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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295787/an-exploratory-wastewater-analysis-study-of-drug-use-in-auckland-new-zealand
#1
Foon Yin Lai, Chris Wilkins, Phong Thai, Jochen F Mueller
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: New Zealand is considered to have unusual drug use patterns by international standards. However, this understanding has largely been obtained from social surveys where respondents self-report use. The aim of this paper is to conduct the first wastewater study of drug use in Auckland. DESIGN AND METHODS: Wastewater sampling was completed from 2 May to 18 July 2014 at 2 Auckland wastewater treatment plants which service 1.3 million people. Samples were analysed for 17 drug residues by using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry...
March 12, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242532/polysubstance-use-in-treatment-seekers-who-inject-amphetamine-drug-use-profiles-injecting-practices-and-quality-of-life
#2
Peter J Kelly, Laura D Robinson, Amanda L Baker, Frank P Deane, Rebecca McKetin, Suzie Hudson, Carol Keane
BACKGROUND: The injection of amphetamine is becoming increasingly common. However, there has been a lack of research examining people who inject amphetamine as the primary drug of use, limiting the potential to ensure services address the unique needs of this group. The current study used latent class analysis to identify classes of polydrug use among people who report injecting amphetamine during the past 12months. It also examined differences between classes and drug use patterns, injecting practices, quality of life and psychological distress...
February 10, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229938/participation-of-ghrelin-signalling-in-the-reciprocal-regulation-of-hypothalamic-npy-pomc-mediated-appetite-control-in-amphetamine-treated-rats
#3
Ching-Han Yu, Shu-Chen Chu, Pei-Ni Chen, Yih-Shou Hsieh, Dong-Yih Kuo
Hypothalamic neuropeptide Y (NPY) and proopiomelanocortin (POMC) have been documented to participate in amphetamine (AMPH)-induced appetite suppression. This study investigated whether ghrelin signalling is associated with changes in NPY/POMC-mediated appetite control. Rats were given AMPH daily for four days, and changes in food intake, body weight, plasma ghrelin, hypothalamic NPY, melanocortin 3 receptor (MC3R), ghrelin O-acyltransferase (GOAT), acyl ghrelin (AG) and ghrelin receptor (GHSR1a) were examined and compared...
February 14, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182965/simultaneous-use-of-alcohol-with-methamphetamine-but-not-ecstasy-linked-with-aggression-among-young-adult-stimulant-users
#4
Ellen M Leslie, Andrew Smirnov, Adrian Cherney, Helene Wells, Margot Legosz, Robert Kemp, Jake M Najman
INTRODUCTION: Illicit stimulants are often combined with alcohol in nightlife entertainment districts, an environment where aggressive behaviour commonly occurs. While alcohol and methamphetamine use are each associated with aggressive behaviour, relatively little is known about the impact of the combined use of alcohol and amphetamine-type stimulants (i.e., ecstasy [MDMA] and methamphetamine) on aggression. METHOD: Analysis of longitudinal data from a population-based sample of Australian young adult amphetamine-type stimulant users (n=248) to examine: (a) prevalence and timing of simultaneous alcohol and amphetamine-type stimulant use and (b) predictors of ecstasy- and methamphetamine-related aggression and hostility...
February 2, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135882/substance-and-alcohol-misuse-drug-pathways-and-offending-behaviors-in-association-with-adhd-in-prison-inmates
#5
Susan Young, Rafael A González, Kim Wolff, Kiriakos Xenitidis, Laura Mutch, Isabella Malet-Lambert, Gisli H Gudjonsson
OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study is to quantify the extent of specific polysubstance use, drug transitions to current substances, and describe the association with alcohol use disorders among inmates with ADHD. We also examined health risk behaviors and patterns of offending in relation with ADHD. METHOD: A total of 387 male British prison inmates were screened and interviewed via the Diagnostic Interview for ADHD in Adults 2.0 (DIVA-2). RESULTS: Male prisoners with ADHD endorse more methadone and amphetamine use...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Attention Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012094/clinical-pharmacology-of-the-synthetic-cathinone-mephedrone
#6
Esther Papaseit, José Moltó, Robert Muga, Marta Torrens, Rafael de la Torre, Magí Farré
4-Methyl-N-methylcathinone (mephedrone) is a popular new psychoactive substance (NPS) that is structurally related to the parent compound cathinone, the β-keto analogue of amphetamine. Mephedrone appeared on the street drug market as a substitute for 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methylamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy) and was subsequently banned due to the potential health risks associated with its use. Nevertheless, mephedrone continues to be widely consumed among specific populations, with unique patterns of misuse. To date, most information about the biological effects of mephedrone comes from user experiences, epidemiological data, clinical cases, toxicological findings, and animal studies, whilst there are very few data regarding its human pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics...
