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use of patterns of amphetamine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783904/five-year-monitoring-of-19-illicit-and-legal-substances-of-abuse-at-the-inlet-of-a-wastewater-treatment-plant-in-barcelona-ne-spain-and-estimation-of-drug-consumption-patterns-and-trends
#1
Nicola Mastroianni, Ester López-García, Cristina Postigo, Damià Barceló, Miren López de Alda
Illicit and legal drugs of abuse, including alcohol, continue to be in the focus of many governmental national and international studies due to the important consequences of their consumption at both individual and social level. Estimation of drug use at the community level from the concentrations of the drugs themselves or their major metabolites measured in wastewater has become an increasingly accepted and extended tool, complementary to the methods traditionally used for this purpose. The present work describes the application of this approach, generally known as wastewater epidemiology, to investigate the latest drug consumption patterns and trends in the European city of Barcelona...
July 31, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774856/modafinil-improves-attentional-performance-in-healthy-non-sleep-deprived-humans-at-doses-not-inducing-hyperarousal-across-species
#2
Zackary A Cope, Arpi Minassian, Dustin Kreitner, David A MacQueen, Morgane Milienne-Petiot, Mark A Geyer, William Perry, Jared W Young
The wake-promoting drug modafinil is frequently used off-label to improve cognition in psychiatric and academic populations alike. The domain-specific attentional benefits of modafinil have yet to be quantified objectively in healthy human volunteers using tasks validated for comparison across species. Further, given that modafinil is a low-affinity inhibitor for the dopamine and norepinephrine transporters (DAT/NET respectively) it is unclear if any effects are attributable to a non-specific increase in arousal, a feature of many catecholamine reuptake inhibitors (e...
August 1, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761409/psychoactive-substance-use-among-methadone-maintenance-therapy-clients-in-china
#3
Chunqing Lin, Xiaobin Cao, Li Li
A proportion of methadone maintenance therapy (MMT) clients in China shifted their substance use habit from opiate to psychoactive substances. The objective of this study was to examine the pattern and associated factors of psychoactive substance use among MMT clients. The study was conducted among 2,448 clients from 68 MMT clinics of China. The type and frequency of psychoactive substance use were self-reported. About 38.1% (N=933) of the participants reported psychoactive substance use in lifetime, and 6...
August 2017: International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713291/an-expanding-world-of-novel-psychoactive-substances-opioids
#4
REVIEW
Jolanta B Zawilska
The abuse of novel psychoactive substances (NPS) has been increasing dramatically worldwide since late 2000s. By the end of 2015, more than 560 NPS had been reported to the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction. Although the most popular compounds are synthetic cannabinoids and psychostimulatory derivatives of cathinone (so-called β-keto-amphetamines), novel synthetic opioids have recently emerged on the recreational drug market. They include fentanyl (a potent narcotic analgesic) and its analogs (e...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661714/early-initiation-of-amphetamine-type-stimulants-ats-use-associated-with-lowered-cognitive-performance-among-individuals-with-co-occurring-opioid-and-ats-use-disorders-in-malaysia
#5
Weng-Tink Chooi, Norzarina Mohd Zaharim, Alethea Desrosiers, Imran Ahmad, Mohd Azhar Mohd Yasin, Sharifah Z Syed Jaapar, Richard S Schottenfeld, Balasingam K Vicknasingam, Marek C Chawarski
Amphetamine-type stimulants (ATS) use is increasingly prevalent in Malaysia, including among individuals who also use opioids. We evaluated cognitive functioning profiles among individuals with co-occurring opioid and ATS dependence and their lifetime patterns of drug use. Participants (N = 50) enrolling in a clinical trial of buprenorphine/naloxone treatment with or without atomoxetine completed the Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices, Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test, Digit Span, Trail Making and Symbol Digit Substitution tasks...
