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Salmonella pathogenicity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779148/in-vitro-virulence-characteristics-of-rare-serovars-of-salmonella-enterica-isolated-from-sand-lizards-lacerta-agilis-l
#1
Joanna Mokracka, Sylwia Krzymińska, Danił Ałtunin, Dariusz Wasyl, Ryszard Koczura, Krzysztof Dudek, Monika Dudek, Zofia Anna Chyleńska, Anna Ekner-Grzyb
The aim of this study was to estimate virulence potential of Salmonella enterica strains colonizing the gut of free-living sand lizards (Lacerta agilis L.). The strains belonged to three Salmonella serovars: Abony, Schleissheim, and Telhashomer. Adhesion and invasion abilities of the strains were determined in quantitative assays using the gentamicin protection method. Induction of apoptosis was assessed using HeLa cell monolayers. PCR assays were used for detection of 26 virulence genes localised within mobile elements: pathogenicity islands, virulence plasmids, and prophage sequences...
May 19, 2018: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778481/health-benefits-of-orally-administered-anti-il-10-antibody-in-milk-fed-dairy-calves
#2
S M Raabis, T L Ollivett, M E Cook, J M Sand, S M McGuirk
The primary objective of this randomized controlled trial was to determine whether anti-IL-10 egg yolk antibodies fed upon arrival to a calf ranch would lower the prevalence of Cryptosporidium parvum shedding in naturally challenged preweaned dairy calves. The secondary objectives included measuring the effect of anti-IL-10 antibodies on calf health, performance, and shedding of less common diarrheal pathogens. A total of 133 calves, enrolled at 24 to 72 h of age, received a daily dose of 0.96 g of egg yolk powder with anti-IL-10 antibodies (MAB, n = 71) or without anti-IL-10 antibodies (MEP, n = 62) split between 2 feedings for the first 11 d on feed at a calf ranch...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778427/genomics-driven-approach-for-identification-of-novel-therapeutic-targets-in-salmonella-enterica
#3
Priyanka Gawade, Payel Ghosh
Salmonella enterica is a causative agent of enteric and systemic salmonellosis that affects human and many other animal species. Due to the emergence of drug-resistant strains, available drugs against S. enterica infection are no more effective as before. Thus, there is an urgent need to develop new therapeutic strategies. The current study aims at prioritizing therapeutic targets by an in-silico genomics driven method. The method involves searching proteins of each Salmonella strain for essentiality, virulence and antibiotic-resistance and host-pathogen protein-protein interactions...
May 17, 2018: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777759/plant-nutraceuticals-as-antimicrobial-agents-in-food-preservation-terpenoids-polyphenols-and-thiols
#4
REVIEW
Ignacio Gutiérrez-Del-Río, Javier Fernández, Felipe Lombó
Synthetic food additives generate a negative perception in consumers. Therefore, food manufacturers search for safer natural alternatives as those involving phytochemicals and plant essential oils. These bioactives have antimicrobial activities widely proved in in vitro tests. Foodborne diseases cause thousands of deaths and millions of infections every year, mainly due to pathogenic bacteria as Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp., Escherichia coli, Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes or Staphylococcus aureus...
May 16, 2018: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777597/microdevice-based-solid-phase-polymerase-chain-reaction-for-rapid-detection-of-pathogenic-microorganisms
#5
Quang Nghia Pham, Kieu The Loan Trinh, Seung Won Jung, Nae Yoon Lee
We demonstrate the integration of DNA amplification and detection functionalities developed on a lab-on-a-chip microdevice utilizing solid-phase polymerase chain reaction (SP-PCR) for point-of-need (PON) DNA analyses. First, the polycarbonate microdevice was fabricated by thermal bonding to contain microchambers as reservoirs for performing SP-PCR. Next, the microchambers were subsequently modified with polyethyleneimine and glutaraldehyde for immobilizing amine-modified forward primers. During SP-PCR, the immobilized forward primers and freely diffusing fluorescence-labeled reverse primers cooperated to generate target amplicons, which remained covalently attached to the microchambers for the fluorescence detection...