December 24, 2016: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993933/pharmacological-and-non-pharmacological-treatment-of-adults-with-adhd-a-meta-review
#7
Franco De Crescenzo, Samuele Cortese, Nicoletta Adamo, Luigi Janiri
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterised by a persistent and impairing pattern of inattention and/or hyperactivity/impulsivity and it is one of the most common neuropsychiatric conditions. Evidence about interventions of adults with ADHD is growing rapidly and clinicians need a reliable summary of all the best available information in order to better inform their daily practice. We searched MEDLINE, PubMed, PsycINFO and Cochrane databases until 31 May 2016 for systematic reviews about pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments in adults with ADHD and carried out a meta-review to address clinically relevant questions...
February 2017: Evidence-based Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936426/statistical-comparison-of-mass-spectra-for-identification-of-amphetamine-type-stimulants
#8
Melissa A Bodnar Willard, Victoria L McGuffin, Ruth Waddell Smith
A method for the statistical comparison of mass spectral data is demonstrated for applications in controlled substance analysis. The method uses an unequal variance t-test at each mass-to-charge ratio in the scan range to determine if two spectra are statistically associated or discriminated. If the two spectra are associated, a random-match probability is calculated to estimate the likelihood that the mass spectral fragmentation pattern in question occurs by random chance alone. If the two spectra are discriminated, the fragment ions responsible for the discrimination are determined...
November 22, 2016: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816502/dysregulated-corticostriatal-activity-in-open-field-behavior-and-the-head-twitch-response-induced-by-the-hallucinogen-2-5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine
#9
Claudia Rangel-Barajas, Ana María Estrada-Sánchez, Scott J Barton, Robert R Luedtke, George V Rebec
The substituted amphetamine, 2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine (DOI), is a hallucinogen that has been used to model a variety of psychiatric conditions. Here, we studied the effect of DOI on neural activity recorded simultaneously in the primary motor cortex (M1) and dorsal striatum of freely behaving FvB/N mice. DOI significantly decreased the firing rate of individually isolated neurons in M1 and dorsal striatum relative to pre-drug baseline. It also induced a bursting pattern of activity by increasing both the number of spikes within a burst and burst duration...
February 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784226/evidence-of-2-populations-of-mephedrone-abusers-by-hair-testing-application-to-4-forensic-expertises
#10
Pascal Kintz
New psychoactive substances are conquering the drug scene. Among these substances, cathinone derivatives have been observed since late in the year 2000. At that time, an increasing use of the synthetic cathinone mephedrone (4-methylmethcathinone) started to be observed, particularly among night clubbers. Although these new psychoactive drugs showed an appearance of safety, a growing amount of experiences on their secondary effects has been reported. Mephedrone for example is known to induce psychosis. Given the potential negative effects of mephedrone, the laboratory was asked to test for the drug in hair, a cumulative matrix that can document single, occasional or repetitive abuse of xenobiotics...
October 26, 2016: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27751959/function-of-brain-%C3%AE-2b-adrenergic-receptor-characterized-with-subtype-selective-%C3%AE-2b-antagonist-and-ko-mice
#11
Lauren Luhrs, Cynthia Manlapaz, Karen Kedzie, Sandhya Rao, Sara Cabrera-Ghayouri, John Donello, Daniel Gil
Noradrenergic signaling, through the α2A and α2C adrenergic receptors modulates the cognitive and behavioral symptoms of disorders such as schizophrenia, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and addiction. However, it is unknown whether the α2B receptor has any significant role in CNS function. The present study elucidates the potential role of the α2B receptor in CNS function via the discovery and use of the first subtype-selective α2B antagonist (AGN-209419), and behavioral analyses of α-receptor knockout (KO) mice...