June 29, 2017: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525332/distribution-and-immunohistochemical-characteristics-of-cocaine-and-amphetamineregulated-transcript-positive-nerve-elements-in-the-pelvic-ganglia-of-the-female-pig
#6
A Zacharko-Siembida, M Matysek, R Szalak, A Radlińska, K Obszańska, M B Arciszewski
Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) peptides are widely expressed not only in the brain but also in numerous endocrine/neuroendocrine cells as well as in neurons of the peripheral nervous system. The present study investigated the distribution patterns of CART-like immunoreactivity in the pelvic plexus (PP) of the female pig. The co-expression of CART with principal neurotransmitter markers: choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), serotonin (5-HT) or biologically active neuropeptides: pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP), substance P (SP), calbindin was analyzed using double immunohistochemical stainings...
March 28, 2017: Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507321/pet-imaging-of-dopamine-d2-receptor-internalization-in-schizophrenia
#7
J J Weinstein, E van de Giessen, R J Rosengard, X Xu, N Ojeil, G Brucato, R B Gil, L S Kegeles, M Laruelle, M Slifstein, A Abi-Dargham
Recent genetic, molecular and post-mortem studies suggest impaired dopamine (DA)-D2 receptor (D2R) trafficking in patients with schizophrenia (SZ). Imaging and preclinical studies have shown agonist-induced D2R internalization can be imaged with positron emission tomography (PET) using D2R radiotracers combined with psychostimulant challenge. This is feasible if radiotracer binding is measured when postchallenge DA levels have returned to baseline, following the initial competition phase between DA and radiotracer for binding to D2R...
May 16, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485037/serotonin-axons-in-the-neocortex-of-the-adult-female-mouse-regrow-after-traumatic-brain-injury
#8
Tymoteusz J Kajstura, Sarah E Dougherty, David J Linden
It is widely held that injured neurons in the central nervous system do not undergo axonal regrowth. However, there is mounting evidence that serotonin axons are a notable exception. Serotonin axons undergo long-distance regrowth in the neocortex after amphetamine lesion, and, following a penetrating stab injury, they can regrow from cut ends to traverse the stab rift. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is clinically prevalent and can lead to pathologies, such as depression, that are related to serotonergic dysfunction...
May 9, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440810/naltrexone-modulates-dopamine-release-following-chronic-but-not-acute-amphetamine-administration-a-translational-study
#9
N Jayaram-Lindström, J Guterstam, J Häggkvist, M Ericson, T Malmlöf, B Schilström, C Halldin, S Cervenka, T Saijo, A-L Nordström, J Franck
The opioid antagonist naltrexone has been shown to attenuate the subjective effects of amphetamine. However, the mechanisms behind this modulatory effect are currently unknown. We hypothesized that naltrexone would diminish the striatal dopamine release induced by amphetamine, which is considered an important mechanism behind many of its stimulant properties. We used positron emission tomography and the dopamine D2-receptor radioligand [(11)C]raclopride in healthy subjects to study the dopaminergic effects of an amphetamine injection after pretreatment with naltrexone or placebo...
April 25, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422445/transcriptional-profiling-of-shr-ncrl-prefrontal-cortex-shows-hyperactivity-associated-genes-responsive-to-amphetamine-challenge
#10
I J I Dela Peña, I Dela Peña, J B de la Peña, H J Kim, A Sohn, C Y Shin, D H Han, B-N Kim, J H Ryu, J H Cheong
Several studies suggest a strong genetic component of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), a complex neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by inappropriate levels of hyperactivity, impulsivity and inattention. Determining specific genetic risk variants for each symptom dimension of ADHD may aid in the identification of the biological risk factors of the disorder. In this study, we explored the potential genetic underpinnings of the hyperactive phenotype of ADHD. To this end, we examined differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) of SHR/NCrl, an animal model of ADHD, compared with its genetic control, the Wistar Kyoto (WKY/NCrl) rat and the Wistar rat, strain used to represent the 'normal' heterogeneous population...
