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Sibylla Wolter, Carolin Dudschig, Barbara Kaup
This study explored differences between pianists and non-musicians during reading of sentences describing high- or low-pitched auditory events. Based on the embodied model of language comprehension, it was hypothesized that the experience of playing the piano encourages a corresponding association between high-pitched sounds and the right and low-pitched sounds and the left. This pitch-space association is assumed to become elicited during understanding of sentences describing either a high- or low-pitched auditory event...
October 12, 2016: Psychological Research
R Bianco, G Novembre, P E Keller, Kim Seung-Goo, F Scharf, A D Friederici, A Villringer, D Sammler
The ability to predict upcoming structured events based on long-term knowledge and contextual priors is a fundamental principle of human cognition. Tonal music triggers predictive processes based on structural properties of harmony, i.e., regularities defining the arrangement of chords into well-formed musical sequences. While the neural architecture of structure-based predictions during music perception is well described, little is known about the neural networks for analogous predictions in musical actions and how they relate to auditory perception...
August 16, 2016: NeuroImage
Kenta Tominaga, André Lee, Eckart Altenmüller, Fumio Miyazaki, Shinichi Furuya
For top performers, including athletes and musicians, even subtle inconsistencies in rhythm and force during movement production decrease the quality of performance. However, extensive training over many years beginning in childhood is unable to perfect dexterous motor performance so that it is without any error. To gain insight into the biological mechanisms underlying the subtle defects of motor actions, the present study sought to identify the kinematic origins of inconsistency of dexterous finger movements in musical performance...
2016: PloS One
Yutaka Sakaguchi, Eriko Aiba
Although there is growing evidence that breathing is modulated by various motor and cognitive activities, the nature of breathing in musical performance has been little explored. The present study examined the temporal breath pattern in piano performance, aiming to elucidate how breath timing is related to musical organization/events and performance. In the experiments, the respiration of 15 professional and amateur pianists, playing 10 music excerpts in total (from four-octave C major scale, Hanon's exercise, J...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Giacomo Novembre, Daniela Sammler, Peter E Keller
Shared knowledge and interpersonal coordination are prerequisites for most forms of social behavior. Influential approaches to joint action have conceptualized these capacities in relation to the separate constructs of co-representation (knowledge) and self-other entrainment (coordination). Here we investigated how brain mechanisms involved in co-representation and entrainment interact to support joint action. To do so, we used a musical joint action paradigm to show that the neural mechanisms underlying co-representation and self-other entrainment are linked via a process - indexed by EEG alpha oscillations - regulating the balance between self-other integration and segregation in real time...
August 2016: Neuropsychologia
Pedro DE Vasconcelos, Luís Soares-Almeida, Paulo Filipe
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2016: Giornale Italiano di Dermatologia e Venereologia: Organo Ufficiale, Società Italiana di Dermatologia e Sifilografia
Raffaella Chieffo, Laura Straffi, Alberto Inuggi, Javier J Gonzalez-Rosa, Francesca Spagnolo, Elisabetta Coppi, Arturo Nuara, Elise Houdayer, Giancarlo Comi, Letizia Leocani
Converging evidence suggest that motor training is associated with early and late changes of the cortical motor system. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) offers the possibility to study plastic rearrangements of the motor system in physiological and pathological conditions. We used TMS to characterize long-term changes in upper limb motor cortical representation and interhemispheric inhibition associated with bimanual skill training in pianists who started playing in an early age. Ipsilateral silent period (iSP) and cortical TMS mapping of hand muscles were obtained from 30 strictly right-handed subjects (16 pianists, 14 naïve controls), together with electromyographic recording of mirror movements (MMs) to voluntary hand movements...
2016: PloS One
Eriko Aiba, Toshie Matsui
This study investigated the relationship between the ability to sight-read and the ability to memorize a score using a behavioral experiment. By measuring the amount of memorization following short-term practice, we examined whether better sight-readers not only estimate forthcoming notes but also memorize musical structures and phrases with more practice. Eleven pianists performed the music first by sight-reading. After a 20-minute practice, the participants were asked to perform from memory without any advance notice...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Edward Jones-Imhotep
The Pianist Glenn Gould has often been portrayed as a musical idealist who embraced mundane recording media as a way of escaping the anxiety of the concert hall. In pursuing his musical ideals, however, Gould obsessed over material objects-the qualities of a chair, the action of piano keys, the placement of splices in magnetic tape. This paper argues that for him, the detailed properties of machines and electronic media were crucial, not just as tools for pursuing disembodied aesthetic aims, but as instruments and material sites for a moral project...
April 2016: Technology and Culture
Shiro Horisawa, Shinichi Goto, Takeshi Nakajima, Takakazu Kawamata, Takaomi Taira
BACKGROUND: Focal hand dystonia in musicians, also known as musician's dystonia, is a task-specific movement disorder characterized by unwanted involuntary muscle contractions occurring only when playing a musical instrument. CASE DESCRIPTION: Case 1 was a 50-year-old female professional pianist who underwent staged bilateral ventro-oral (Vo) thalamotomy, with an interval between the first and second surgery of 4 years. The first surgery (right Vo thalamotomy) led to significant improvements in dystonic symptoms without any complications...
August 2016: World Neurosurgery
Haya Akkad, Flavio Di Stasio, Robert Tibold, Panagiotis Kassavetis, John C Rothwell, Mark J Edwards
OBJECTIVE: Surround inhibition (SI) is thought to facilitate focal contraction of a hand muscle by keeping nearby muscles silent. Unexpectedly, SI is reduced in skilled pianists. We tested whether repeated practice of focal contraction in non-pianists could reduce SI. METHODS: Motor-evoked potentials were elicited by transcranial magnetic stimulation in the relaxed abductor digiti minimi randomly at the onset and 5s after offset of a 2s focal contraction (10% maximum) of the first dorsal interosseous (FDI)...
