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Medical Researcher

Oren Schwartz, Itzik Malka, Cara H Olsen, Israel Dudkiewicz, Tarif Bader
Introduction: Integration of females in combat units poses a unique challenge for army commanders around the world. The purpose of this study is to provide a detailed up-to-date situation report regarding overuse injuries among combat female warriors in the IDF (Israeli Defense Forces) in order to enable evidence-based decision-making, prevention policy, and further research of this highly significant military public health issue. Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted including 2,519 females recruited to combat duties during the year of 2013...
March 14, 2018: Military Medicine
Chad M Hodge, Scott P Narus
Objective: Problem list data is a driving force for many beneficial clinical tools, yet these data remain underutilized. We performed a systematic literature review, pulling insights from previous research, aggregating insights into themes, and distilling themes into actionable advice. We sought to learn what changes we could make to existing applications, to the clinical workflow, and to clinicians' perceptions that would improve problem list utilization and increase the prevalence of problems data in the electronic medical record...
March 14, 2018: Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association: JAMIA
Krystin A Engelhardt, Elizabeth Hisle-Gorman, Gregory H Gorman, Nicole R Dobson
Background: The Military Health System (MHS) provides universal access to medical care to active duty service members, retirees, and their dependents. Observational data from small studies suggest lower preterm birth rates in the MHS compared with U.S. national averages. The objectives of this study are to determine the rate of preterm birth in the MHS from 2006 to 2012 compared with national rates and to analyze the impact of demographic factors on preterm birth in a universal access health care system...
March 14, 2018: Military Medicine
Oren Schwartz, Boris Kanevsky, M A J Sergey Kutikov, Cara H Olsen, Israel Dudkiewicz
Introduction: Attrition from training is associated with substantial financial and personnel loss. There is a plethora of medical literature and research of attrition rates related to initial/phase 1 training (basic combat training); however, the analysis of second phase training (commanders training, consisting of schools that qualify junior commanders and officers for infantry and non-infantry combat units) is limited. The purpose of this study is to perform a comprehensive survey regarding to medical attrition from commanders training in the IDF (Israeli Defense Forces) in order to present the commanders of the IDF a detailed situation report that will serve as an evidence-based platform for future policy planning and implementation...
March 14, 2018: Military Medicine
Brian Shiner, Christine Leonard Westgate, Vanessa Simiola, Richard Thompson, Paula P Schnurr, Joan M Cook
Objective: Available studies on implementation of evidence-based psychotherapy (EBP) for patients attending Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) residential post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) programs rely on therapist self-report of EBP delivery. Patient-level data on receipt of EBP are needed both to corroborate therapist self-report and to understand patient factors that predict receipt of EBPs for PTSD. Materials and Methods: We identified 159 therapists from 38 VA residential PTSD programs who responded to a survey about EBP implementation during the 2015 fiscal year (FY15)...
March 14, 2018: Military Medicine
Christine A DeForest, Virginia Blackman, John E Alex, Lauren Reeves, Alejandra Mora, Crystal Perez, Joseph Maddry, Domenique Selby, Benjamin Walrath
Introduction: Military prehospital and en route care (ERC) directly impacts patient morbidity and mortality. Provider knowledge and skills are critical variables in the effectiveness of ERC. No Navy doctrine defines provider choice for patient transport or requires standardized provider training. Frequently, Search and Rescue Medical Technicians (SMTs) and Navy Nurses (ERC RNs) are tasked with this mission though physicians have also been used. Navy ERC provider training varies greatly by professional role...
March 14, 2018: Military Medicine
Suzanne Grant, Bruce Guthrie
Patient safety is an increasing concern for health systems internationally. The majority of administrative work in UK general practice takes place in the context of organisational routines such as repeat prescribing and test results handling, where high workloads and increased clinician dependency on administrative staff have been identified as an emerging safety issue. Despite this trend, most research to date has focused on the redistribution of the clinical workload between doctors, nurses and allied health professionals within individual care settings...