April 19, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421658/transcriptional-signatures-of-connectomic-subregions-of-the-human-striatum
#11
Linden Parkes, Ben Fulcher, Murat Yücel, Alex Fornito
Functionally distinct regions of the brain are thought to possess a characteristic connectional fingerprint - a profile of incoming and outgoing connections that defines the function of that area. This observation has motivated efforts to subdivide brain areas using their connectivity patterns. However, it remains unclear whether these connectomically-defined subregions can be distinguished at the molecular level. Here, we combine high-resolution diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging with transcriptomic data to show that connectomically-defined subregions of the striatum carry distinct transcriptional signatures...
April 19, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412575/the-role-of-illicit-licit-and-designer-drugs-in-the-traffic-in-hungary
#12
László Institóris, Előd Hidvégi, Adrienn Dobos, Éva Sija, Éva M Kereszty, László Balázs Tajti, Gábor Pál Somogyi, Tibor Varga
The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and pattern of psychoactive substances among suspected DUID (Driving Under the Influence of Drugs) drivers in Hungary in 2014 and 2015. Blood and/or urine samples of 1252 suspected drivers (600 in 2014 and 652 in 2015) were analyzed for classical illicit and licit drugs, stimulant designer drugs (SDDs), and for synthetic cannabinoids, with 78.3% and 79.6% positive cases for at least one substance in 2014, and 2015, respectively. Impairment was proven in 39...
April 3, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387975/insular-and-cingulate-attenuation-during-decision-making-is-associated-with-future-transition-to-stimulant-use-disorder
#13
Jennifer L Stewart, Mamona Butt, April C May, Susan F Tapert, Martin P Paulus
AIMS: To understand processes placing individuals at risk for stimulant (amphetamine and cocaine) use disorder. DESIGN: Longitudinal study. SETTING: University of California, San Diego Department of Psychiatry, CA, USA. PARTICIPANTS: Occasional stimulant users (OSU; n = 184) underwent a baseline clinical interview and a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) session. On the basis of a follow-up clinical interview completed 3 years later, OSU (n = 147) were then categorized as problem stimulant users (PSU: n = 36; those who developed stimulant use disorders in the interim) or desisted stimulant users (DSU: n = 74; those who stopped using)...
September 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336088/trends-in-adhd-medication-use-in-children-and-adolescents-in-five-western-countries-2005-2012
#14
Christian J Bachmann, Linda P Wijlaars, Luuk J Kalverdijk, Mehmet Burcu, Gerd Glaeske, Catharina C M Schuiling-Veninga, Falk Hoffmann, Lise Aagaard, Julie M Zito
Over the last two decades, the use of ADHD medication in US youth has markedly increased. However, less is known about ADHD medication use among European children and adolescents. A repeated cross-sectional design was applied to national or regional data extracts from Denmark, Germany, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom (UK) and the United States (US) for calendar years 2005/2006-2012. The prevalence of ADHD medication use was assessed, stratified by age and sex. Furthermore, the most commonly prescribed ADHD medications were assessed...
March 20, 2017: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321131/does-activation-of-midbrain-dopamine-neurons-promote-or-reduce-feeding
#15
L Boekhoudt, T J M Roelofs, J W de Jong, A E de Leeuw, M C M Luijendijk, I G Wolterink-Donselaar, G van der Plasse, R A H Adan
BACKGROUND: Dopamine (DA) signalling in the brain is necessary for feeding behaviour, and alterations in the DA system have been linked to obesity. However, the precise role of DA in the control of food intake remains debated. On the one hand, food reward and motivation are associated with enhanced DA activity. On the other hand, psychostimulant drugs that increase DA signalling suppress food intake. This poses the questions of how endogenous DA neuronal activity regulates feeding, and whether enhancing DA neuronal activity would either promote or reduce food intake...
