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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487662/eye-of-the-beholder-stage-entrance-behavior-and-facial-expression-affect-continuous-quality-ratings-in-music-performance
#1
George Waddell, Aaron Williamon
Judgments of music performance quality are commonly employed in music practice, education, and research. However, previous studies have demonstrated the limited reliability of such judgments, and there is now evidence that extraneous visual, social, and other "non-musical" features can unduly influence them. The present study employed continuous measurement techniques to examine how the process of forming a music quality judgment is affected by the manipulation of temporally specific visual cues. Video footage comprising an appropriate stage entrance and error-free performance served as the standard condition (Video 1)...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484383/when-playing-is-a-problem-an-atypical-case-of-alien-hand-syndrome-in-a-professional-pianist
#2
Arantxa Alfaro, Ángela Bernabeu, Francisco J Badesa, Nicolas García, Eduardo Fernández
Alien hand syndrome (AHS) is a neurological illness characterized by limb movements which are carried out without being aware of it. Many patients describe these movements as aggressive and some perceive a strong feeling of estrangement and go so far as to deny ownership. The sense of body ownership is the perception that parts of one's body pertain to oneself, despite it is moving or not and if movement is intentional or unintentional. These anomalous self-experiences may arise in patients with focal brain lesions and provide unique opportunities to disclose the neural components underlying self-body perception...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435044/expertise-dependent-motor-somatotopy-of-music-perception
#3
Yuta Furukawa, Kazumasa Uehara, Shinichi Furuya
Precise mapping between sound and motion underlies successful communication and information transmission in speech and musical performance. Formation of the map typically undergoes plastic changes in the neuronal network between auditory and motor regions through training. However, to what extent the map is somatotopically-tuned so that auditory information can specifically modulate the corticospinal system responsible for the relevant motor action has not been elucidated. Here we addressed this issue by assessing the excitability of corticospinal system including the primary motor cortex (M1) innervating the hand intrinsic muscles by means of transcranial magnetic stimulation while trained pianists and musically-untrained individuals (non-musicians) were listening to either piano tones or noise...
April 21, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303743/incremental-comprehension-of-pitch-relationships-in-written-music-evidence-from-eye-movements
#4
Lauren V Hadley, Patrick Sturt, Tuomas Eerola, Martin J Pickering
To investigate how proficient pianists comprehend pitch relationships in written music when they first encounter it we conducted two experiments in which proficient pianists' eyes were tracked while they read and played single-line melodies. In Experiment 1, participants played at their own speed; in Experiment 2 they played with an external metronome. The melodies were either congruent or anomalous, with the anomaly involving one bar being shifted in pitch to alter the implied harmonic structure (e.g., non-resolution of a dominant)...
March 17, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261123/the-unresponsive-partner-roles-of-social-status-auditory-feedback-and-animacy-in-coordination-of-joint-music-performance
#5
Alexander P Demos, Daniel J Carter, Marcelo M Wanderley, Caroline Palmer
We examined temporal synchronization in joint music performance to determine how social status, auditory feedback, and animacy influence interpersonal coordination. A partner's coordination can be bidirectional (partners adapt to the actions of one another) or unidirectional (one partner adapts). According to the dynamical systems framework, bidirectional coordination should be the optimal (preferred) state during live performance. To test this, 24 skilled pianists each performed with a confederate while their coordination was measured by the asynchrony in their tone onsets...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260157/skilful-force-control-in-expert-pianists
#6
Takanori Oku, Shinichi Furuya
Dexterous object manipulation in skilful behaviours such as surgery, craft making, and musical performance involves fast, precise, and efficient control of force with the fingers. A challenge in playing musical instruments is the requirement of independent control of the magnitude and rate of force production, which typically vary in relation to loudness and tempo. However, it is unknown how expert musicians skilfully control finger force to elicit tones with a wide range of loudness and tempi. Here, we addressed this issue by comparing the variation of spatiotemporal characteristics of force during repetitive and simultaneous piano keystrokes in relation to the loudness and tempo between pianists and musically untrained individuals...
