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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818694/diffusion-time-dependence-of-microstructural-parameters-in-fixed-spinal-cord
#1
REVIEW
Sune Nørhøj Jespersen, Jonas Lynge Olesen, Brian Hansen, Noam Shemesh
Biophysical modelling of diffusion MRI is necessary to provide specific microstructural tissue properties. However, estimating model parameters from data with limited diffusion gradient strength, such as clinical scanners, has proven unreliable due to a shallow optimization landscape. On the other hand, estimation of diffusion kurtosis (DKI) parameters is more robust, and its parameters may be connected to microstructural parameters, given an appropriate biophysical model. However, it was previously shown that this procedure still does not provide sufficient information to uniquely determine all model parameters...
August 14, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814499/therapeutic-stimulation-for-restoration-of-function-after-spinal-cord-injury
#2
REVIEW
Aiva Ievins, Chet T Moritz
Paralysis due to spinal cord injury can severely limit motor function and independence. This review summarizes different approaches to electrical stimulation of the spinal cord designed to restore motor function, with a brief discussion of their origins and the current understanding of their mechanisms of action. Spinal stimulation leads to impressive improvements in motor function along with some benefits to autonomic functions such as bladder control. Nonetheless, the precise mechanisms underlying these improvements and the optimal spinal stimulation approaches for restoration of motor function are largely unknown...
September 2017: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814029/vibrotactile-feedback-to-control-the-amount-of-weight-shift-during-walking-a-first-step-towards-better-control-of-an-exoskeleton-for-spinal-cord-injury-subjects
#3
Heidi J B Muijzer-Witteveen, Sara Nataletti, Martina Agnello, Maura Casadio, Edwin H F van Asseldonk
People with Spinal Cord Injury do not only lack the ability to control their muscles, but also miss the sensory information from below the level of their lesion. Therefore, it may become difficult for them to perceive the state of the body during walking, which is however often used to control wearable exoskeletons. In the present study the possibilities of providing vibrotactile feedback about the Center of Mass (CoM) during walking were investigated. The results showed that healthy subjects could successfully interpret the provided vibrotactile cues and change their walking pattern accordingly...
July 2017: IEEE ... International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics: [proceedings]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813918/how-to-prepare-a-person-with-complete-spinal-cord-injury-to-use-surface-electrodes-for-fes-trike-cycling
#4
Raymond K Y Tong, Xiaojun Wang, Kenry W C Leung, Ginny T Y Lee, Cathy C Y Lau, H W Wai, Peter M K Pang, H C Leung
Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES) cycling could benefit people with Spinal Cord Injury (SCI). The FES cycling involves large muscle groups during the training, and thus improves the cardiovascular function, increases the muscle bulk and reduces the secondary complications. This study developed an outdoor FES exercise cycling system for complete SCI persons to exercise their lower limbs without putting extra load on upper extremities. The mechanical structure of the cycling system was specially redesigned to secure the SCI persons in the cycling system...
July 2017: IEEE ... International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics: [proceedings]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813843/addition-of-forelimb-training-reduces-gains-from-robotic-gait-training-in-a-rat-model-of-spinal-cord-injury
#5
Nathan D Neckel, Haining Dai, Olga C Rodriguez
To restore locomotor function following spinal cord injury the disrupted descending supraspinal drive needs to be re-connected to regions caudal to the injury. Robotic gait training aims to facilitate recovery by stimulating the proprioceptive networks of the legs in a coordinated walking pattern while the descending supraspinal connections are re-established. In incomplete injuries, it is believed that the interneuronal networks near the injury site form relay circuits to reroute the supraspinal signals through the spared tissue...
