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Tumor lysis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218495/systemic-epstein-barr-virus-positive-t-cell-lymphoproliferative-disorders-of-childhood-with-fulminant-leukocytosis-and-tumor-lysis-a-case-report-with-autopsy-findings
#1
Sachie Wada, Takayuki Suzuki, Koichi Kitazume, Akira Fujita, Seiichiro Shimizu
Systemic Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-positive T-cell lymphoproliferative disorders (T-LPD) of childhood is an extremely rare disease characterized by an aggressive clinical course and very poor prognosis. We report an adolescent male with systemic EBV-positive T-LPD of childhood after primary EBV infection, resulting in a fatal clinical course within 9 days, along with autopsy findings. A 19-year-old male without an immunocompromised status presented with an acute onset of high fever, and was hospitalized for persistent fever, vomiting and diarrhea on the 5th day from onset...
December 7, 2017: International Journal of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208883/tumor-lysis-syndrome-and-hyperleukocytosis-in-childhood-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia-in-a-tertiary-care-hospital
#2
R Tasmeen, A Islam, S T Alam, M Begum
Acute lymphoblastic leukemia is the most common (77%) childhood leukemia and also the most common neoplastic disease in children. Acute lymphoblastic leukemia initially present with hyperleukocytosis (WBC count more than 50,000/mm³) in twenty percent cases. These children are particularly at risk of development of tumor lysis syndrome (TLS). Tumor lysis syndrome is a metabolic disorder consists of hyperuricaemia, hyperkalemia, hyperphosphataemia, hypocalcaemia with or without renal insufficiency. It is the most common disease related emergency encountered by physicians caring for cancer of children and adult...
October 2017: Mymensingh Medical Journal: MMJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203786/antigen-specific-oncolytic-mv-based-tumor-vaccines-through-presentation-of-selected-tumor-associated-antigens-on-infected-cells-or-virus-like-particles
#3
Stefan Hutzler, Stephanie Erbar, Robert A Jabulowsky, Jan R H Hanauer, Jürgen H Schnotz, Tim Beissert, Bianca S Bodmer, Regina Eberle, Klaus Boller, Thorsten Klamp, Ugur Sahin, Michael D Mühlebach
Recombinant vaccine strain-derived measles virus (MV) is clinically tested both as vaccine platform to protect against other pathogens and as oncolytic virus for tumor treatment. To investigate the potential synergism in anti-tumoral efficacy of oncolytic and vaccine properties, we chose Ovalbumin and an ideal tumor antigen, claudin-6, for pre-clinical proof of concept. To enhance immunogenicity, both antigens were presented by retroviral virus-like particle produced in situ during MV-infection. All recombinant MV revealed normal growths, genetic stability, and proper expression and presentation of both antigens...
December 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202325/co-delivery-of-human-cancer-testis-antigens-with-adjuvant-in-protein-nanoparticles-induces-higher-cell-mediated-immune-responses
#4
Medea Neek, Jo Anne Tucker, Tae Il Kim, Nicholas M Molino, Edward L Nelson, Szu-Wen Wang
Nanoparticles have attracted considerable interest as cancer vaccine delivery vehicles for inducing sufficient CD8+ T cell-mediated immune responses to overcome the low immunogenicity of the tumor microenvironment. Our studies described here are the first to examine the effects of clinically-tested human cancer-testis (CT) peptide epitopes within a synthetic nanoparticle. Specifically, we focused on two significant clinical CT targets, the HLA-A2 restricted epitopes of NY-ESO-1 and MAGE-A3, using a viral-mimetic packaging strategy...
November 20, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201631/infection-a-cause-of-and-cure-for-cancer
#5
REVIEW
Jenna H Newman, Andrew Zloza
Purpose of Review: This article provides a brief overview of the role that infections play in cancer emergence and cancer treatment. Recent Findings: A select number of pathogens have been reported to increase the incidence of specific cancers (directly through altering gene expression or indirectly through inducing chronic inflammation). These have been referred to as oncogenic pathogens. Conversely, a subset of pathogens has been demonstrated to preferentially cause lysis of tumor cells, leading to tumor regression and improved anti-tumor immunity...