May 19, 2018: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775724/biological-activities-and-phytocompounds-of-northwest-algeria-ajuga-iva-l-extracts-partial-identification-of-the-antibacterial-fraction
#6
Saida Medjeldi, Lamjed Bouslama, Amina Benabdalla, Rim Essid, Soumaya Haou, Salem Elkahoui
The use of synthetic food additive and the appearance of antibiotic resistance are at the basis of important human health problems. The substitution of synthetic compounds with new natural substances extracted from plants or microorganisms is therefore the ideal solution to this scourge. The objective of this work was to evaluate the phyto-constituents (polyphenols, flavonoids and condensed tannins), and to test the biological activities (antioxidant, antibacterial and antiviral) of the Ajuga iva (L) aerial part extracts...
May 15, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774473/genomic-and-probiotic-characterization-of-sjp-snu-strain-of-pichia-kudriavzevii
#7
Seung-Min Hong, Hyuk-Joon Kwon, Se-Joon Park, Won-Jin Seong, Ilhwan Kim, Jae-Hong Kim
The yeast strain SJP-SNU was investigated as a probiotic and was characterized with respect to growth temperature, bile salt resistance, hydrogen sulfide reducing activity, intestinal survival ability and chicken embryo pathogenicity. In addition, we determined the complete genomic and mitochondrial sequences of SJP-SNU and conducted comparative genomics analyses. SJP-SNU grew rapidly at 37 °C and formed colonies on MacConkey agar containing bile salt. SJP-SNU reduced hydrogen sulfide produced by Salmonella serotype Enteritidis and, after being fed to 4-week-old chickens, could be isolated from cecal feces...
May 17, 2018: AMB Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773876/early-salmonella-typhimurium-infection-in-pigs-disrupts-microbiome-composition-and-functionality-principally-at-the-ileum-mucosa
#8
Héctor Argüello, Jordi Estellé, Sara Zaldívar-López, Ángeles Jiménez-Marín, Ana Carvajal, Mª Asunción López-Bascón, Fiona Crispie, Orla O'Sullivan, Paul D Cotter, Feliciano Priego-Capote, Luis Morera, Juan J Garrido
Salmonella is a major foodborne pathogen which successfully infects animal species for human consumption such as swine. The pathogen has a battery of virulence factors which it uses to colonise and persist within the host. The host microbiota may play a role in resistance to, and may also be indirectly responsible from some of the consequences of, Salmonella infection. To investigate this, we used 16S rRNA metagenomic sequencing to determine the changes in the gut microbiota of pigs in response to infection by Salmonella Typhimurium at three locations: ileum mucosa, ileum content and faeces...
May 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773622/genome-sequences-of-13-isolates-of-salmonella-enterica-serovar-typhimurium-var-copenhagen-obtained-from-wild-pigeons-in-canada
#9
Bridget Xie, Andrée Ann Dupras, Marc-Olivier Duceppe, Nooshin Fattahi-Ghazi, Lawrence Goodridge, Dele Ogunremi
Pigeon-adapted strains of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium var. Copenhagen phage types 2 and 99 obtained from the provinces of Alberta, British Columbia, and Ontario, Canada, were analyzed using whole-genome sequencing. All isolates contained the Salmonella virulence plasmid despite the low pathogenicity of this lineage in their avian host.
May 17, 2018: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773170/iron-and-innate-antimicrobial-immunity-depriving-the-pathogen-defending-the-host
#10
REVIEW
Manfred Nairz, Stefanie Dichtl, Andrea Schroll, David Haschka, Piotr Tymoszuk, Igor Theurl, Günter Weiss
The acute-phase response is triggered by the presence of infectious agents and danger signals which indicate hazards for the integrity of the mammalian body. One central feature of this response is the sequestration of iron into storage compartments including macrophages. This limits the availability of this essential nutrient for circulating pathogens, a host defence strategy known as 'nutritional immunity'. Iron metabolism and the immune response are intimately linked. In infections, the availability of iron affects both the efficacy of antimicrobial immune pathways and pathogen proliferation...