July 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295787/an-exploratory-wastewater-analysis-study-of-drug-use-in-auckland-new-zealand
#16
Foon Yin Lai, Chris Wilkins, Phong Thai, Jochen F Mueller
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: New Zealand is considered to have unusual drug use patterns by international standards. However, this understanding has largely been obtained from social surveys where respondents self-report use. The aim of this paper is to conduct the first wastewater study of drug use in Auckland. DESIGN AND METHODS: Wastewater sampling was completed from 2 May to 18 July 2014 at 2 Auckland wastewater treatment plants which service 1.3 million people. Samples were analysed for 17 drug residues by using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry...
March 12, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242532/polysubstance-use-in-treatment-seekers-who-inject-amphetamine-drug-use-profiles-injecting-practices-and-quality-of-life
#17
Peter J Kelly, Laura D Robinson, Amanda L Baker, Frank P Deane, Rebecca McKetin, Suzie Hudson, Carol Keane
BACKGROUND: The injection of amphetamine is becoming increasingly common. However, there has been a lack of research examining people who inject amphetamine as the primary drug of use, limiting the potential to ensure services address the unique needs of this group. The current study used latent class analysis to identify classes of polydrug use among people who report injecting amphetamine during the past 12months. It also examined differences between classes and drug use patterns, injecting practices, quality of life and psychological distress...
February 10, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229938/participation-of-ghrelin-signalling-in-the-reciprocal-regulation-of-hypothalamic-npy-pomc-mediated-appetite-control-in-amphetamine-treated-rats
#18
Ching-Han Yu, Shu-Chen Chu, Pei-Ni Chen, Yih-Shou Hsieh, Dong-Yih Kuo
Hypothalamic neuropeptide Y (NPY) and proopiomelanocortin (POMC) have been documented to participate in amphetamine (AMPH)-induced appetite suppression. This study investigated whether ghrelin signalling is associated with changes in NPY/POMC-mediated appetite control. Rats were given AMPH daily for four days, and changes in food intake, body weight, plasma ghrelin, hypothalamic NPY, melanocortin 3 receptor (MC3R), ghrelin O-acyltransferase (GOAT), acyl ghrelin (AG) and ghrelin receptor (GHSR1a) were examined and compared...
February 14, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182965/simultaneous-use-of-alcohol-with-methamphetamine-but-not-ecstasy-linked-with-aggression-among-young-adult-stimulant-users
#19
Ellen M Leslie, Andrew Smirnov, Adrian Cherney, Helene Wells, Margot Legosz, Robert Kemp, Jake M Najman
INTRODUCTION: Illicit stimulants are often combined with alcohol in nightlife entertainment districts, an environment where aggressive behaviour commonly occurs. While alcohol and methamphetamine use are each associated with aggressive behaviour, relatively little is known about the impact of the combined use of alcohol and amphetamine-type stimulants (i.e., ecstasy [MDMA] and methamphetamine) on aggression. METHOD: Analysis of longitudinal data from a population-based sample of Australian young adult amphetamine-type stimulant users (n=248) to examine: (a) prevalence and timing of simultaneous alcohol and amphetamine-type stimulant use and (b) predictors of ecstasy- and methamphetamine-related aggression and hostility...
February 2, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135882/substance-and-alcohol-misuse-drug-pathways-and-offending-behaviors-in-association-with-adhd-in-prison-inmates
#20
Susan Young, Rafael A González, Kim Wolff, Kiriakos Xenitidis, Laura Mutch, Isabella Malet-Lambert, Gisli H Gudjonsson
OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study is to quantify the extent of specific polysubstance use, drug transitions to current substances, and describe the association with alcohol use disorders among inmates with ADHD. We also examined health risk behaviors and patterns of offending in relation with ADHD. METHOD: A total of 387 male British prison inmates were screened and interviewed via the Diagnostic Interview for ADHD in Adults 2.0 (DIVA-2). RESULTS: Male prisoners with ADHD endorse more methadone and amphetamine use...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Attention Disorders
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