July 2017: IEEE ... International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics: [proceedings]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813833/an-integrated-gait-rehabilitation-training-based-on-functional-electrical-stimulation-cycling-and-overground-robotic-exoskeleton-in-complete-spinal-cord-injury-patients-preliminary-results
#6
S Mazzoleni, E Battini, A Rustici, G Stampacchia
The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of an integrated gait rehabilitation training based on Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES)-cycling and overground robotic exoskeleton in a group of seven complete spinal cord injury patients on spasticity and patient-robot interaction. They underwent a robot-assisted rehabilitation training based on two phases: n=20 sessions of FES-cycling followed by n= 20 sessions of robot-assisted gait training based on an overground robotic exoskeleton. The following clinical outcome measures were used: Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS), Numerical Rating Scale (NRS) on spasticity, Penn Spasm Frequency Scale (PSFS), Spinal Cord Independence Measure Scale (SCIM), NRS on pain and International Spinal Cord Injury Pain Data Set (ISCI)...
July 2017: IEEE ... International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics: [proceedings]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812173/melatonin-attenuates-pain-hypersensitivity-and-decreases-astrocyte-mediated-spinal-neuroinflammation-in-a-rat-model-of-oxaliplatin-induced-pain
#7
Ye-Song Wang, Yuan-Yuan Li, Wei Cui, Li-Bin Li, Zhao-Cai Zhang, Bao-Ping Tian, Gen-Sheng Zhang
Neuroinflammatory response in spinal dorsal horn has been demonstrated to be a critical factor in oxaliplatin-induced pain. Melatonin has been shown to have anti-inflammatory and anti-allodynia effects in both preclinical and clinical studies. In the present study, we investigated the role of systemic administration of melatonin on oxaliplatin-induced pain. Intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection with oxaliplatin induced significantly mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia. Melatonin (i.p.) significantly alleviated mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia in the oxaliplatin but not sham-treated rats...
August 15, 2017: Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811104/a-double-determination-of-central-motor-conduction-time-in-the-assessment-of-hirayama-disease
#8
Chaojun Zheng, Dongqing Zhu, Feizhou Lu, Yu Zhu, Xiaosheng Ma, Xinlei Xia, Jianyuan Jiang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate central motor conduction time (CMCT) in patients with Hirayama disease (HD) and to analyse the role of motor nerve root lesions in the pathogenesis of HD. METHODS: CMCT measured by F-wave (CMCT-F) and by paravertebral magnetic stimulation (CMCT-M) was performed on both abductor pollicis brevis (APB) and abductor digiti minimi (ADM) in 41 HD patients and 22 controls. All patients underwent neck-flexion magnetic resonance imaging evaluation...
July 31, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809704/kilohertz-electrical-stimulation-nerve-conduction-block-effects-of-electrode-material
#9
Yogi A Patel, Brian S Kim, Robert J Butera
Kilohertz electrical stimulation (KES) has enabled a novel new paradigm for spinal cord and peripheral nerve stimulation to treat a variety of neurological diseases. KES can excite or inhibit nerve activity and is used in many clinical devices today. However, the impact of different electrode materials on the efficacy of KES is unknown. We investigated the effect of different electrode materials and their respective charge injection mechanisms on KES nerve block thresholds using 20 and 40 kHz current-controlled sinusoidal KES waveforms...
August 10, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808583/successful-spinal-cord-stimulation-for-neuropathic-below-level-spinal-cord-injury-pain-following-complete-paraplegia-a-case-report
#10
Tim A Reck, Gunther Landmann
INTRODUCTION: Neuropathic pain is common in patients with spinal cord injury (SCI) and often difficult to treat. We report a case where epidural spinal cord stimulation (SCS) below the level of injury has been successfully applied in a patient with a complete spinal cord lesion. CASE PRESENTATION: A 53-year-old female presented with neuropathic below-level SCI pain of both lower legs and feet due to complete SCI below T5. Time and pain duration since injury was 2 years...
2017: Spinal Cord Series and Cases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803817/6mwt-can-identify-type-3-sma-patients-with-neuromuscular-junction-dysfunction
#11
REVIEW
Maria Carmela Pera, Marco Luigetti, Marika Pane, Giorgia Coratti, Nicola Forcina, Lavinia Fanelli, Elena S Mazzone, Laura Antonaci, Leonardo Lapenta, Concetta Palermo, Domiziana Ranalli, Giuseppe Granata, Mauro Lomonaco, Serenella Servidei, Eugenio Mercuri
The aim of the study was to establish if the decrease in gait velocity on the 6 minute walk test relates to signs of neuromuscular junction dysfunction in spinal muscular atrophy type 3 patients. 6 minute walk test and low-rate repetitive nerve stimulation test were performed in fifteen ambulant patients with spinal muscular atrophy type 3 of age between 9 and 66 years. The 6 minute walk distance ranged between 66 and 575 m. The difference between the first and the 6th minute ranged between 0 and -69%. The low-rate repetitive nerve stimulation test measured in % of loss ranged between -31...
