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diencephalic seizure

John Henry Rossmeisl, Rudy T Andriani, Thomas E Cecere, Kevin Lahmers, Tanya LeRoith, Kurt L Zimmerman, Denise Gibo, Waldemar Debinski
This report describes the methodology, diagnostic yield, and adverse events (AE) associated with frame-based stereotactic brain biopsies (FBSB) obtained from 26 dogs with solitary forebrain lesions. Medical records were reviewed from dogs that underwent FBSB using two stereotactic headframes designed for use in small animals and compatible with computed tomographic (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Stereotactic plans were generated from MR and CT images using commercial software, and FBSB performed both with (14/26) and without intraoperative image guidance...
2015: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Marco Skardelly, Elina Brendle, Susan Noell, Felix Behling, Thomas V Wuttke, Jens Schittenhelm, Sotirios Bisdas, Christoph Meisner, Sabine Rona, Marcos Soares Tatagiba, Ghazaleh Tabatabai
OBJECTIVE: Antiepileptic treatment of brain tumor patients mainly depends on the individual physician's choice rather than on well-defined predictive factors. We investigated the predictive value of defined clinical parameters to formulate a model of risk estimations for subpopulations of brain tumor patients. METHODS: We enclosed 650 patients > 18 years of age who underwent brain tumor surgery and included a number of clinical data. Logistic regressions were performed to determine the effect sizes of seizure-related risk factors and to develop prognostic scores for the occurrence of preoperative and early postoperative seizures...
December 2015: Annals of Neurology
Saloua Mrabet, Nedia Ben Achour, Ichraf Kraoua, Hanène Benrhouma, Hedia Klaa, Aida Rouissi, Malika Ben Ahmed, Ilhem Ben Youssef Turki
BACKGROUND: Anti-Ma2-associated encephalitis is a rare paraneoplastic neurological syndrome characterized by isolated or combined limbic, diencephalic, or brainstem dysfunction. It is rarely reported in children. CASE STUDY: We describe the clinical data of a 2-year-old girl referred to our department for refractory focal seizures associated with fever, followed by behavioural changes, speech disturbances and confusional episodes. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed left temporoparietal brain involvement...
November 2015: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
Kimberly S Meyer
BACKGROUND: Paroxysmal sympathetic hyperactivity (PSH) is a condition occurring in a small percentage of patients with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). It is characterized by a constellation of symptoms associated with excessive adrenergic output, including tachycardia, hypertension, tachypnea, and diaphoresis. Diagnosis is one of exclusion and, therefore, is often delayed. Treatment is aimed at minimizing triggers and pharmacologic management of symptoms. METHODS: A literature review using medline and cinahl was conducted to identify articles related to PSH...
2014: Surgical Neurology International
De-Fen Shih, Chung-Der Hsiao, Ming-Yuan Min, Wen-Sung Lai, Chianne-Wen Yang, Wang-Tso Lee, Shyh-Jye Lee
Aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) deficiency is a rare pediatric neuro-metabolic disease in children. Due to the lack of an animal model, its pathogenetic mechanism is poorly understood. To study the role of AADC in brain development, a zebrafish model of AADC deficiency was generated. We identified an aadc gene homolog, dopa decarboxylase (ddc), in the zebrafish genome. Whole-mount in situ hybridization analysis showed that the ddc gene is expressed in the epiphysis, locus caeruleus, diencephalic catecholaminergic clusters, and raphe nuclei of 36-h post-fertilization (hpf) zebrafish embryos...
2013: PloS One
Kaukab Maqbool Hassan, Dheeraj Kumar
A 45-year-old man presented with global headache, vomiting and abnormal behavior after cross-country run at high altitude. There was no seizure, loss of consciousness, fever or head injury. He was conscious, abulic and uncooperative with normal vitals. There was no focal neurological deficit. Non contrast computed tomography scan of head was normal. Magnetic resonance imaging of brain showed venous infarct in bilateral thalami, left basal ganglia and periventricular white matter. Magnetic resonance venography revealed thrombosis involving internal cerebral veins, septal veins, thalamostriate veins, vein of Galen and proximal portion of straight sinus...