March 4, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219086/first-report-of-awake-craniotomy-of-a-famous-musician-suprasellar-tumor-surgery-of-pianist-clara-haskil-in-1942
#7
Elena Romana Gasenzer, Ayhan Kanat, Edmund A M Neugebauer
Clara Haskil (January 7, 1895-December 7, 1960) was one of the most famous female pianists of the 20th century. In her life and work she set new standards in piano playing. However, her career was beset by poor health and the adversities of two world wars. In her lifetime Haskil had three major disorders: juvenile scoliosis requiring treatment in her adolescence, a tumor of the sellar region requiring surgery at age 47 years, and a traumatic brain injury causing her death at the age of 65. Her medical history illustrates the development of surgical methods and rehabilitation in medicine before and after World War II...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Neurological Surgery. Part A, Central European Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182712/increased-cerebellar-gray-matter-volume-in-head-chefs
#8
Antonio Cerasa, Alessia Sarica, Iolanda Martino, Carmelo Fabbricatore, Francesco Tomaiuolo, Federico Rocca, Manuela Caracciolo, Aldo Quattrone
OBJECTIVE: Chefs exert expert motor and cognitive performances on a daily basis. Neuroimaging has clearly shown that that long-term skill learning (i.e., athletes, musicians, chess player or sommeliers) induces plastic changes in the brain thus enabling tasks to be performed faster and more accurately. How a chef's expertise is embodied in a specific neural network has never been investigated. METHODS: Eleven Italian head chefs with long-term brigade management expertise and 11 demographically-/ psychologically- matched non-experts underwent morphological evaluations...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153687/error-related-negativity-in-the-skilled-brain-of-pianists-reveals-motor-simulation
#9
Alice Mado Proverbio, Matteo Cozzi, Andrea Orlandi, Manuel Carminati
Evidences have been provided of a crucial role of multimodal audio-visuomotor processing in subserving the musical ability. In this paper we investigated whether musical audiovisual stimulation might trigger the activation of motor information in the brain of professional pianists, due to the presence of permanent gestures/sound associations. At this aim EEG was recorded in 24 pianists and naive participants engaged in the detection of rare targets while watching hundreds of video clips showing a pair of hands in the act of playing, along with a compatible or incompatible piano soundtrack...
March 27, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27942698/knowledge-of-playing-related-musculoskeletal-disorders-among-classical-piano-students-at-tertiary-institutions-in-malaysia
#10
Chia-Ying Ling, Fung-Chiat Loo, Titi Rahmawati Hamedon
Performance injuries among musicians have been widely discussed for decades. However, despite the growing number of classical pianists, this is still a new issue in Malaysia. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the level of knowledge of playing-related musculoskeletal disorders (PRMDs) among tertiary music students in Malaysia. A survey was conducted among classical piano students at tertiary institutions of Kuala Lumpur and Selangor. Out of 192 respondents, 76% knew that piano playing can cause PRMDs...
December 2016: Medical Problems of Performing Artists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899889/anodal-tdcs-to-right-dorsolateral-prefrontal-cortex-facilitates-performance-for-novice-jazz-improvisers-but-hinders-experts
#11
David S Rosen, Brian Erickson, Youngmoo E Kim, Daniel Mirman, Roy H Hamilton, John Kounios
Research on creative cognition reveals a fundamental disagreement about the nature of creative thought, specifically, whether it is primarily based on automatic, associative (Type-1) or executive, controlled (Type-2) processes. We hypothesized that Type-1 and Type-2 processes make differential contributions to creative production that depend on domain expertise. We tested this hypothesis with jazz pianists whose expertise was indexed by the number of public performances given. Previous fMRI studies of musical improvisation have reported that domain expertise is characterized by deactivation of the right-dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (r-DLPFC), a brain area associated with Type-2 executive processing...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886250/shared-somatosensory-and-motor-functions-in-musicians
#12
Moe Hosoda, Shinichi Furuya
Skilled individuals are characterized by fine-tuned perceptual and motor functions. Here, we tested the idea that the sensory and motor functions of highly-trained individuals are coupled. We assessed the relationships among multifaceted somatosensory and motor functions of expert pianists. The results demonstrated a positive covariation between the acuity of weight discrimination and the precision of force control during piano keystrokes among the pianists but not among the non-musicians. However, neither the age of starting musical training nor the total amount of life-long piano practice was correlated with these sensory-motor functions in the pianists...
November 25, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860488/firmly-planted-always-moving
#13
Natasha V Raikhel
I was a budding pianist immersed in music in Leningrad, in the Soviet Union (now Saint Petersburg, Russia), when I started over, giving up sheet music for the study of ciliates. In a second starting-over story, I emigrated to the United States, where I switched to studying carbohydrate-binding plant lectin proteins, dissecting plant vesicular trafficking, and isolating novel glycosyltransferases responsible for making cell wall polysaccharides. I track my journey as a plant biologist from student to principal investigator to founding director of the Center for Plant Cell Biology and then director of the Institute for Integrative Genome Biology at the University of California, Riverside...
