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Salmonella pathogenicity

Mélanie V Trudel, Antony T Vincent, Sabrina A Attéré, Myriam Labbé, Nicolas Derome, Alexander I Culley, Steve J Charette
The bacterium Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida is a common pathogen in fish farms worldwide. Since the antibiotic resistance of this bacterial species is on the increase, it is important to have a broader view on this issue. In the present study, we tested the presence of known plasmids conferring multi-drug resistance as well as antibiotic resistance genes by a PCR approach in 100 Canadian A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida isolates. Our study highlighted the dominance of the conjugative pSN254b plasmid, which confers multi-drug resistance...
October 18, 2016: Scientific Reports
Young Ha Ahn, Sunyoung Park, Jeong June Choi, Bo-Kyung Park, Kyung Hee Rhee, Eunjoo Kang, Soyeon Ahn, Chul-Ho Lee, Jong Soo Lee, Kyung-Soo Inn, Mi-La Cho, Sung-Hwan Park, Kyunghee Park, Hae Jung Park, Jae Hyun Lee, Jung Won Park, Nam Hoon Kwon, Hyunbo Shim, Byung Woo Han, Pilhan Kim, Joo-Youn Lee, Youngho Jeon, Jin Won Huh, Mirim Jin, Sunghoon Kim
The N-terminal truncated form of a protein synthesis enzyme, tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase (mini-WRS), is secreted as an angiostatic ligand. However, the secretion and function of the full-length WRS (FL-WRS) remain unknown. Here, we report that the FL-WRS, but not mini-WRS, is rapidly secreted upon pathogen infection to prime innate immunity. Blood levels of FL-WRS were increased in sepsis patients, but not in those with sterile inflammation. FL-WRS was secreted from monocytes and directly bound to macrophages via a toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-myeloid differentiation factor 2 (MD2) complex to induce phagocytosis and chemokine production...
October 17, 2016: Nature Microbiology
H W Kim, Y J Hong, J I Jo, S D Ha, S H Kim, H J Lee, M S Rhee
Microbiological quality of 206 raw ready-to-eat seafood samples were investigated according to species (gizzard shad, halibut, rockfish, tuna, oyster, and squid) and distribution channels (fishery, hyper, and online market). Enumeration of Aerobic Plate Count (APC) and total coliforms (TC) and pathogenic bacteria (Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, and Vibrio parahaemolyticus) were performed, and level of microbiological quality were classified into four groups: satisfactory, acceptable, unsatisfactory, and unacceptable...
October 16, 2016: Letters in Applied Microbiology
Marie-Odile Husson, Delphine Ley, Céline Portal, Madeleine Gottrand, Thomas Hueso, Jean-Luc Desseyn, Frédéric Gottrand
OBJECTIVES: Although n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC-PUFAs) are used widely in the treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases, their effect in infectious disease requires a particular attention. METHODS: The present article discusses their anti-inflammatory and immune properties involved in the host defence and presents a systematic review of the effects of their oral administration on the prevention and outcome of experimental and clinical infections...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Infection
Emmanuel Lemichez
The virulence of highly pathogenic bacteria such as Salmonella, Yersinia, Staphylococci, Clostridia, and pathogenic strains of Escherichia coli involves intimate cross-talks with the host actin cytoskeleton and its upstream regulators. A large number of virulence factors expressed by these pathogens modulate Rho GTPase activities either by mimicking cellular regulators or by catalyzing posttranslational modifications of these small proteins. This impressive convergence of virulence toward Rho GTPases and actin indeed offers pathogens the capacity to breach host defenses and invade their host, while it promotes inflammatory reactions...
October 16, 2016: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
H Memona, F Manzoor, A A Anjum
This study focuses on isolation of pathogenic bacteria from external and internal surfaces of cockroaches collected from houses and hospitals in Lahore. In total, 240 adult cockroaches were collected from houses and hospitals by hand or using sticky traps and food-bait traps. Cockroach species were identified, and microbial screening was done for external surfaces and gut tracts of cockroaches. Jaccard's index of similarity, Bray-Curtis' index of dissimilarity, and Shannon-Wiener's diversity index were used to measure the bacterial community diversity (all species of bacteria) in each habitat...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Medical Entomology
Yosra Ben-Fadhel, Sabrina Saltaji, Mohamed Ali Khlifi, Stephane Salmieri, Khanh Dang Vu, Monique Lacroix
The antimicrobial activity of essential oils (EOs), organic acid (OA) salts and natamycin, a natural antifungal produced during fermentation by the bacterium Streptomyces natalensis, was assessed against four pathogens (Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella Typhimurium and Aspergillus niger). The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of each antimicrobial (AM) was assessed to determine their efficiency on tested microbial species in order to select the most efficient. Then, the interactions between different antimicrobial compounds showing the lowest MIC were determined by the checkerboard method...