April 2013: Journal of Neurosciences in Rural Practice
Pedro Jesus Serrano-Castro, Enrique Alonso-Morillejo, Carmen Pozo-Muñoz, Manuel Payán-Ortiz, Pablo Quiroga-Subirana, Javier Fernández-Pérez
INTRODUCTION: The predominant manifestations of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) are partial seizures with impairment of consciousness (type I.B of ILAE classification), although consciousness impairment is not necessary in all seizures of patients with TLE. Nevertheless, there have been very few reports of TLE patients with exclusive seizures with no impairment of consciousness (i.e. isolated auras). The objective of this study was to determine any differential characteristics of this subgroup of TLE patients...
August 2013: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
Aileen Soriano, Terence L Gutgsell, Mellar P Davis
Diencephalic storms or paroxysmal sympathetic storms are characterized by episodic hyperhidrosis, hypertension, tachypnea, tachycardia, and abnormal posturing. These have been reported to occur in patients with hydrocephalus, intracranial tumors, and hypoxic, ischemic, or traumatic brain injury. They can be easily misdiagnosed as seizures, uncontrolled pheochromocytoma, drug withdrawal, thyroid storm, hypertensive crises, and sepsis or anxiety attacks. The most effective treatment to control these symptoms is yet to be identified...
February 2014: American Journal of Hospice & Palliative Care
Alessia Nicotra, Nofal M Khalil, P Owbridge, Mina Hakda, Younatan Beitverda
Excessive yawning has been reported in the peri-ictal period preceding or following seizures. We describe an exceptional case of an elderly man with impairment of consciousness and paroxysmal excessive yawning. We hypothesise that this can be regarded as an autonomic seizure originating from diencephalic/brainstem structures, manifesting with yawning as an ictal phenomenon.
2012: BMJ Case Reports
Maha S Zaki, Sahar N Saleem, William B Dobyns, A James Barkovich, Hauke Bartsch, Anders M Dale, Manzar Ashtari, Naiara Akizu, Joseph G Gleeson, Ana Maria Grijalvo-Perez
We describe six cases from three unrelated consanguineous Egyptian families with a novel characteristic brain malformation at the level of the diencephalic-mesencephalic junction. Brain magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a dysplasia of the diencephalic-mesencephalic junction with a characteristic 'butterfly'-like contour of the midbrain on axial sections. Additional imaging features included variable degrees of supratentorial ventricular dilatation and hypoplasia to complete agenesis of the corpus callosum...
August 2012: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Gulsen Akman-Demir, Sabahattin Saip, Aksel Siva
Neurologic involvement in Behçet's disease (BD) is seen in about 5% to 10% of all BD patients. Clinical and imaging data suggest that neurologic involvement in BD presents in two major forms. The first, central nervous system (CNS) parenchymal involvement with a predilection to brainstem-diencephalic regions, is seen in the majority of patients with neuro-BD (NBD). The second form is cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST), which is seen in up to 20% of cases. BD is very rare in children, but when it does occur, the patterns are reversed: most children with NBD present with CVST...
June 2011: Current Treatment Options in Neurology
Hyun Jin Woo, Seong Hyun Park, Sung Kyoo Hwang
Paroxysmal sympathetic storm (PSS), or diencephalic seizure, usually appears in patients with severe traumatic brain injury and is characterized by various sympathetic symptoms. The physiological effects of this syndrome are not well studied. The authors monitored intracranial pressure (ICP) in a patient with PSS and reviewed its impact on the physiology and management of the syndrome. A 12-year-old male patient was involved in a traffic accident. Upon arrival at the emergency room, his Glasgow Coma Scale score was 5 and he showed decerebration...
2010: Pediatric Neurosurgery
Dario J Englot, Li Yang, Hamada Hamid, Nathan Danielson, Xiaoxiao Bai, Anthony Marfeo, Lissa Yu, Aliza Gordon, Michael J Purcaro, Joshua E Motelow, Ravi Agarwal, Damien J Ellens, Julie D Golomb, Michel C F Shamy, Heping Zhang, Chad Carlson, Werner Doyle, Orrin Devinsky, Kenneth Vives, Dennis D Spencer, Susan S Spencer, Catherine Schevon, Hitten P Zaveri, Hal Blumenfeld
Impaired consciousness requires altered cortical function. This can occur either directly from disorders that impair widespread bilateral regions of the cortex or indirectly through effects on subcortical arousal systems. It has therefore long been puzzling why focal temporal lobe seizures so often impair consciousness. Early work suggested that altered consciousness may occur with bilateral or dominant temporal lobe seizure involvement. However, other bilateral temporal lobe disorders do not impair consciousness...