2017: Current Pharmacology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200691/a-case-report-of-newly-diagnosed-epithelial-ovarian-carcinoma-presenting-with-spontaneous-tumor-lysis-syndrome-and-its-successful-management-with-rasburicase
#6
Deepak Kumar Shukla, Dinesh Gupta, Arun Aggarwal, Deepak Kumar
Tumor Lysis Syndrome (TLS) commonly occurs in hematological malignancies, but it is very rare in patients with a solid tumor. In cases of solid tumors, TLS usually occurs spontaneously or after the initiation of anticancer therapy, and it has a high mortality rate. This syndrome consists of a constellation of laboratory findings such as hyperuricemia, hyperkalemia, hyperphosphatemia, and hypocalcemia known as laboratory TLS. When clinical complications such as seizures, acute renal failure, and cardiac dysrhythmias occur in patients with laboratory TLS, the syndrome is called clinical TLS...
July 2017: Indian Journal of Medical and Paediatric Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193219/therapeutic-leukocytapheresis-in-infants-and-children-with-leukemia-and-hyperleukocytosis-a-single-institution-experience
#7
Namisha Thapa, Robin Pham, Charles Cole, Mitchell Meinershagen, Paul W Bowman, Anish Ray
BACKGROUND: Hyperleukocytosis, defined as white blood cell (WBC) count above 100 × 109 /L, has high early morbidity and mortality from leukostasis-related complications, namely intracranial hemorrhage and pulmonary distress. Initiating chemotherapy without prior leukocytoreduction may lead to tumor lysis syndrome (TLS). Therapeutic leukocytapheresis (TL) is used as one leukocytoreductive intervention; however, its safety and efficacy in pediatric leukemia has not been established. The purpose of this study is to evaluate safety of TL in pediatric patients and assess the efficacy of TL in reducing WBC count in pediatric leukemia...
November 29, 2017: Journal of Clinical Apheresis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181551/-metabolic-disorders-as-paraneoplastic-syndromes
#8
REVIEW
S Krug, P Michl
Paraneoplastic syndromes are characterized by the tumor-induced release of peptide hormones and/or the initiation of immune phenomena, which elicit clinical changes and alterations in laboratory parameters independent of the tumor size and spread. In addition to neurological, endocrinal and rheumatological phenotypes, metabolic alterations play a special role in the clinical routine as they commonly present with acute symptoms in an emergency situation and necessitate immediate diagnosis and prompt initiation of treatment...
November 27, 2017: Der Internist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173277/exogenous-tumor-necrosis-factor-alpha-could-induce-egress-of-toxoplasma%C3%A2-gondii-from-human-foreskin-fibroblast-cells
#9
Yong Yao, Miao Liu, Cuiping Ren, Jijia Shen, Yongsheng Ji
Toxoplasma gondii is an intra-cellular protozoan parasite that can infect almost all nucleated cells, eliciting host immune responses against infection. Host tissue damage is mainly caused by cellular lysis when T. gondii egresses from infected cells. However, the effects of cytokines released by host immune cells on egression of T. gondii remain elusive. This study aimed to investigate the role of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) on the egress of T. gondii from infected human foreskin fibroblast (HFF) cells and to elucidate the underlying mechanisms that regulate TNF-α-induced egress...