July 14, 2017: Neuromuscular Disorders: NMD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803750/motor-cortex-and-spinal-cord-neuromodulation-promote-corticospinal-tract-axonal-outgrowth-and-motor-recovery-after-cervical-contusion-spinal-cord-injury
#12
N Zareen, M Shinozaki, D Ryan, H Alexander, A Amer, D Truong, N Khadka, A Sarkar, S Naeem, M Bikson, J Martin
Cervical injuries are the most common form of SCI. In this study, we used a neuromodulatory approach to promote skilled movement recovery and repair of the corticospinal tract (CST) after a moderately severe C4 midline contusion in adult rats. We used bilateral epidural intermittent theta burst (iTBS) electrical stimulation of motor cortex to promote CST axonal sprouting and cathodal trans-spinal direct current stimulation (tsDCS) to enhance spinal cord activation to motor cortex stimulation after injury. We used Finite Element Method (FEM) modeling to direct tsDCS to the cervical enlargement...
August 10, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801220/multiple-reflex-pathways-contribute-to-bladder-activation-by-intraurethral-stimulation-in-persons-with-spinal-cord-injury
#13
Meredith J McGee, Brandon D Swan, Zachary C Danziger, Cindy L Amundsen, Warren M Grill
OBJECTIVES: To measure the urodynamic effects of electrical co-stimulation of two individual sites in the proximal and distal urethra in persons with spinal cord injury (SCI). This work was motivated by preclinical findings that selective co-stimulation of the cranial urethral sensory nerve and the dorsal genital nerve, which innervate the proximal and distal portions of the urethra, respectively, increased reflex bladder activation and voiding efficiency. METHODS: Electrical co-stimulation of urethral afferents was conducted in persons with chronic SCI during urodynamics...
August 8, 2017: Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799972/increased-pain-sensitivity-in-accident-related-chronic-pain-patients-with-comorbid-posttraumatic-stress
#14
Henrik Bjarke Vaegter, Tonny Elmose Andersen, Mathea Harvold, Per Grunwald Andersen, Thomas Graven-Nielsen
OBJECTIVES: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is prevalent in chronic pain, and associated with increased pain, hyperalgesia and psychological distress. This study aimed to investigate anti-nociceptive and pro-nociceptive pain mechanisms, pain intensity, and psychological distress (depression, anxiety, pain catastrophizing, and fear of movement) in patients with accident-related chronic spinal pain with (N=44) and without (N=64) comorbid PTSD characteristics. METHODS: Cuff algometry was performed on lower legs to assess pressure pain threshold (cPPT), tolerance (cPTT), temporal summation of pain (TSP: increase in pain scores to ten repeated stimulations), and conditioning pain modulation (CPM: increase in cPPT during cuff pain conditioning on the contralateral leg)...
August 9, 2017: Clinical Journal of Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799195/sacral-nerve-stimulation-for-constipation-and-fecal-incontinence-in-children-long-term-outcomes-patient-benefit-and-parent-satisfaction
#15
P L Lu, I J N Koppen, D K Orsagh-Yentis, K Leonhart, E J Ambeba, K J Deans, P C Minneci, S Teich, K A Diefenbach, S A Alpert, M A Benninga, D Yacob, C Di Lorenzo
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the long-term efficacy of sacral nerve stimulation (SNS) in children with constipation and describe patient benefit and parent satisfaction. METHODS: Using a prospective patient registry, we identified patients <21 years old with constipation treated with SNS for >2 years. We compared symptoms, medical treatment, PedsQL Gastrointestinal Symptom Scale (GSS), Fecal Incontinence Quality of Life Scale (FIQL), and Fecal Incontinence Severity Index (FISI) before SNS and at follow-up...