March 2, 2018: Social Science & Medicine
John Gunderson, Sara Masland, Lois Choi-Kain
Borderline personality disorder (BPD) has moved from being an untreatable disorder to a disorder with multiple evidence-based psychotherapies. When a second generation of research showed that less intensive, easier-to-learn therapies could be nearly as effective, they offered an approach that would be responsive to the persisting unmet needs of these patients. This paper describes good psychiatric management (GPM), a once-weekly, generalist model that medicalizes the disorder, emphasizes psychoeducation, and focuses on social adaptation...
January 5, 2018: Current Opinion in Psychology
Hannah R Wardill, Ysabella Z A Van Sebille, Matthew A Ciorba, Joanne M Bowen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Strong preclinical data support prophylactic probiotics as an effective preventive strategy for diarrhoea secondary to anticancer therapies. To determine the composite evidence that this approach translates to the clinic, we performed a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of prophylactic probiotics for the prevention of cancer therapy induced diarrhoea. RECENT FINDINGS: A three-step search strategy was used to identify relevant studies (1 June 2000-1 June 2017) investigating probiotic intervention for diarrhoea secondary to any cancer therapy (cytotoxic, targeted and immunotherapies)...
March 14, 2018: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care
Pavani Rangachari
In 1999, the Institute of Medicine reported that 98,000 people die each year due to medical errors. In the following years, the focus on hospital quality was intensified nationally, with policymakers providing evidence-based practice guidelines for improving health care quality. However, these innovations (evidence-based guidelines) that were being produced at policy levels were not translating to clinical practice at the hospital organizational level easily, and stark variations continued to persist, in the quality of health care...
2018: Innov Entrep Health
Mirjana Miskovic, Dragan Ravanic, Dragic Bankovic, Nera Zivlak-Radulovic, Visnja Banjac, Tatjana Dragisic
INTRODUCTION: Cloninger's psychological model of temperament and character confirms that the personality development is influenced by biological and psychological processes. The aim of this study is to examine personality dimensions and to determine which variable separates the healthy from the ill in the best way and could be a possible psychological marker for the presence of the illness. METHODS: This research included 152 subjects, 76 patients with schizophrenia and 76 healthy controls, selected on the basis of medical interviews, random population sampling model from a wider social community using the independent T-Tests...
March 2018: Psychiatria Danubina
P Stefan, M Pfandler, P Wucherer, S Habert, J Fürmetz, S Weidert, E Euler, U Eck, M Lazarovici, M Weigl, N Navab
Surgical simulators are being increasingly used as an attractive alternative to clinical training in addition to conventional animal models and human specimens. Typically, surgical simulation technology is designed for the purpose of teaching technical surgical skills (so-called task trainers). Simulator training in surgery is therefore in general limited to the individual training of the surgeon and disregards the participation of the rest of the surgical team. The objective of the project Assessment and Training of Medical Experts based on Objective Standards (ATMEOS) is to develop an immersive simulated operating room environment that enables the training and assessment of multidisciplinary surgical teams under various conditions...
March 15, 2018: Der Unfallchirurg
Chew Lip Ng, Xuan Dao Liu, Renuka Murali Govind, Jonathan Wei Jian Tan, Shirley Beng Suat Ooi, Sophia Archuleta
INTRODUCTION: Postgraduate medical education in Singapore underwent major transition recently, from a British-style system and accreditation to a competency-based residency programme modelled after the American system. We aimed to identify the relative importance of factors influencing the choice of residency sponsoring institutions (SIs) among medical students during this transition period. METHODS: A questionnaire-based cross-sectional study of Singaporean undergraduate medical students across all years of study was performed in 2011...
March 16, 2018: Singapore Medical Journal
Alberto Pilotto, Raffaella Boi, Jean Petermans
Recently, the interest of industry, government agencies and healthcare professionals in technology for aging people has increased. The challenge is whether technology may play a role in enhancing independence and quality of life and in reducing individual and societal costs of caring. Information and communication technologies, i.e. tools aimed at communicating and informing, assistive technologies designed to maintain older peoples' independence and increasing safety, and human-computer interaction technologies for supporting older people with motility and cognitive impairments as humanoid robots, exoskeletons, rehabilitation robots, service robots and companion-type are interdisciplinary topics both in research and in clinical practice...
