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neuropsychological dysfunction of amphetamine

C A Roberts, C Montgomery
BACKGROUND: Ecstasy use is associated with cognitive impairment, believed to result from damage to 5-HT axons. Neuroimaging techniques to investigate executive dysfunction in ecstasy users provide a more sensitive measure of cognitive impairment than behavioural indicators. The present study assessed executive access to semantic memory in ecstasy polydrug users and non-users. METHODS: Twenty ecstasy polydrug users and 20 non-user controls completed an oral variant of the Chicago Word Fluency Test (CWFT), whilst the haemodynamic response to the task was measured using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS)...
May 2015: Psychopharmacology
Erin E Morgan, Katie L Doyle, Arpi Minassian, Brook L Henry, William Perry, Thomas D Marcotte, Steven Paul Woods, Igor Grant
Methamphetamine (MA) dependence is associated with executive dysfunction, but no studies have evaluated MA-related elevations in neurocognitive intraindividual variability (IIV), an expression of cognitive dyscontrol linked to poor daily functioning in populations with frontal systems injury. We examined IIV during a vigilance task in a well-characterized sample of 35 MA-dependent (MA+) and 55 non-MA using comparison participants (MA-) as part of a larger neuropsychological battery that included self-report and performance-based measures of everyday functioning...
December 15, 2014: Psychiatry Research
S Sommer, W Danysz, H Russ, B Valastro, G Flik, W Hauber
Drugs that are able to shift effort-related decision making in intact rats towards high-effort response options are largely unknown. Here, we examined the effects of two candidate drugs, MRZ-9547 and its l-enantiomer MRZ-9546 on progressive ratio (PR) responding using two different tasks, a standard PR task that involves increasing ratio requirements and a PR/chow feeding choice task in which animals can lever press for preferred food pellets under a PR schedule or approach freely available less preferred lab chow...
December 2014: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
Theresa Winhusen, Jessica Walker, Gregory Brigham, Daniel Lewis, Eugene Somoza, Jeff Theobald, Veronika Somoza
BACKGROUND: Illicit stimulant use increases oxidative stress and oxidative stress has been found to be associated with deficits in memory, attention and problem-solving. OBJECTIVE: To test a model of the association among oxidative DNA damage, a severe form of oxidative stress, and stimulant use, executive function and stimulant-use outcomes. METHODS: Six sites evaluating 12-step facilitation for stimulant abusers obtained peripheral blood samples from methamphetamine-dependent (n = 45) and cocaine-dependent (n = 120) participants...
July 2013: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
Theresa Winhusen, Daniel Lewis
BACKGROUND: Research suggests that impulsivity is a vulnerability factor for developing stimulant dependence, that women develop dependence more quickly than men, and that physical abuse can increase impulsivity and may have greater adverse health consequences in women. This study sought to tie these findings together by evaluating: (1) sex differences in disinhibition prior to lifetime initiation of stimulant abuse and (2) the relationship between physical abuse and disinhibition in stimulant-dependent patients...
April 1, 2013: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Jordan E Cattie, Steven Paul Woods, Jennifer E Iudicello, Carolina Posada, Igor Grant
Chronic methamphetamine (MA) use is commonly associated with neural injury and neurocognitive deficits. The authors examined the nature and correlates of self-reported neurobehavioral symptoms (e.g., apathy, disinhibition, and executive dysfunction) in 73 individuals with histories of MA dependence (MA+) and 85 comparison participants with comparable demographics and risk histories. MA+ individuals endorsed significantly more severe neurobehavioral symptoms on the Frontal Systems Behavioral Scale, especially those of disinhibition and executive dysfunction...
2012: Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
Stanley C Flavel, Jason M White, Gabrielle Todd
Illicit use of stimulant drugs such as methamphetamine, ecstasy, and cocaine is a current and growing problem throughout the world. The aim of the current study was to investigate the long-term effect of illicit stimulant use on human motor cortical and corticospinal circuitry. We hypothesized that individuals with a history of primarily methamphetamine and ecstasy use would exhibit altered corticospinal excitability and intracortical inhibition within motor cortex. The study involved 52 healthy adults (aged 26 ± 7 yr) comprising 26 abstinent stimulant users, 9 cannabis users, and 17 nondrug users...
