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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653339/natural-killer-cells-target-and-differentiate-cancer-stem-like-cells-undifferentiated-tumors-strategies-to-optimize-their-growth-and-expansion-for-effective-cancer-immunotherapy
#1
REVIEW
Kawaljit Kaur, Milica Perišić Nanut, Meng-Wei Ko, Tahmineh Safaie, Janko Kos, Anahid Jewett
Natural killer (NK) cells are known to select and differentiate cancer stem-like cells/undifferentiated tumors via lysis, and secreted/membrane bound IFN-γ and TNF-α respectively, resulting in the control of tumor growth. Several in vivo mouse models including humanized-BLT mice have been used to study the biology and significance of NK cells in selection/differentiation of stem-like tumors within the context of a reconstituted human immune system. In addition, we discuss the evidence and significance of NK cell loss at the pre-neoplastic stage...
April 10, 2018: Current Opinion in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644450/monitoring-and-management-of-toxicities-of-novel-b-cell-signaling-agents
#2
REVIEW
Joanna Rhodes, Anthony Mato, Jeff P Sharman
PURPOSE REVIEW: B cell signaling agents, including ibrutinib, idelalisib, and the BCL-2 inhibitor venetoclax have become an integral part of therapy for patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphomas. The toxicity profiles of these medications is distinct from chemoimmunotherapy. Here, we will review the mechanism of action of these drugs, their efficacy, and toxicity management. RECENT FINDINGS: Ibrutinib use is associated with increased risk of atrial fibrillation and bleeding which can be managed using dose interruptions and modifications...
April 11, 2018: Current Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643996/selective-lysis-of-breast-carcinomas-by-simultaneous-stimulation-of-sodium-channels-and-blockade-of-sodium-pumps
#3
Harry J Gould, Jack Norleans, T David Ward, Chasiti Reid, Dennis Paul
Sodium influx through voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs) coupled with balanced removal of sodium ions via Na+ , K+ -ATPase is a major determinant of cellular homeostasis and intracellular ionic concentration. Interestingly, many metastatic carcinomas express high levels of these channels. We hypothesized that if excess VGSCs are activated and Na+ , K+ -ATPase is simultaneously blocked, the intracellular Na+ concentration should increase, resulting in water movement into the cell, causing swelling and lytic cell death...
March 20, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618689/-osteonecrosis-developing-after-rituximab-containing-chemotherapy-for-waldenstr%C3%A3-m-macroglobulinemia
#4
Fumihiko Nakamura, Risen Hirai, Takashi Higo, Tomiteru Togano, Rieko Sekine
A 71-year-old woman presented with fever, weight loss, and anemia because of recurrent Waldenström macroglobulinemia (WM) with cryoglobulinemia. Treatment with five cycles of doxorubicin, vincristine, cyclophosphamide, and prednisolone (CHOP) therapy was initiated, which resulted in insufficient improvement in anemia. Hence, a combination of rituximab and CHOP therapy was subsequently initiated. The patient complained of lumbago and lower leg pain on day 4 of the chemoimmunotherapy. X-ray findings for the affected sites were unremarkable, and the patient's symptoms gradually and spontaneously subsided...
2018: [Rinshō Ketsueki] the Japanese Journal of Clinical Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29608741/critically-elevated-potassium-in-a-55-year-old-female-with-chronic-lymphocytic-leukemia
#5
Jing Cao, Amy B Karger
Hyperkalemia in specimens from patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) may be due to tumor lysis syndrome (TLS) or specimen processing. This report describes a 55-year-old Caucasian woman with CLL who presented to an outside hospital with hyperkalemia and was transferred to a second hospital. Initial evaluation on the core laboratory chemistry analyzer (the VITROS 5600) and the ABL90 FLEX blood gas analyzer showed markedly elevated levels of potassium (K+). TLS was subsequently diagnosed, and dialysis was initiated...