December 17, 2016: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27716139/comparison-of-pharmaceutical-illicit-drug-alcohol-nicotine-and-caffeine-levels-in-wastewater-with-sale-seizure-and-consumption-data-for-8-european-cities
#12
Jose Antonio Baz-Lomba, Stefania Salvatore, Emma Gracia-Lor, Richard Bade, Sara Castiglioni, Erika Castrignanò, Ana Causanilles, Felix Hernandez, Barbara Kasprzyk-Hordern, Juliet Kinyua, Ann-Kathrin McCall, Alexander van Nuijs, Christoph Ort, Benedek G Plósz, Pedram Ramin, Malcolm Reid, Nikolaos I Rousis, Yeonsuk Ryu, Pim de Voogt, Jorgen Bramness, Kevin Thomas
BACKGROUND: Monitoring the scale of pharmaceuticals, illicit and licit drugs consumption is important to assess the needs of law enforcement and public health, and provides more information about the different trends within different countries. Community drug use patterns are usually described by national surveys, sales and seizure data. Wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) has been shown to be a reliable approach complementing such surveys. METHOD: This study aims to compare and correlate the consumption estimates of pharmaceuticals, illicit drugs, alcohol, nicotine and caffeine from wastewater analysis and other sources of information...
October 1, 2016: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27595649/tentative-identification-of-in-vitro-metabolites-of-5-apdb-a-synthetic-benzofuran-by-lc-q-tof-ms
#13
Jong Suk Park, Shaheed Ur Rehman, In Sook Kim, Min Sun Choi, Jae Sin Lee, Sanghwan In, Hye Hyun Yoo
5-(2-Aminopropyl)-2,3-dihydrobenzofuran (5-APDB) is a designer drug of phenethylamine and amphetamine class. In this study, the in vitro metabolism of 5-APDB was investigated in rat and human liver microsomes and human hepatocytes to characterize its metabolites. 5-APDB was incubated with microsomes or hepatocytes, and the reaction mixture was analyzed using liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-Q/TOF-MS). 5-APDB was metabolized to yield three metabolites (M1, M2 and M3)...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27586539/the-discriminative-stimulus-properties-of-hallucinogenic-and-dissociative-anesthetic-drugs
#14
Tomohisa Mori, Tsutomu Suzuki
The subjective effects of drugs are related to the kinds of feelings they produce, such as euphoria or dysphoria. One of the methods that can be used to study these effects is the drug discrimination procedure. Many researchers have been trying to elucidate the mechanisms that underlie the discriminative stimulus properties of abused drugs (e.g., alcohol, psychostimulants, and opioids). Over the past two decades, patterns of drug abuse have changed, so that club/recreational drugs such as phencyclidine (PCP), 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), ketamine, and cannabinoid, which induce perceptual distortions, like hallucinations, are now more commonly abused, especially in younger generations...
September 2, 2016: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27538886/psychosis-associated-with-acute-recreational-drug-toxicity-a-european-case-series
#15
Odd Martin Vallersnes, Alison M Dines, David M Wood, Christopher Yates, Fridtjof Heyerdahl, Knut Erik Hovda, Isabelle Giraudon, Paul I Dargan
BACKGROUND: Psychosis can be associated with acute recreational drug and novel psychoactive substance (NPS) toxicity. However, there is limited data available on how common this is and which drugs are most frequently implicated. We describe a European case series of psychosis associated with acute recreational drug toxicity, and estimate the frequency of psychosis for different recreational drugs. METHODS: The European Drug Emergencies Network (Euro-DEN) collects data on presentations to Emergency Departments (EDs) with acute recreational drug and NPS toxicity at 16 centres in ten countries...