November 2012: Journal of Applied Physiology
Karen D Ersche, Abigail J Turton, Samuel R Chamberlain, Ulrich Müller, Edward T Bullmore, Trevor W Robbins
OBJECTIVE: Not everyone who takes drugs becomes addicted, but the likelihood of developing drug addiction is greater in people with a family history of drug or alcohol dependence. Relatively little is known about how genetic risk mediates the development of drug dependence. By comparing the phenotypic profile of individuals with and without a family history of addiction, the authors sought to clarify the extent to which cognitive dysfunction and personality traits are shared by family members--and therefore likely to have predated drug dependence--and which aspects are specific to drug-dependent individuals...
September 2012: American Journal of Psychiatry
Daniel Wagner, Benjamin Becker, Philip Koester, Euphrosyne Gouzoulis-Mayfrank, Joerg Daumann
AIMS: It is still unclear if cognitive abnormalities in human 3,4-methylenedioxymeth-amphetamine (MDMA) users existed before the beginning of use or if other confounders could explain the deficits. The present study was conducted in order to assess the relationship between beginning MDMA use and subsequent cognitive performance and to overcome previous methodological shortcomings. DESIGN: A prospective cohort study in new MDMA users between 2006 and 2009 with a follow-up duration of 12 months...
January 2013: Addiction
Theresa M Winhusen, Eugene C Somoza, Daniel F Lewis, Frankie B Kropp, Viviana Elizabeth Horigian, Bryon Adinoff
BACKGROUND: Frontal systems dysfunction is present in stimulant-dependent patients. However, it is unclear whether this dysfunction is a pre-morbid risk factor or stimulant-induced, is severe enough to be clinically relevant, and if it is relevant to treatment response. These questions were addressed using the Frontal Systems Behavior Scale (FrSBe), a reliable and valid self-report assessment of three neurobehavioral domains associated with frontal systems functioning (Apathy, Disinhibition, and Executive Dysfunction, summed for a Total), that assesses both pre- and post-morbid functioning, and has a specific cutoff for defining clinically significant abnormalities...
January 1, 2013: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Josep Antoni Ramos-Quiroga, Pablo J Chalita, Raquel Vidal, Rosa Bosch, Gloria Palomar, Laura Prats, Miguel Casas
AIM: To review the latest data available concerning the diagnosis and treatment of adults with attention deficit hyper-activity disorder (ADHD). DEVELOPMENT AND CONCLUSIONS: A number of different instruments for evaluating ADHD have been adapted to the adult patient and allow a reliable diagnosis of the disorder to be reached. Semi-structured interviews, like the Diagnostisch Interview Voor ADHD 2.0 (DIVA), simplify the task of performing a rigorous evaluation of both the symptoms of the disorder in adulthood and the dysfunctions generated by ADHD...
February 29, 2012: Revista de Neurologia
Erin E Morgan, Steven P Woods, Amelia J Poquette, Ofilio Vigil, Robert K Heaton, Igor Grant
OBJECTIVE: Chronic use of methamphetamine (MA) has moderate effects on neurocognitive functions associated with frontal systems, including the executive aspects of verbal episodic memory. Extending this literature, the current study examined the effects of MA on visual episodic memory with the hypothesis that a profile of deficient strategic encoding and retrieval processes would be revealed for visuospatial information (i.e., simple geometric designs), including possible differential effects on source versus item recall...
February 2012: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry
Margaret C Wardle, Michael T Treadway, Leah M Mayo, David H Zald, Harriet de Wit
Animal studies suggest the neurotransmitter dopamine (DA) plays an important role in decision-making. In rats, DA depletion decreases tolerance for effort and probability costs, while drugs enhancing DA increase tolerance for these costs. However, data regarding the effect of DA manipulations on effort and probability costs in humans remain scarce. The current study examined acute effects of d-amphetamine, an indirect DA agonist, on willingness of healthy human volunteers to exert effort for monetary rewards at varying levels of reward value and reward probability...