March 28, 2018: Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29601503/the-immunomodulatory-capacity-of-an-epstein-barr-virus-abortive-lytic-cycle-potential-contribution-to-viral-tumorigenesis
#6
REVIEW
Abigail Morales-Sánchez, Ezequiel M Fuentes-Panana
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is characterized by a bipartite life cycle in which latent and lytic stages are alternated. Latency is compatible with long-lasting persistency within the infected host, while lytic expression, preferentially found in oropharyngeal epithelial tissue, is thought to favor host-to-host viral dissemination. The clinical importance of EBV relates to its association with cancer, which we think is mainly a consequence of the latency/persistency mechanisms. However, studies in murine models of tumorigenesis/lymphomagenesis indicate that the lytic cycle also contributes to cancer formation...
March 30, 2018: Cancers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29595964/in-situ-cellular-glycan-analysis
#7
Yunlong Chen, Lin Ding, Huangxian Ju
Glycan decorates all mammalian cell surfaces through glycosylation, which is one of the most important post-modifications of proteins. Glycans mediate a wide variety of biological processes, including cell growth and differentiation, cell-cell communication, immune response, pathogen interaction, and intracellular signaling events. Besides, tumor cells aberrantly express distinct sets of glycans, which can indicate different tumor onsets and progression processes. Thus, analysis of cellular glycans may contribute to understanding of glycan-related biological processes and correlation of glycan patterns with disease states for clinical diagnosis and treatment...
March 29, 2018: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29590547/ibrutinib-plus-venetoclax-for-the-treatment-of-mantle-cell-lymphoma
#8
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Constantine S Tam, Mary Ann Anderson, Christiane Pott, Rishu Agarwal, Sasanka Handunnetti, Rodney J Hicks, Kate Burbury, Gillian Turner, Juliana Di Iulio, Mathias Bressel, David Westerman, Stephen Lade, Martin Dreyling, Sarah-Jane Dawson, Mark A Dawson, John F Seymour, Andrew W Roberts
BACKGROUND: Both the BTK inhibitor ibrutinib and the BCL2 inhibitor venetoclax are active as monotherapy in the treatment of mantle-cell lymphoma. Complete response rates of 21% have been observed for each agent when administered as long-term continuous therapy. Preclinical models predict synergy in combination. METHODS: We conducted a single-group, phase 2 study of daily oral ibrutinib and venetoclax in patients, as compared with historical controls. Patients commenced ibrutinib monotherapy at a dose of 560 mg per day...
March 29, 2018: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29588491/identification-of-inhibitors-regulating-cell-proliferation-and-fus-ddit3-expression-in-myxoid-liposarcoma-using-combined-dna-mrna-and-protein-analyses
#9
David Svec, Soheila Dolatabadi, Christer Thomsen, Nicole Cordes, Mark Shannon, Paul Fitzpatrick, Göran Landberg, Pierre Åman, Anders Ståhlberg
FUS-DDIT3 belongs to the FET (FUS, EWSR1, and TAF15) family of fusion oncogenes, which collectively are considered to be key players in tumor development. Even though over 90% of all myxoid liposarcomas (MLS) have a FUS-DDIT3 gene fusion, there is limited understanding of the signaling pathways that regulate its expression. In order to study cell proliferation and FUS-DDIT3 regulation at mRNA and protein levels, we first developed a direct cell lysis approach that allows DNA, mRNA, and protein to be analyzed in the same sample using quantitative PCR, reverse transcription quantitative qPCR and proximity ligation assay, respectively...
March 27, 2018: Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29578523/initial-evaluation-of-antibody-conjugates-modified-with-viral-derived-peptides-for-increasing-cellular-accumulation-and-improving-tumor-targeting
#10
Simon Beaudoin, Michel Paquette, Laurent Fafard-Couture, Mylene A Tremblay, Roger Lecomte, Brigitte Guérin, Jeffrey V Leyton
Antibody-conjugates (ACs) modified with virus-derived peptides are a potentially powerful class of tumor cell delivery agents for molecular payloads used in cancer treatment and imaging due to increased cellular accumulation over current ACs. During early AC in vitro development, fluorescence techniques and radioimmunoassays are sufficient for determining intracellular localization, accumulation efficiency, and target cell specificity. Currently, there is no consensus on standardized methods for preparing cells for evaluating AC intracellular accumulation and localization...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29563835/optimized-multiparametric-flow-cytometric-analysis-of-circulating-endothelial-cells-and-their-subpopulations-in-peripheral-blood-of-patients-with-solid-tumors-a-technical-analysis
#11
Fangbin Zhou, Yaying Zhou, Ming Yang, Jinli Wen, Jun Dong, Wenyong Tan
Background: Circulating endothelial cells (CECs) and their subpopulations could be potential novel biomarkers for various malignancies. However, reliable enumerable methods are warranted to further improve their clinical utility. This study aimed to optimize a flow cytometric method (FCM) assay for CECs and subpopulations in peripheral blood for patients with solid cancers. Patients and methods: An FCM assay was used to detect and identify CECs. A panel of 60 blood samples, including 44 metastatic cancer patients and 16 healthy controls, were used in this study...