July 2018: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768238/one-pot-green-fabrication-of-metallic-silver-nanoscale-materials-using-crescentia-cujete-l-and-assessment-of-their-bactericidal-activity
#11
Seetharaman Prabukumar, Chandrasekaran Rajkuberan, Gnanasekar Sathishkumar, Mani Illaiyaraja, Sivaperumal Sivaramakrishnan
In this study, the leaf extract of an important medicinal plant Crescentia cujete L. (CC) was employed as a green reducing agent to synthesise highly-stable C. cujete silver nanoparticles (CCAgNPs). The reduction of Ag+ to Ag0 nanoparticles was initially observed by a colour change which generates an intense surface plasmon resonance peak at 417 nm using a UV-Vis spectrophotometer. Various optimisation factors such as temperature, pH, time and the stoichiometric proportion of the reaction mixture were performed, which influence the size, dispersity and synthesis rate of CCAgNPs...
June 2018: IET Nanobiotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763725/salmonella-infection-may-alter-the-expression-of-toll-like-receptor-4-and-immune-related-cells-in-chicken-bursa-of-fabricius
#12
Abdur Rahman Ansari, Muhammad Arshad, Saima Masood, Hai-Bo Huang, Xing Zhao, Ningya Li, Zhijian Sun, Lei Cui, Yafang Hu, Hua-Zhen Liu
Toll like receptor 4 (TLR4), eosinophils and mast cells play significant role in host immunity during several pathogenic infections. However in vivo tissue expression of TLR4 and distribution pattern of eosinophils and mast cells in chicken bursa of Fabricius (BF) during Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (STm) infection is poorly studied. Therefore, herein, following immunostaining, we found localization of TLR4 in follicular cortex and medulla and its expression was statistical increased after 36h and 72h of STm stimulation...
May 12, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762053/factors-associated-with-salmonella-prevalence-in-u-s-swine-grower-finisher-operations-2012
#13
Kathe E Bjork, Victoria Fields, Lindsey P Garber, Christine A Kopral
Nontyphoidal Salmonella is an important foodborne pathogen with diverse serotypes occurring in animal and human populations. The prevalence of the organism on swine farms has been associated with numerous risk factors, and although there are strong veterinary public health controls for preventing Salmonella from entering food, there remains interest in eradicating or controlling the organism in the preharvest environment. In this study, using data collected via the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) National Animal Health Monitoring System Swine 2012 study, we describe nontyphoidal Salmonella and specific serotype prevalence on U...
May 15, 2018: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761622/host-heme-oxygenase-1-friend-or-foe-in-tackling-pathogens
#14
REVIEW
Nisha Singh, Zeeshan Ahmad, Navin Baid, Ashwani Kumar
Infectious diseases are a major challenge in management of human health worldwide. Recent literature suggests that host immune system could be modulated to ameliorate the pathogenesis of infectious disease. Heme oxygenase (HMOX1) is a key regulator of cellular signaling and it could be modulated using pharmacological reagents. HMOX1 is a cytoprotective enzyme that degrades heme to generate carbon monoxide (CO), biliverdin, and molecular iron. CO and biliverdin (or bilirubin derived from it) can restrict the growth of a few pathogens...
May 14, 2018: IUBMB Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761161/natural-compound-sanguinarine-chloride-targets-the-type-iii-secretion-system-of-salmonella-enterica-serovar-typhimurium
#15
Yong Zhang, Yan Liu, Tingting Wang, Xuming Deng, Xiao Chu
The type III secretion system (T3SS) is a key virulence mechanism of many Gram-negative bacterial pathogens. Upon contact between bacteria and host cells, T3SS transfers a series of effectors from the bacterial cytosol to host cells. It is widely known that a mutation in T3SS does not impair bacterial growth, thereby avoiding any subsequent development of resistance. Thus, T3SS is expected to be a candidate therapeutic target. While developing the T3SS screening method, we discovered that sanguinarine chloride, a natural compound, could decrease the production of the SPI-1 type III secretion system main virulence proteins SipA and SipB and prevent the invasion of HeLa cells by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium without affecting the growth of Salmonella...
