microorganisms, one bacterium and one yeast, were determined...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
Qian Zhang, Satoshi Ishii
Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) is now commonly used to detect fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) as well as pathogens in water samples. However, DNA loss during sample processing can cause underestimation of target genes. In this study, we created a sample process control strain (SPC) by genetically engineering a non-pathogenic, Gram-negative bacterium Pseudogulbenkiania sp. strain NH8B. The SPC strain, named NH8B-1D2, has a kanamycin-resistance gene inserted to one of the 23S rRNA genes. To specifically quantify the SPC strain, a new TaqMan qPCR assay was developed...
March 10, 2018: Water Research
Michael P Ryan, Lorin A Neuman-Lee, Susan L Durham, Geoffrey D Smith, Susannah S French
Behavioral fever in reptiles is often considered an adaptive response used to eliminate pathogens, yet empirical data showing the wide-spread use of this response is mixed. This behavioral change can be beneficial by enhancing the host's immune response and increasing the animal's chance of survival, but it can also be detrimental in terms of host energetic requirements and enzymatic performance. Thus, we examined whether captive-bred African house snakes (Lamprophis fuliginosus) employed behavioral fever in response to pathogen stimulus...
April 2018: Journal of Thermal Biology
Lu Dan, Shen Liu, Shengzhe Shang, Huihua Zhang, Ran Zhang, Ning Li
Targeted gene modification is a novel intervention strategy to increase disease resistance more quickly than traditional animal breeding. Human lysozyme, a natural, non-specific immune factor, participates in innate immunity, exerts a wide range of antimicrobial activities against pathogens, and has immuneregulatory effects. Therefore, it is a candidate gene for improved disease resistance in animals. In this study, we successfully generated a transgenic mouse model by microinjecting a modified bacterial artificial chromosome containing a recombinant human lysozyme (rhLZ) gene into the pronuclei of fertilized mouse embryos...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Biotechnology
Jacek A Koziel, Heekwon Ahn, Thomas D Glanville, Timothy S Frana, J Hans van Leeuwen, Lam T Nguyen
Nearly 55,000 outbreaks of animal disease were reported to the World Animal Health Information Database between 2005 and 2016. To suppress the spread of disease, large numbers of animal mortalities often must be disposed of quickly and are frequently buried on the farm where they were raised. While this method of emergency disposal is fast and relatively inexpensive, it also can have undesirable and lasting impacts (slow decay, concerns about groundwater contamination, pathogens re-emergence, and odor). Following the 2010 foot-and-mouth disease outbreak, the Republic of Korea's National Institute of Animal Science funded research on selected burial alternatives or modifications believed to have potential to reduce undesirable impacts of burial...
March 13, 2018: Waste Management
José Andrés Medrano-Félix, Cristóbal Chaidez, Kristina D Mena, María Del Socorro Soto-Galindo, Nohelia Castro-Del Campo
Survival of bacterial pathogens in different environments is due, in part, to their ability to form biofilms. Four wild-type Salmonella enterica strains, two Oranienburg and two Saintpaul isolated from river water and animal feces, were tested for biofilm formation at the air-liquid interface under stressful conditions (pH and salinity treatments such as pH 3, NaCl 4.5 w/v; pH 7, NaCl 4.5 w/v; pH 10, NaCl 4.5 w/v; pH 3, Nacl 0.5 w/v; pH 7, NaCl 0.5 w/v; and pH 10, NaCl 0.5 w/v); Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 was used as a control strain...
March 15, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
BoYoon Chang, BongSeong Koo, HyeonCheol Lee, Joa Sub Oh, SungYeon Kim
Background: The innate immune system plays a crucial role in the initiation and subsequent direction of adaptive immune responses, as well as in the removal of pathogens that have been targeted by an adaptive immune response. Objective: Morus alba L. was reported to have immunostimulatory properties that might protect against infectious diseases. However, this possibility has not yet been explored. The present study investigated the protective and immune-enhancing ability of M...
2018: Food & Nutrition Research
Tregei Starr, Timothy J Bauler, Preeti Malik-Kale, Olivia Steele-Mortimer
THP-1 cells differentiated with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) are widely used as a model for function and biology of human macrophages. However, the conditions used for differentiation, particularly the concentration of PMA and the duration of treatment, vary widely. Here we compare several differentiation conditions and compare the ability of THP-1 macrophages to interact with the facultative intracellular pathogen Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. The results show that THP-1 macrophages differentiated in high concentrations of PMA rapidly died following infection whereas those differentiated in low concentrations of PMA survived and were able to control the intracellular bacteria similar to primary human macrophages...
2018: PloS One
Anthony Opeyemi Ayeni, Werner Ruppitsch, Funmilola Abidemi Ayeni
Gastrointestinal infections are endemic in Nigeria and several factors contribute to their continual survival, including bacterial resistance to commonly used antibiotics. Nigerian yogurts do not include probiotics, and limited information is available about the antimicrobial properties of the fermenters in the yogurt against gastrointestinal pathogens. Therefore, the antimicrobial potentials of bacteria in Nigeria-produced yogurts against intestinal pathogens were investigated in this study. Viable counts of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in 15 brands of yogurt were enumerated and the bacteria identified by partial sequencing of 16S rRNA gene...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Dietary Supplements
Claudia C Paredes-Amaya, Gilberto Valdés-García, Víctor R Juárez-González, Enrique Rudiño-Piñera, Víctor H Bustamante
HilD is an AraC-like transcriptional regulator that plays a central role in Salmonella virulence. HilD controls the expression of the genes within the Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 (SPI-1) and of several genes located outside SPI-1, which are mainly required for Salmonella invasion of host cells. The expression, amount and activity of HilD are tightly controlled by the activities of several factors. The HilE protein represses the expression of the SPI-1 genes through its interaction with HilD; however, the mechanism by which HilE affects HilD is unknown...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
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