March 13, 2018: Age and Ageing
Christopher J Rendina
Purpose: To present a case that benefited from utilizing hyperbaric oxygen therapy in conjunction with antibiotics for a non-healing mandibular fracture that was highly suspicious of osteomyelitis. Also, to discuss research set forth by Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society that supports the use hyperbaric oxygen in such cases. Case: A 25-year-old male status post fist to face resulting in bilateral mandibular fracture. He underwent two surgeries in an attempt to plate the fracture with the assistance of a bone graft...
March 13, 2018: Military Medicine
Andras Inotai, Marcell Csanadi, Guenka Petrova, Maria Dimitrova, Tomasz Bochenek, Tomas Tesar, Kristina York, Leos Fuksa, Alexander Kostyuk, Laszlo Lorenzovici, Vitaly Omelyanovskiy, Katalin Egyed, Zoltan Kalo
This policy research aims to map patient access barriers to biologic treatments, to explore how increased uptake of biosimilars may lower these hurdles and to identify factors limiting the increased utilisation of biosimilars. A policy survey was developed to review these questions in 10 Central and Eastern European (CEE) and Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) countries. Two experts (one public and one private sector representative) from each country completed the survey. Questions were related to patient access, purchasing, clinical practice, and real-world data collection on both original biologics and biosimilars...
2018: BioMed Research International
JuHyung Park
[Purpose] The purpose of this research is to take a look at the influences of client-centered therapy on the level of everyday life performance, the level of satisfaction, and the quality of life of the chronic stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] This research used client-centered therapy with two chronic stroke and hemiplegia patients as subjects. The therapy was carried out once a day, five times a week, for thirty minutes at a time for four weeks. Also, five kinds of training were included in the medical treatment programs which were organized after the initial Canadian occupational performance measure (COPM) evaluations...
February 2018: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
M Waseem Akram, Muhammad Fakhar-E-Alam, M Atif, Alvina Rafique Butt, Ali Asghar, Yasir Jamil, K S Alimgeer, Zhiming M Wang
MgO is an attractive choice for carcinogenic cell destruction in photodynamic therapy, as confirmed by manifold analysis. The prime focus of the presented research is to investigate the toxicity caused by morphologically different MgO nanostructures obtained by annealing at various annealing temperatures. Smart (stimuli-responsive) MgO nanomaterials are a very promising class of nanomaterials, and their properties can be controlled by altering their size, morphology, or other relevant characteristics. The samples investigated here were grown by the co-precipitation technique...
March 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Xiangsheng Xie, Huichang Zhuang, Hexiang He, Xiaoqing Xu, Haowen Liang, Yikun Liu, Jianying Zhou
Human ability to visualize an image is usually hindered by optical scattering. Recent extensive studies have promoted imaging technique through turbid materials to a reality where color image can be restored behind scattering media in real time. The big challenge now is to recover objects in a large field of view with depth resolving ability. Based on the existing research results, we systematically study the physical relationship between speckles generated from objects at different planes. By manipulating a given single point spread function, depth-resolved imaging through a thin scattering medium can be extended beyond the original depth of field (DOF)...
March 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Agnieszka Drozdowska-Szymczak, Bronisława Pietrzak, Natalia Czaplińska, Joanna Schreiber-Zamora, Zoulikha Jabiry-Zieniewicz, Mirosław Wielgoś, Bożena Kociszewska-Najman
BACKGROUND Immunosuppressive treatment in pregnant organ recipients can affect functions of the fetal and newborn immune system. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of this treatment on selected parameters of the immune system of children born to mothers after liver transplantation. MATERIAL AND METHODS The study included 52 children born to liver recipients and 52 children in the control group. The study was conducted in the 1st Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical University of Warsaw...
March 16, 2018: Annals of Transplantation: Quarterly of the Polish Transplantation Society
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