2018: Cancer Management and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29562156/venetoclax-rituximab-in-relapsed-or-refractory-chronic-lymphocytic-leukemia
#12
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
John F Seymour, Thomas J Kipps, Barbara Eichhorst, Peter Hillmen, James D'Rozario, Sarit Assouline, Carolyn Owen, John Gerecitano, Tadeusz Robak, Javier De la Serna, Ulrich Jaeger, Guillaume Cartron, Marco Montillo, Rod Humerickhouse, Elizabeth A Punnoose, Yan Li, Michelle Boyer, Kathryn Humphrey, Mehrdad Mobasher, Arnon P Kater
BACKGROUND: Venetoclax inhibits BCL2, an antiapoptotic protein that is pathologically overexpressed and that is central to the survival of chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells. We evaluated the efficacy of venetoclax in combination with rituximab in patients with relapsed or refractory chronic lymphocytic leukemia. METHODS: In this randomized, open-label, phase 3 trial, we randomly assigned 389 patients to receive venetoclax for up to 2 years (from day 1 of cycle 1) plus rituximab for the first 6 months (venetoclax-rituximab group) or bendamustine plus rituximab for 6 months (bendamustine-rituximab group)...
March 22, 2018: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29556904/assessment-of-the-mt1-mmp-expression-level-of-different-cell-lines-by-the-naked-eye
#13
Xiangchun Zhang, Qing Yuan, Xueyun Gao
Membrane type 1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) is expressed in most tumors and is believed to play a key role in the development, invasion and metastasis of tumors. There is an urgent need to develop a simple method to detect the MT1-MMP expression level on cells. In this current study, we demonstrated a red emission Au cluster probes with the specific targeting of MT1-MMP on human dopaminergic neuroblastoma (SH-SY5Y) cells. More importantly, utilizing the intrinsic enzyme-like activity of the Au cluster probes, the expression level of MT1-MMP on the SH-SY5Y cells could be assessed by the naked eye without cell lysis and protein extraction process...
March 14, 2018: Science China. Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29556297/abnormal-populations-and-functions-of-natural-killer-cells-in-patients-with-myelodysplastic-syndromes
#14
Wei Zhang, Xinyan Xie, Huijing Mi, Jinwan Sun, Shaoxue Ding, Lijuan Li, Hui Liu, Huaquan Wang, Rong Fu, Zonghong Shao
Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are clonal stem cell disorders characterized by ineffective hematopoiesis that lead to leukemia. Disorders of the immune system serve important functions in the pathophysiology and progression of this disease. Different levels or mechanisms of natural killer (NK) cells in patients with MDS have been measured in previous studies, making it challenging to understand the pathogenesis of NK cytotoxicity. The present study investigated the frequency of NK cell-mediated antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity and explored the function of NK cells by their activating receptors, inhibition signals, degranulation and cytotoxicity factors...
April 2018: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29542756/engineered-red-blood-cells-for-capturing-circulating-tumor-cells-with-high-performance
#15
Dao-Ming Zhu, Lei Wu, Meng Suo, Song Gao, Wei Xie, Ming-Hui Zan, Ao Liu, Bei Chen, Wen-Tao Wu, Li-Wei Ji, Li-Ben Chen, Hui-Ming Huang, Shi-Shang Guo, Wen-Feng Zhang, Xing-Zhong Zhao, Zhi-Jun Sun, Wei Liu
Filtration of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in peripheral blood is of proven importance for early cancer diagnosis, treatment monitoring, metastasis diagnosis, and prognostic evaluation. However, currently available strategies for enriching CTCs, such as magnetic activated cell sorting (MACS), face serious problems with purity due to nonspecific interactions between beads and leukocytes in the process of capturing. In the present study, the tumor-targeting molecule folic acid (FA) and magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) were coated on the surface of red blood cells (RBCs) by hydrophobic interaction and chemical conjugation, respectively...