2017: Parasite: Journal de la Société Française de Parasitologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159318/young-donor-white-blood-cell-immunotherapy-induces-extensive-tumor-necrosis-in-advanced-stage-solid-tumors
#10
Dipnarine Maharaj, Pedro G Vianna, Wendy Ward, Anthony J Messina, Trevor Rayborn, Jacqueline V Gouvea, Richard D Hammer, Zheng Cui
Background: In the past decade, a variety of immunotherapy approaches focused predominantly on the adaptive immune system have shown unprecedented responses in patients with advanced-stage malignancies. However, studies in spontaneous regression/complete resistance (SR/CR) mice and humans have shown a novel innate cancer-killing activity mediated by granulocytes, which is completely transferable for prevention or therapy against established malignancies. Methods: Three patients with advanced, relapsed or refractory solid tumors for which no standard therapy was available or was refused were enrolled into this ongoing combined phase I/II open label clinical trial testing the safety, dose tolerance, and possible antineoplastic efficacy of sequential infusions of HLA-mismatched non-irradiated allogeneic white cells (68-91% granulocytes) collected by leukapheresis from young, healthy donors (age 18-35) following mobilization with granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) and dexamethasone...
October 2017: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159262/tumor-lysis-syndrome-in-a-patient-with-ovarian-yolk-sac-tumor
#11
Katherine VanHise, Alexa Swailes, Michael Roche, Jordan M Newell, Joshua P Kesterson
•Tumor lysis syndrome is an oncologic emergency with profound metabolic derangements.•Germ cell tumors with large disease burden increase the risk for tumor lysis syndrome.•Herein we present a case of tumor lysis syndrome prior to initiation of cytotoxic chemotherapy for ovarian yolk sac tumor.
November 2017: Gynecologic Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159258/spontaneous-tumor-lysis-syndrome-occurring-in-untreated-uterine-cancer
#12
Rachel Berger, Nicholas Waler, Matthew Schlumbrecht, Marilyn Huang
•Tumor lysis syndrome is rare in solid tumors.•Tumor lysis syndrome is an oncologic emergency.•We present two cases of spontaneous tumor lysis syndrome arising in uterine cancer.
November 2017: Gynecologic Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159035/tumor-lysis-syndrome-tls-following-intrathecal-chemotherapy-in-a-child-with-acute-myelogenous-leukemia-aml
#13
Chana L Glasser
Tumor Lysis Syndrome (TLS) is a well-known complication of induction therapy for hematologic malignancies. It is characterized by rapid breakdown of malignant white blood cells (WBCs) leading to metabolic derangements and serious morbidity if left untreated. Most commonly, TLS is triggered by systemic chemotherapy, however, there have been case reports of TLS following intrathecal (IT) chemotherapy, all in patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL)/lymphoma. Here, we report the first case of a patient with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) who developed TLS following a single dose of IT cytosine arabinoside (Ara-C)...
2017: Leukemia Research Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153616/a-role-for-b-cells-in-facilitating-defense-against-an-nk-cell-sensitive-lung-metastatic-tumor-is-revealed-by-stress
#14
Harlan P Jones, Beau Aldridge, Katherine Boss-Williams, Jay M Weiss
Stressors impair immune defenses and pose risks among cancer patients. Natural Killer cells are not the sole immune defense against tumor development. Utilizing an NK-sensitive tumor model, this study evaluated immune effects to stress and determined whether lung metastasis resulted from B cells' inability to augment tumorlytic function. Lung metastasis directly correlated with delayed lung B cell accumulation compared to NK, and T cells. Decreased interleukin-12 cytokine and CD80(+) molecule expression by B cells correlated with decreased tumor lysis and increased tumor development...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150416/-bicarbonate-from-physiology-to-treatment-for-all-clinicians
#15
Julie Beaume, Antoine Braconnier, Thibault Dolley-Hitze, Jean-Philippe Bertocchio
Acid-base regulation is essential to maintain homeostasis in humans. Carbonic acid/bicarbonate (H2CO3/HCO3(-)) couple is the most predominant extracellular buffer to keep plasma pH within a physiological range. The ability to (re)generate such a buffer is a key milestone that necessitates to understand a precise physiology of both renal tubule and digestive tract. Here, we first reviewed renal and digestive cycles of bicarbonate in physiology. We also reviewed pathological findings where acid-base disequilibrium is involved and nutritional and/or alkali therapy could be necessary...