December 2010: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Tzu-Pu Chang, Ching-Feng Huang
PURPOSE: We describe a patient who presented with unilateral paresthesia after acute isolated infarct of the splenium. CASE REPORT: A 74-year-old woman presented with acute onset of right sided numbness and tingling. MR imaging of the brain showed hypointensity on T1-weighted images and on apparent diffusion coefficient maps, and hyperintensity on T2-weighted and on diffusion-weighted images in the splenium, suggestive of acute infarction. MR angiography showed narrowing of left posterior cerebral artery with decreased branches...
June 2010: Acta Neurologica Taiwanica
Yeon-Hwa Kim, Yunkyoung Lee, Keumju Lee, Taehee Lee, Yong-Jung Kim, Chang-Joong Lee
Seizures have been reported to modify neural development in the immature brain. In this study, we attempted to determine whether pentylenetetrazol (a GABAergic receptor antagonist, PTZ)-induced seizures influence cell proliferation in zebrafish larvae (5 and 15 days of post-fertilization), using bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) to label dividing cells. In the brains of 5 dpf larvae, PTZ treatment significantly reduced the number of BrdU-labeled cells in the telencephalic area (pallium and subpallium), diencephalic area (thalamus and preoptic area), medial tectal proliferation zone, and medial cerebellar proliferation zone to 52...
September 2010: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
T Scott Diesing, Eelco F M Wijdicks
Autonomic dysregulation and catatonic posturing are well described following acute cerebral injury. Others have referred to this as diencephalic seizures, sympathetic storms, midbrain dysregulatory syndrome, and, most recently, paroxysmal autonomic instability with dystonia. Some of these syndromes can evolve into malignant catatonia requiring electroconvulsive therapy. Here we report a case of hanging associated anoxic brain injury resulting in severe dysautonomia and an extreme opisthotonus (arc de cercle)...
June 2006: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
Maryam Fouladi, Elizabeth Gilger, Mehmet Kocak, Dana Wallace, Gray Buchanan, Cara Reeves, Nicole Robbins, Thomas Merchant, Larry E Kun, Raja Khan, Amar Gajjar, Raymond Mulhern
PURPOSE: To evaluate the impact of tumor location, clinical parameters, and therapy on neurocognitive, neuroendocrine, and functional outcomes in children < or = 3 years old with intracranial CNS malignancies who survived at least 2 years after diagnosis. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Records were retrospectively reviewed for 194 children diagnosed from 1985 to 1999 at St Jude Children's Research Hospital (Memphis, TN). RESULTS: The median age at diagnosis was 1...
October 1, 2005: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
Andre Palmini, Wim Van Paesschen, Patrick Dupont, Koen Van Laere, Guido Van Driel
PURPOSE: To present the first ictal fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) evidence of the hypothalamic origin of gelastic seizures in a patient with a hypothalamic hamartoma (HH) and to raise the issue of true dual pathology related to this entity. METHODS: Ictal FDG-PET was acquired during an episode of status gelasticus with preserved consciousness, in a patient previously operated on for complex partial seizures (CPSs) due to a temporal lobe epileptogenic cyst...
August 2005: Epilepsia
Pavel Varsik, Darina Buranová, Branislav Kollár, Pavol Kucera, Marian Kondás, Juraj Stofko
OBJECTIVES: Developmental cerebral dysplasias are frequent causes of epilepsy. The early stage of gestation, mainly the period of neural crest separation and neuroblast migration (disturbance of midline structures, heterotopias, cortical dysplasias and disturbance of the ventricular and vascular formation), may be considered as a cause of serious cerebral dysplasia. The aim of the study was focused on frequent simultaneous occurrences of epileptic seizures and the defect or abnormality of the ventricular system - cavum septi pellucidi (CSP)...
June 2005: Neuro Endocrinology Letters
A Ly-Ba, N Ndoye, M C Ba, A Kabre, A Ndoye-Diop, S Ba-Diop, A Alfidja, A R Ndiaye, B Gueye, M Badiane
The Objectives of this study were to Report a rare malformation and to try to understand the embryological origin of such lesion. We reported the case of an eight-month-old female infant, without any particular past medical history, who was refered for seizures and vomiting. The examination revealed normal anthropometric constants, a soft painless and renitent tumefaction of the vertex and a psychomotor delay. Skull x-ray showed a parietal lacuna opposite to an opacity. Ultrasound scan showed an encephalocystocele communicating with dilated ventricles...
2003: Dakar Médical
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