October 11, 2016: International Journal of Food Microbiology
A A Al-Gheethi, R M S R Mohamed, A N Efaq, I Norli, Abdullah Abd Halid, H K Amir, M O Ab Kadir
The study probed into reducing faecal indicators and pathogenic bacteria, heavy metals and β-lactam antibiotics, from four types of secondary effluents by bioaugmentation process, which was conducted with Bacillus subtilis strain at 45 °C. As a result, faecal indicators and pathogenic bacteria were reduced due to the effect of thermal treatment process (45 °C), while the removal of heavy metals and β-lactam antibiotics was performed through the functions of bioaccumulation and biodegradation processes of B...
October 2016: Journal of Water and Health
Mary E Torrence
This introductory article provides an overview of preharvest food safety activities and initiatives for the past 15 years. The section on traditional areas of preharvest food safety focuses on significant scientific advancements that are a culmination of collaborative efforts (both public health and agriculture) and significant research results. The highlighted advancements provide the foundation for exploring future preharvest areas and for improving and focusing on more specific intervention/control/prevention strategies...
October 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
Rapeephan R Maude, Aniruddha Ghose, Rasheda Samad, Hanna K de Jong, Masako Fukushima, Lalith Wijedoru, Mahtab Uddin Hassan, Md Amir Hossain, Md Rezaul Karim, Abdullah Abu Sayeed, Stannie van den Ende, Sujat Pal, A S M Zahed, Wahid Rahman, Rifat Karnain, Rezina Islam, Dung Thi Ngoc Tran, Tuyen Thanh Ha, Anh Hong Pham, James I Campbell, H Rogier van Doorn, Richard J Maude, Tom van der Poll, W Joost Wiersinga, Nicholas P J Day, Stephen Baker, Arjen M Dondorp, Christopher M Parry, Md Abul Faiz
BACKGROUND: Fever is a common cause of hospital admission in Bangladesh but causative agents, other than malaria, are not routinely investigated. Enteric fever is thought to be common. METHODS: Adults and children admitted to Chittagong Medical College Hospital with a temperature of ≥38.0 °C were investigated using a blood smear for malaria, a blood culture, real-time PCR to detect Salmonella Typhi, S. Paratyphi A and other pathogens in blood and CSF and an NS1 antigen dengue ELISA...
October 13, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Dominic J Pollard, Joanna C Young, Valentina Covarelli, Silvia Herrera-León, Thomas R Connor, Maria Fookes, Danielle Walker, Aurora Echeita, Nicholas R Thomson, Cedric N Berger, Gad Frankel
Salmonella spp. utilize type III secretion systems (T3SS) to translocate effectors into the cytosol of mammalian host cells, subverting cell signaling and facilitating the onset of gastroenteritis. In this study we compared a draft genome assembly of S. enterica subsp. salamae strain 3588/07 (S. salamae) against the genomes of S. enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium strain LT2 and S. bongori strain 12419. S. salamae encode the Salmonella pathogenicity island (SPI)-1; SPI-2 and the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE) T3SSs...
October 10, 2016: Infection and Immunity
Junlei Yin, Yun Chen, Xiaolei Xie, Jie Xia, Qiuchun Li, Shizhong Geng, Xinan Jiao
Salmonella pathogenicity island 2 (SPI2) can encode type III secretion system 2 (T3SS2) which plays an important role in systemic disease development through delivering different effector proteins into host cells. Here, the influence of Salmonella Pullorum pathogenicity island 2 on T3SS2 effetor gene expression was performed using qRT-PCR in chicken macrophage HD11 cells. Our results showed that all the detected genes (including pseudogenes sifB, sspH2 and steC) can express in HD11 cells of Salmonella Pullorum infection, deletion of SPI2 of Salmonella Pullorum did not significantly affect the expression of genes cigR, gtgA, slrP, sopD, sseK1, steB and steC, but had a significantly effect on the expression of genes pipB2, sifB, sopD2, sseJ, sseL, sspH2, steD, sifA, pipB and steA at different degrees...