April 28, 2017: Annual Review of Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826259/scalar-implicatures-the-psychological-reality-of-scales
#14
Alex de Carvalho, Anne C Reboul, Jean-Baptiste Van der Henst, Anne Cheylus, Tatjana Nazir
Scalar implicatures, the phenomena where a sentence like "The pianist played some Mozart sonatas" is interpreted, as "The pianist did not play all Mozart sonatas" have been given two different analyses. Neo-Griceans (NG) claim that this interpretation is based on lexical scales (e.g., <some, all>), where the stronger term (e.g., all) implies the weaker term (e.g., some), but the weaker term (e.g., some) implicates the negation of the stronger term (i.e., some = not all). Post-Griceans (PG) deny that this is the case and offer a context-based inferential account for scalar implicatures...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27801943/auditory-n1-reveals-planning-and-monitoring-processes-during-music-performance
#15
Brian Mathias, William J Gehring, Caroline Palmer
The current study investigated the relationship between planning processes and feedback monitoring during music performance, a complex task in which performers prepare upcoming events while monitoring their sensory outcomes. Theories of action planning in auditory-motor production tasks propose that the planning of future events co-occurs with the perception of auditory feedback. This study investigated the neural correlates of planning and feedback monitoring by manipulating the contents of auditory feedback during music performance...
February 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27734156/reading-sentences-describing-high-or-low-pitched-auditory-events-only-pianists-show-evidence-for-a-horizontal-space-pitch-association
#16
Sibylla Wolter, Carolin Dudschig, Barbara Kaup
This study explored differences between pianists and non-musicians during reading of sentences describing high- or low-pitched auditory events. Based on the embodied model of language comprehension, it was hypothesized that the experience of playing the piano encourages a corresponding association between high-pitched sounds and the right and low-pitched sounds and the left. This pitch-space association is assumed to become elicited during understanding of sentences describing either a high- or low-pitched auditory event...
October 12, 2016: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27542722/neural-networks-for-harmonic-structure-in-music-perception-and-action
#17
R Bianco, G Novembre, P E Keller, Seung-Goo Kim, F Scharf, A D Friederici, A Villringer, D Sammler
The ability to predict upcoming structured events based on long-term knowledge and contextual priors is a fundamental principle of human cognition. Tonal music triggers predictive processes based on structural properties of harmony, i.e., regularities defining the arrangement of chords into well-formed musical sequences. While the neural architecture of structure-based predictions during music perception is well described, little is known about the neural networks for analogous predictions in musical actions and how they relate to auditory perception...
November 15, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27537686/kinematic-origins-of-motor-inconsistency-in-expert-pianists
#18
Kenta Tominaga, André Lee, Eckart Altenmüller, Fumio Miyazaki, Shinichi Furuya
For top performers, including athletes and musicians, even subtle inconsistencies in rhythm and force during movement production decrease the quality of performance. However, extensive training over many years beginning in childhood is unable to perfect dexterous motor performance so that it is without any error. To gain insight into the biological mechanisms underlying the subtle defects of motor actions, the present study sought to identify the kinematic origins of inconsistency of dexterous finger movements in musical performance...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27516736/relationship-between-musical-characteristics-and-temporal-breathing-pattern-in-piano-performance
#19
Yutaka Sakaguchi, Eriko Aiba
Although there is growing evidence that breathing is modulated by various motor and cognitive activities, the nature of breathing in musical performance has been little explored. The present study examined the temporal breath pattern in piano performance, aiming to elucidate how breath timing is related to musical organization/events and performance. In the experiments, the respiration of 15 professional and amateur pianists, playing 10 music excerpts in total (from four-octave C major scale, Hanon's exercise, J...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27449708/neural-alpha-oscillations-index-the-balance-between-self-other-integration-and-segregation-in-real-time-joint-action
#20
Giacomo Novembre, Daniela Sammler, Peter E Keller
Shared knowledge and interpersonal coordination are prerequisites for most forms of social behavior. Influential approaches to joint action have conceptualized these capacities in relation to the separate constructs of co-representation (knowledge) and self-other entrainment (coordination). Here we investigated how brain mechanisms involved in co-representation and entrainment interact to support joint action. To do so, we used a musical joint action paradigm to show that the neural mechanisms underlying co-representation and self-other entrainment are linked via a process - indexed by EEG alpha oscillations - regulating the balance between self-other integration and segregation in real time...
August 2016: Neuropsychologia
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