June 2016: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
Haruka Shoda, Mayumi Adachi, Tomohiro Umeda
We investigated how the audience member's physiological reactions differ as a function of listening context (i.e., live versus recorded music contexts). Thirty-seven audience members were assigned to one of seven pianists' performances and listened to his/her live performances of six pieces (fast and slow pieces by Bach, Schumann, and Debussy). Approximately 10 weeks after the live performance, each of the audience members returned to the same room and listened to the recorded performances of the same pianists' via speakers...
2016: PloS One
Brian Mathias, Barbara Tillmann, Caroline Palmer
Recent research suggests that perception and action are strongly interrelated and that motor experience may aid memory recognition. We investigated the role of motor experience in auditory memory recognition processes by musicians using behavioral, ERP, and neural source current density measures. Skilled pianists learned one set of novel melodies by producing them and another set by perception only. Pianists then completed an auditory memory recognition test during which the previously learned melodies were presented with or without an out-of-key pitch alteration while the EEG was recorded...
August 2016: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
Luke A Henderson, Flavia Di Pietro
Since the advent of anatomical brain imaging analysis techniques, numerous reports have shown altered regional brain anatomy in individuals with various chronic pain conditions. While early reports of increased regional brain volumes in taxi drivers and pianists were simply interpreted as responses to excessive use, the mechanisms responsible for anatomical changes associated with chronic pain are not so straightforward. The main aim of this paper is to explore the potential underlying cellular changes responsible for change in gross brain anatomy in individuals with chronic pain, in particular pain following nervous system damage...
April 2016: Pain Management
C Carolyn Wu, Jeff P Hamm, Vanessa K Lim, Ian J Kirk
Musicians undergo extensive training which enhances established neural links between auditory and motor areas of the brain. Long-term training develops, strengthens and enables flexibility in these connections allowing proficiency in performance. Previous research has indicated that passive listening of trained music results in the recruitment of premotor areas. It has been argued that this sound-action representation may rely on activity in mirror neuron systems and that these systems are heavily dependent on actual sensorimotor experience...
August 2016: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
Christiane Mhanna, Tamara L Marquardt, Zong-Ming Li
The transverse carpal ligament (TCL) plays a critical role in carpal tunnel biomechanics through interactions with its surrounding tissues. The purpose of this study was to investigate the in vivo adaptations of the TCL's mechanical properties in response to repetitive hand use in pianists using acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) imaging. It was hypothesized that pianists, in comparison to non-pianists, would have a stiffer TCL as indicated by an increased acoustic shear wave velocity (SWV). ARFI imagining was performed for 10 female pianists and 10 female non-pianists...
2016: PloS One
Raquel Mora-Relucio, Susana Núñez-Nagy, Tomás Gallego-Izquierdo, Alma Rus, Gustavo Plaza-Manzano, Natalia Romero-Franco, Alejandro Ferragut-Garcías, Daniel Pecos-Martín
The purpose was to evaluate the interexaminer reliability of experienced and inexperienced examiners on location and classification of myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) in two epicondylar muscles and the association between the MTrP found and the diagnosis of lateral epicondylalgia (LE). Fifty-two pianists (some suffered LE) voluntarily participated in the study. Three physiotherapists (one inexperienced in myofascial pain) examined, located, and marked MTrPs in the extensor carpi radialis brevis (ECRB) and extensor digitorum communis (EDC) muscles...
2016: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
Tomas E Matthews, Joseph N L Thibodeau, Brian P Gunther, Virginia B Penhune
Studies comparing musicians and non-musicians have shown that musical training can improve rhythmic perception and production. These findings tell us that training can result in rhythm processing advantages, but they do not tell us whether practicing a particular instrument could lead to specific effects on rhythm perception or production. The current study used a battery of four rhythm perception and production tasks that were designed to test both higher- and lower-level aspects of rhythm processing. Four groups of musicians (drummers, singers, pianists, string players) and a control group of non-musicians were tested...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
André Lee, Shinichi Furuya, Eckart Altenmüller
BACKGROUND: Task specific tremors in musicians have been mainly described as primary bowing tremor in string instrumentalists in relatively small sample sizes. Our aim was to describe epidemiology, risk factors, phenomenology and treatment options of this disorder in 23 musicians of different instruments. METHODS: We included 23 professional musicians (4 female, 19 male; mean age 51.5 ± 11.4 years) with a TSTM. During anamnesis, clinical examination, by mail or via telephone patients were asked for epidemiological, phenomenological information, risk factors and treatments...
2014: Journal of Clinical Movement Disorders
M S Panasiti, E F Pavone, S M Aglioti
Detecting others' action errors plays a critical role in social life. Studies indicate that executing action errors and observing other's errors activate a specific cerebral system specialized for performance monitoring and detecting mismatches between an internal model of the action and the executed/observed one. Such a system may be particularly important for highly skilled performance. By recording electro-encephalographic (EEG) activity in expert pianists, non-pianist musicians and musically naïve individuals while they observed correct or incorrect mute piano sequences, we explored the link between sensorimotor expertise, the ability to detect another's erroneous action (indexed by positivity error, Pe) and action simulation (indexed by mu frequency suppression)...
March 24, 2016: Neuroscience
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