October 13, 2016: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
Rajeev Soman, Neha Gupta, Mitesh Suthar, Jatin Kothari, Alan Almeida, Anjali Shetty, Camilla Rodrigues
BACKGROUND: Central-line-associated blood-stream infection (CLABSI) is a highly consequential nosocomial infection. The most effective management includes the removal of the infected catheter. Retention of the catheter and antibiotic lock therapy (ALT) along with systemic antibiotics may be attempted only if there are unusual extenuating circumstances. CLABSIs due to Gram-negative bacteria (GNB) is more common in our setting and the organisms are often highly resistant. Hence, there is a need to explore the use of novel antimicrobials for catheter lock solutions along with antibiofilm agents...
February 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Paria Pashazadeh, Ahad Mokhtarzadeh, Mohammad Hasanzadeh, Maryam Hejazi, Maryam Hashemi, Miguel de la Guardia
Salmonella infectious diseases spreading every day through food have become a life-threatening problem for millions of people and growing menace to society. Health expert's estimate that the yearly cost of all the food borne diseases is approximately $5-6 billion. Traditional methodologies for salmonella analysis provide high reliability and very low limits of detection. Among them immunoassays and Nucleic acid-based assays provide results within 24h, but they are expensive, tedious and time consuming. So, there is an urgent need for development of rapid, robust and cost-effective alternative technologies for real-time monitoring of salmonella...
August 4, 2016: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Walid Q Alali, Charles L Hofacre
Preharvest food safety in broiler production is a systematic approach to control the introduction, propagation, and dissemination of Salmonella and Campylobacter from breeder flocks to the end of their progeny (broilers) life cycle. New and revised more stringent performance standards for these pathogens at the processing plant level require continuous evaluation of the preharvest management practices and intervention strategies used by the poultry industry. The implementation of stricter biosecurity plans, vaccination of breeder flocks for Salmonella, and usage of feed that is free of animal by-products are some of the measures recommended to control the pathogens...
August 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
Manan Sharma, Russell Reynnells
Biological soil amendments (BSAs) such as manure and compost are frequently used as organic fertilizers to improve the physical and chemical properties of soils. However, BSAs have been known to be a reservoir for enteric bacterial pathogens such as enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC), Salmonella spp., and Listeria spp. There are numerous mechanisms by which manure may transfer pathogens to growing fruits and vegetables, and several outbreaks of infections have been linked to manure-related contamination of leafy greens...
August 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
Alexia Hapeshi, Nick R Waterfield
Photorhabdus asymbiotica is a species of bacterium that is pathogenic to humans whilst retaining the ability to infect insect hosts. Currently, there are two recognised subspecies, P. asymbiotica subsp. asymbiotica and P. asymbiotica subsp. australis with strains isolated from various locations in the USA, Australia, Thailand, Nepal and Europe. Like other species of Photorhabdus, P. asymbiotica subsp. australis was shown to form a symbiotic relationship with a Heterorhabditis nematode. In contrast to most strains of Photorhabdus luminescens, P...
September 14, 2016: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
Ilaria Spadoni, Alessandro Pietrelli, Graziano Pesole, Maria Rescigno
It has been widely demonstrated that tolerance against gut microbiota is compartmentalized to mucosal sites where microbes mostly reside. How the commensal bacteria are excluded from the entrance into the blood stream via intestinal capillaries that are located beneath the gut epithelium was not clear. We recently described the existence of a new anatomical structure, the 'gut vascular barrier' (GVB), both in murine and human intestines that plays a fundamental role in avoiding indiscriminate trafficking of bacteria from the gut into the blood circulation...
October 10, 2016: Gut Microbes
Lourdes Migura-Garcia, Raül Ramos, Marta Cerdà-Cuéllar
Wildlife is a natural reservoir of Salmonella and Campylobacter, the most important human foodborne pathogens worldwide. Free-living birds have the potential to transport, over large distances, such zoonotic bacteria that may harbor antimicrobial resistance traits. On the northeastern Iberian coast, we assessed the role of Yellow-legged Gulls ( Larus michahellis ) as reservoirs of antimicrobial resistance in Salmonella and thermophilic Campylobacter isolates recovered from gulls at three colonies, with varying degrees of dependence on refuse dumps as food sources...
October 10, 2016: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Vivek Sharma, Taranpreet Kaur, Helen Bridle, Moushumi Ghosh
This study evaluated five extracellular polymers of bacterial origin possessing mucoadhesive properties for their antimicrobial properties and toxicological characteristics. Of the five tested mucoadhesive biopolymers, the extracellular polymer produced by a strain of Acinetobacter haemolyticus exhibited broad antimicrobial efficacy towards Yersinia enterocolitica, Salmonella typhimurium, Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Bacillus subtilis. Significant (p<0.05) inhibition of gram negative bacterial pathogens followed by gram positives were observed with the biopolymer at a dose of 40-60μg ml-1 at ambient temperature...
October 6, 2016: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
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