August 18, 2016: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27485987/substance-use-among-a-sample-of-healthcare-workers-in-kenya-a-cross-sectional-study
#16
Aggrey G Mokaya, Victoria Mutiso, Abednego Musau, Albert Tele, Yeri Kombe, Zipporah Ng'ang'a, Erica Frank, David M Ndetei, Veronic Clair
This study describes reported substance use among Kenyan healthcare workers (HCWs), as it has implications for HCWs' health, productivity, and their ability and likelihood to intervene on substance use. The Alcohol Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) was administered to a convenience sample of HCWs (n = 206) in 15 health facilities. Reported lifetime use was 35.8% for alcohol, 23.5% for tobacco, 9.3% for cannabis, 9.3% for sedatives, 8.8% for cocaine, 6.4% for amphetamine-like stimulants, 5...
September 2016: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27478387/amphetamine-withdrawal-differentially-increases-the-expression-of-organic-cation-transporter-3-and-serotonin-transporter-in-limbic-brain-regions
#17
Rajeshwari R Solanki, Jamie L Scholl, Michael J Watt, Kenneth J Renner, Gina L Forster
Amphetamine withdrawal increases anxiety and stress sensitivity related to blunted ventral hippocampus (vHipp) and enhances the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) serotonin responses. Extracellular serotonin levels are regulated by the serotonin transporter (SERT) and organic cation transporter 3 (OCT3), and vHipp OCT3 expression is enhanced during 24 hours of amphetamine withdrawal, while SERT expression is unaltered. Here, we tested whether OCT3 and SERT expression in the CeA is also affected during acute withdrawal to explain opposing regional alterations in limbic serotonergic neurotransmission and if respective changes continued with two weeks of withdrawal...
2016: Journal of Experimental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27450550/the-stigmatisation-of-ice-and-under-reporting-of-meth-amphetamine-use-in-general-population-surveys-a-case-study-from-australia
#18
Jenny Chalmers, Kari Lancaster, Caitlin Hughes
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Stigmatisation of illicit drug use is known to discourage people from reporting their use of illicit drugs. In the context of Australia's two recent "ice-epidemics" this study examines whether rapid increases in community concern about meth/amphetamine concurrent with increased stigmatising media reporting about meth/amphetamine "epidemics" are associated with increased under-reporting of its use in population surveys. METHODS: We examined the relationship between general population trends in self-reported lifetime use of and attitudes towards meth/amphetamine between 2001 and 2013, contextualised against related stimulants and heroin, using five waves of Australia's National Drug Strategy Household Survey (NDSHS), alongside trends in print media reporting on meth/amphetamine from 2001 to 2014...
October 2016: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27450319/a-comparison-between-wastewater-based-drug-data-and-an-illicit-drug-use-survey-in-a-selected-community
#19
J H P van Wel, J Kinyua, A L N van Nuijs, S Salvatore, J G Bramness, A Covaci, G Van Hal
BACKGROUND: Estimations of drug use are mostly based on population surveys that can suffer from response biases. The current study evaluates using wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) for assessing illicit drug use by comparing wastewater data with that from a population survey. METHODS: Introductory letters (29,083) were sent to inhabitants of Lier, Belgium, asking them to participate in an online survey study. Participants were asked to indicate their drug use in the past week for a 12-week period (September-November 2014)...
August 2016: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27439499/improved-drug-use-patterns-at-6%C3%A2-months-post-discharge-from-inpatient-substance-use-disorder-treatment-results-from-compulsorily-and-voluntarily-admitted-patients
#20
Adrian R Pasareanu, John-Kåre Vederhus, Anne Opsal, Øistein Kristensen, Thomas Clausen
BACKGROUND: Treatment services to patients with substance use disorders (SUDs), including those mandated to treatment, needs to be evaluated and evidence based. The Norwegian Municipal Health Care Act calls for mandated treatment for persons with "severe and life-threatening substance use disorder" if these individuals are not otherwise willing to be voluntarily treated and consequently risk their lives over drug use. This study aims to examine substance use-related outcomes at 6 months following inpatient treatment and to analyse factors associated with improved outcomes and abstinence...
2016: BMC Health Services Research
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