August 10, 2017: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795657/body-system-effects-of-a-multi-modal-training-program-targeting-chronic-motor-complete-thoracic-spinal-cord-injury
#16
Katie Gant, Kathleen Nagle, Rachel Cowan, Edelle Field-Fote, Mark Nash, Jochen Kressler, Christine K Thomas, Mabelin Castellanos, Eva Widerstrom-Noga, Kimberly D Anderson
The safety and efficacy of pharmacologic and cellular transplantation strategies are currently being evaluated in people with spinal cord injury. In studies of people with chronic spinal cord injuries, it is thought that functional recovery will be best achieved when drug or cell therapies are combined with rehabilitation protocols. However, any functional recovery due to the therapy may be confounded by the conditioned state of the body and by training-induced effects on neuroplasticity. For this reason, we sought to investigate the effects of a multi-modal training program on several body systems...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791051/a-unique-case-for-spinal-cord-stimulation-successful-treatment-of-small-fiber-neuropathy-pain-using-multiple-spinal-cord-stimulators
#17
Maxim Eckmann, Alexander Papanastassiou, Mark Awad
Spinal cord stimulators have commonly been used to treat multiple pain conditions. This case report represents a unique case of using multiple spinal cord stimulators for widespread small fiber neuropathy pain. This case report concerns patient JJ who first presented with generalized neuropathic pain. His pain was an intermittent burning, stinging quality that originally focused in both of his feet and progressed to include his legs and arms and eventually involved his entire body. The pain would last moments to hours at least daily...
2017: Case Reports in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790168/microrna-211-bdnf-axis-regulates-lps-induced-proliferation-of-normal-human-astrocyte-through-pi3k-akt-pathway
#18
Kexiang Zhang, Song Wu, Zhiyue Li, Jiahui Zhou
Spinal cord injury (SCI) makes a major contribution to disability and death in the worldwide. Reactive astrogliosis, a typical feature after SCI, which undergoes varying molecular and morphological changes, is ubiquitous but poorly understood. Reactive astrogliosis contributes to glial scar formation that impedes axonal regeneration. Brain-derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF), a well-established neurotrophic factor, exerts neuroprotective and growth-promoting effects on a variety of neuronal populations after injury...
August 8, 2017: Bioscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782237/comparison-of-bladder-inhibitory-effects-of-patterned-spinal-nerve-stimulation-with-conventional-neuromodulation-in-the-rat
#19
Xin Su, Heather A Simenson, Kunal Paralikar, Heather D Orser
OBJECTIVES: The present study compared the effectiveness of patterned frequency of spinal nerve stimulation (SNS) with continuous, fixed-frequency nerve stimulation in an animal model of the bladder reflex contraction (BRC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: In anesthetized female rats, wire electrodes were placed under each of the L6 spinal nerve to produce bilateral SNS. A cannula was placed into the bladder via the urethra, and the urethra was ligated to ensure an isovolumetric bladder...
August 7, 2017: Neuromodulation: Journal of the International Neuromodulation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782181/public-regulatory-databases-as-a-source-of-insight-for-neuromodulation-devices-stimulation-parameters
#20
REVIEW
Doe Kumsa, G Karl Steinke, Gregory F Molnar, Eric M Hudak, Fred W Montague, Shawn C Kelley, Darrel F Untereker, Alan Shi, Benjamin P Hahn, Chris Condit, Hyowon Lee, Dawn Bardot, Jose A Centeno, Victor Krauthamer, Pavel A Takmakov
OBJECTIVE: The Shannon model is often used to define an expected boundary between non-damaging and damaging modes of electrical neurostimulation. Numerous preclinical studies have been performed by manufacturers of neuromodulation devices using different animal models and a broad range of stimulation parameters while developing devices for clinical use. These studies are mostly absent from peer-reviewed literature, which may lead to this information being overlooked by the scientific community...
August 7, 2017: Neuromodulation: Journal of the International Neuromodulation Society
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