November 14, 2017: Néphrologie & Thérapeutique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137972/circulating-tumoral-dna-preanalytical-validation-and-quality-control-in-a-diagnostic-laboratory
#16
Sergey Nikolaev, Laure Lemmens, Thibaud Koessler, Jean-Louis Blouin, Thierry Nouspikel
We present the results of our technical validation process in establishing the analysis of circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) as a diagnostic tool. Like most cells in our body, tumor cells shed DNA in the blood flow. Analysis of ctDNA mutational content can provide invaluable information on the genetic makeup of a tumor, and assist oncologists in deciding on therapy, or in following residual disease. However, low absolute amounts of circulating DNA and low tumor fraction constitute formidable analytical challenges...
November 11, 2017: Analytical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132473/-progress-in-clinical-studies-of-chimeric-antigen-receptor-engineered-t-cells-for-treatment-of-childhood-cancer
#17
Ya-Ru Ni, Xiao-Jun Xu, Yong-Min Tang
Nowadays, the 5-year survival rate of childhood cancer patients can be more than 80%, but some patients with relapse and refractory cancers have shown no good response to traditional strategies. Chimeric antigen receptor engineered T (CAR-T) cell therapy is promising for these patients. CAR-T cells recognize the tumor-associated antigens in a non-major histocompatibility complex-restricted manner, so their anti-tumor ability is enhanced. There are four generations of CAR-T cells now. The complete remission rate of pediatric patients with relapse and refractory acute lymphoblastic leukemia can be as high as 90% when treated with CD19-targeting CAR-T cells...
November 2017: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132013/chimeric-antigen-receptor-modified-t-cells-redirected-to-epha2-for-the-immunotherapy-of-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#18
Ning Li, Shaohui Liu, Mingjiao Sun, Wei Chen, Xiaogang Xu, Zhu Zeng, Yemin Tang, Yongquan Dong, Alex H Chang, Qiong Zhao
Erythropoietin-producing hepatocellular carcinoma A2 (EphA2) is overexpressed in more than 90% of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) but not significantly in normal lung tissue. It is therefore an important tumor antigen target for chimeric antigen receptors (CAR)-T-based therapy in NSCLC. Here, we developed a specific CAR targeted to EphA2, and the anti-tumor effects of this CAR were investigated. A second generation CAR with co-stimulatory receptor 4-1BB targeted to EphA2 was developed. The functionality of EphA2-specific T cells in vitro was tested with flow cytometry and real-time cell electronic sensing system assays...
November 10, 2017: Translational Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130003/spontaneous-tumor-lysis-syndrome-due-to-uterine-leiomyosarcoma-with-lung-metastases
#19
Vivek Alaigh, Debapriya Datta
Tumor lysis syndrome (TLS) is an oncologic emergency characterized by a combination of metabolic derangements (hyperuricemia, hyperkalemia, hyperphosphatemia, and hypocalcemia) caused by rapid turnover from cell destruction in certain cancers. These metabolic derangements can lead to seizures, cardiac arrhythmias, renal failure, and death. TLS is usually seen after the initiation of chemotherapy for hematologic malignancies. TLS occurring spontaneously, without initiation of chemotherapy, is rare and its occurrence in solid tumors is rarer still...
2017: Case Reports in Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128997/pd-1-pd-l1-immune-checkpoint-blockade-in-malignant-lymphomas
#20
REVIEW
Yi Wang, Ling Wu, Chen Tian, Yizhuo Zhang
Tumor cells can evade immune surveillance through overexpressing the ligands of checkpoint receptors on tumor cells or adjacent cells, leading T cells to anergy or exhaustion. Growing evidence of the interaction between tumor cells and microenvironment promoted the emergence of immune-checkpoint blockade. By targeting programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) pathway, cytotoxic activity of T cell is enhanced significantly and tumor cell lysis is induced subsequently. Currently, various antibodies against PD-1 and programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) are under clinical studies in lymphomas...
November 11, 2017: Annals of Hematology
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