July 2018: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759200/rapid-colorimetric-lactoferrin-based-sandwich-immunoassay-on-cotton-swabs-for-the-detection-of-foodborne-pathogenic-bacteria
#16
Saleh Alamer, Shimaa Eissa, Raja Chinnappan, Paul Herron, Mohammed Zourob
Cotton swab is the conventional swabbing tool that is usually applied for collecting pathogens from contaminated surfaces, followed by cells lysis and DNA extraction before subjecting to genetic analysis. However, such an approach is time consuming as it involves several steps and requires highly trained personnel to perform the experiment. In this study, we developed a new cotton swab-based detection system that involved integrating bacterial collection, preconcentration and detection on Q-tips. The platform is based on a sandwich assay that can detect different pathogens visually by color changes...
August 1, 2018: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755189/roles-of-the-crp-and-sipb-genes-of-salmonella-enterica-serovar-typhimurium-in-protective-efficacy-and-immune-responses-to-vaccination-in-mice
#17
Songbiao Chen, Chengshui Liao, Chunjie Zhang, Xiangchao Cheng
Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium has a wide host range and is capable of causing infections ranging from severe gastroenteritis to systemic infection in humans. To determine if attenuated S. Typhimurium strains can serve as safe and effective oral vaccines to prevent typhoid fever, the biologic characteristics of crp and sipB deletion mutants were evaluated. Previous studies had found that the crp and sipB genes are related to Salmonella pathogenicity. In this study, cytotoxicity, protective efficacy, and immune responses of the host were analyzed...
April 2018: Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research, Revue Canadienne de Recherche Vétérinaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752434/activation-of-tgf-%C3%AE-activated-kinase-1-tak1-restricts-salmonella-typhimurium-growth-by-inducing-ampk-activation-and-autophagy
#18
Wei Liu, Yuanyuan Jiang, Jing Sun, Shizhong Geng, Zhiming Pan, Richard A Prinz, Chengming Wang, Jun Sun, Xinan Jiao, Xiulong Xu
Autophagy is a conserved cellular process that functions as a first-line defense to restrict the growth of invading parasitic bacteria. As an intracellular pathogen, Salmonella (S) Typhimurium invades host cells through two Type III secretion systems (T3SS) and resides in the Salmonella-containing vacuole (SCV). When the SCV membrane is perforated and ruptured by T3SS-1, a small portion of the Salmonella egresses from the SCV and replicates rapidly in the nutrient-rich cytosol. Cytosolic Salmonella and those residing in the membrane-damaged SCV are tagged by ubiquitination and marked for autophagy through the ubiquitin-binding adaptor proteins such as p62, NDP52, and optineurin...
May 11, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751496/prevalence-of-pathogens-in-poultry-meat-a-meta-analysis-of-european-published-surveys
#19
Andiara Gonçalves-Tenório, Beatriz Nunes Silva, Vânia Rodrigues, Vasco Cadavez, Ursula Gonzales-Barron
The objective of this study was to investigate and summarize the levels of incidence of Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes , Staphylococcus aureus and Campylobacter spp. in poultry meat commercialized in Europe. After systematic review, incidence data and study characteristics were extracted from 78 studies conducted in 21 European countries. Pooled prevalence values from 203 extracted observations were estimated from random-effects meta-analysis models adjusted by pathogen, poultry type, sampling stage, cold preservation type, meat cutting type and packaging status...
May 3, 2018: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751061/the-transcriptional-regulator-varn-contributes-to-salmonella-typhimurium-growth-in-macrophages-and-virulence-in-mice
#20
Xiaohan Jiang, Xiaomin Li, Shuangyong Sun, Lingyan Jiang
Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) is a major intracellular pathogen of humans and animals and its survival and growth in macrophages is essential for its pathogenicity. The S. Typhimurium genome encodes more than 50 putative regulatory proteins, but their involvement in pathogenicity and their regulatory roles are largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the biological function of the S. Typhimurium STM4320 gene (named varN), which encodes a putative MerR family transcriptional regulator...
May 8, 2018: Research in Microbiology
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