March 15, 2018: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29540489/survivin-monoclonal-antibodies-detect-survivin-cell-surface-expression-and-inhibit-tumor-growth-in-vivo
#16
Robert A Fenstermaker, Sheila A Figel, Jing-Xin Qiu, Tara A Barone, Sanam Sahjram Dharma, Evan K Winograd, Phillip M Galbo, Laura M Wiltsie, Michael J Ciesielski
PURPOSE: Survivin is an inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAP) that is highly expressed in many cancers and represents an attractive molecule for targeted cancer therapy. Although primarily regarded as an intracellular protein with diverse actions, survivin has also been identified in association with circulating tumor exosomes. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We have reported that active specific vaccination with a long peptide surviving immunogen leads to the development of survivin-specific CD8-mediated tumor cell lysis and prolongation of survival in tumor-bearing mice...
March 14, 2018: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29536305/virotherapy-of-the-malignant-u87-human-glioblastoma-in-the-orthotopic-xenotransplantation-mouse-scid-model
#17
S N Shchelkunov, I A Razumov, I V Kolosova, A V Romashchenko, E L Zavjalov
The possibility of glioblastoma virotherapy at intravenous injection of the LIVP-GFP recombinant virus was studied in experimental model of orthotopic xenotransplantation of human glioblastoma cell line U87 to SCID laboratory mice. The LIVP-GFP recombinant virus deficient for thymidine kinase exhibited a significantly greater oncolytic capacity than the original LIVP virus, and an intravenous injection of LIVP-GFP at the early stages of tumorigenesis in mouse brain in most cases resulted in the lysis of the tumor...
January 2018: Doklady. Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29531724/fatal-cardiac-arrhythmia-caused-by-tumor-lysis-in-a-patient-with-diffuse-large-b-cell-lymphoma-upon-start-of-r-chop
#18
Nina Sørensen, Paw Jensen, Erik Clasen-Linde, Jacob Moesgaard Larsen, Tarec El-Galaly
Tumor lysis syndrome is rare in diffuse large cell lymphoma, but it is important to recognize the risk in patients with massive tumor burden and reduced kidney function. Very intense vigilance can be necessary despite adequate prophylactic measures and certain drugs may exacerbate electrolyte derangements.
March 2018: Clinical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29518545/the-study-of-the-calpain-and-caspase-1-expression-in-ultrastructural-dynamics-of-ehrlich-ascites-carcinoma-necrosis
#19
Arkadiy Reunov, Anatoliy Reunov, Evgenia Pimenova, Yulia Reunova, Ekaterina Menchinskaiya, Larisa Lapshina, Dmitry Aminin
An expression of calpain and caspase-1 as well as the concomitant ultrastructural alterations were investigated during necrosis of the mouse Ehrlich ascites carcinoma. The calpain expression was registered at 0 h and 1 h although caspase-1 did not induce any signals during these time periods. The rise of the cytoplasmic lytic zones contacted by calpain antibodies was identified as a morphologic event corresponding to the expression of calpain. Lytic zone's distribution followed by the appearance of the calpain/caspase-1 clusters assigned for lysis of the Golgi vesicles and ER...
March 5, 2018: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29511230/a-triplet-parallelizing-spiral-microfluidic-chip-for-continuous-separation-of-tumor-cells
#20
Hongmei Chen
Inertial and deformability- based particles separations gradually attract more significant attentions. In this work, we present a hybrid chip by combining the advantages of inertial and deformability -based principle. The chip is a triplet parallelizing spiral inertial microfluidic chip interconnected with numerable tilted slits (Spiral-Slits Chip) for continuous separation of circulating tumor cells. Utilizing the inertial lift and viscous drag forces, different sized particles achieve different equilibrium at distinct streamlines of the spiral microchannel...
March 6, 2018: Scientific Reports
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