November 16, 2011: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Kimber L Price, Stacia M DeSantis, Annie N Simpson, Bryan K Tolliver, Aimee L McRae-Clark, Michael E Saladin, Nathaniel L Baker, Mark T Wagner, Kathleen T Brady
Inconsistencies in reports on methamphetamine (METH) associated cognitive dysfunction may be attributed, at least in part, to the diversity of study sample features (eg, clinical and demographic characteristics). The current study assessed cognitive function in a METH-dependent population from rural South Carolina, and the impact of demographic and clinical characteristics on performance. Seventy-one male (28.2%) and female (71.8%) METH-dependent subjects were administered a battery of neurocognitive tests including the Test of Memory Malingering (TOMM), Shipley Institute of Living Scale, Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT), Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT), Grooved Pegboard Test, California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT), and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST)...
September 2011: American Journal on Addictions
Jennifer E Iudicello, Erica Weber, Igor Grant, Michael Weinborn, Steven Paul Woods
Methamphetamine (MA) dependence is associated with neural abnormalities (e.g., frontal systems neurotoxicity) and corresponding cognitive deficits, including impairment in episodic memory and executive functions. This study evaluated the hypothesis that MA use is associated with impairment in memory for intentions, or prospective memory (ProM), which is an ecologically relevant aspect of episodic memory that involves the execution of a previously encoded intention at an appropriate moment in the future and is known to rely on frontal systems integrity...
February 2011: Clinical Neuropsychologist
Jennifer M Loftis, Dongseok Choi, William Hoffman, Marilyn S Huckans
Methamphetamine (MA) dependence causes serious cognitive impairments that can persist during abstinence and negatively affect recovery outcomes. Evidence suggests that immune factors, such as cytokines, chemokines, and cellular adhesion molecules, contribute to MA-induced immune dysfunction, neuronal injury, and persistent cognitive impairments, yet the role of MA-induced brain inflammation remains unclear. To address this question, we used a cross-species, translational approach. Thirty-two male C57BL/6J mice were administered MA (1 mg/kg) or saline subcutaneously for seven consecutive days...
July 2011: Neurotoxicity Research
Martina Reske, Dean C Delis, Martin P Paulus
Psychostimulants like cocaine and amphetamine are commonly abused by young adults who often state that they take these drugs to increase social or cognitive performance. The current study tested the hypothesis that individuals at early stages of occasional stimulant use show subtle executive dysfunctions such as verbal fluency deficits. 155 young (age 18-25), non-dependent occasional users of stimulants and 49 stimulant naïve comparison subjects performed the Delis-Kaplan Verbal Fluency test. Correlation and median split analyses were conducted to account for stimulant history and co-drug use...
March 2011: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Karen L Hanson, Monica Luciana
BACKGROUND: MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine; "Ecstasy") is an amphetamine derivative with mild hallucinogenic and stimulant qualities. MDMA leads to serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) neurotoxicity and has been linked to cognitive impairments. It remains unclear whether these impairments are due to MDMA versus other drug use. METHOD: Neurocognitive functioning was measured in a sample of abstinent polydrug users (n = 52) with a range of MDMA use and healthy nondrug controls (n = 29)...
April 2010: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
Jennifer E Iudicello, Steven P Woods, Ofilio Vigil, J Cobb Scott, Mariana Cherner, Robert K Heaton, J Hampton Atkinson, Igor Grant
Chronic use of methamphetamine (MA) is associated with neuropsychological dysfunction and affective distress. Some normalization of function has been reported after abstinence, but little in the way of data is available on the possible added benefits of long-term sobriety. To address this, we performed detailed neuropsychological and affective evaluations in 83 MA-dependent individuals at a baseline visit and following an average one-year interval period. Among the 83 MA-dependent participants, 25 remained abstinent, and 58 used MA at least once during the interval period...
August 2010: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
Brook L Henry, Arpi Minassian, William Perry
BACKGROUND: Methamphetamine (METH) is an increasingly popular and highly addictive psychostimulant with a significant impact on public health. Chronic METH exposure has been associated with neurotoxic effects, profound neuropsychological deficits, and impaired quality of life, but few studies have examined the effect of the drug on the ability to carry out everyday activities. We assessed the effect of METH dependence on everyday functioning using the UCSD Performance-Based Skills Assessment (UPSA-2), a performance-based measure designed to evaluate real-life skills...
June 2010: Addictive Behaviors
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