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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29920542/prevalence-of-drug-use-among-drivers-based-on-mandatory-random-tests-in-a-roadside-survey
#1
Manuela Alcañiz, Montserrat Guillen, Miguel Santolino
BACKGROUND: In the context of road safety, this study aims to examine the prevalence of drug use in a random sample of drivers. METHODS: A stratified probabilistic sample was designed to represent vehicles circulating on non-urban roads. Random drug tests were performed during autumn 2014 on 521 drivers in Catalonia (Spain). Participation was mandatory. The prevalence of drug driving for cannabis, methamphetamines, amphetamines, cocaine, opiates and benzodiazepines was assessed...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29902799/is-cannabis-use-treatment-also-indicated-for-patients-with-low-to-moderate-polysubstance-use
#2
Maria Neumann, Gerhard Bühringer, Michael Höfler, Hans-Ulrich Wittchen, Eva Hoch
BACKGROUND: Polysubstance use (PSU) is common among patients with cannabis use (CU) and is related to more severe CU problems. However, it is unclear how PSU predicts CU treatment outcomes beyond CU patterns. We examined the frequency, amount, and class of additionally used substances as predictors for primary and secondary outcomes. METHODS: We conducted crude and adjusted regression analyses for PSU variables as predictors of remission, abstinence, -reduction, and secondary outcomes in 166 help-seeking -patients from a randomized clinical trial of CANDIS, a -cognitive behavioral treatment program...
June 14, 2018: European Addiction Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29867712/high-frequency-repetitive-magnetic-stimulation-enhances-the-expression-of-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-through-activation-of-ca-2-calmodulin-dependent-protein-kinase-ii-camp-response-element-binding-protein-pathway
#3
Ahreum Baek, Eun Jee Park, Soo Yeon Kim, Bae-Geun Nam, Ji Hyun Kim, Sang Woo Jun, Sung Hoon Kim, Sung-Rae Cho
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) can be used in various neurological disorders. However, neurobiological mechanism of rTMS is not well known. Therefore, in this study, we examined the global gene expression patterns depending on different frequencies of repetitive magnetic stimulation (rMS) in both undifferentiated and differentiated Neuro-2a cells to generate a comprehensive view of the biological mechanisms. The Neuro-2a cells were randomly divided into three groups-the sham (no active stimulation) group, the low-frequency (0...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775957/how-treatment-improvement-in-adhd-and-cocaine-dependence-are-related-to-one-another-a-secondary-analysis
#4
Frances R Levin, C Jean Choi, Martina Pavlicova, John J Mariani, Amy Mahony, Daniel J Brooks, Edward V Nunes, John Grabowski
BACKGROUND: Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is overrepresented among individuals seeking treatment for substance use disorders. We previously reported that treatment with extended release mixed amphetamine salts (MAS-XR) increased abstinence, compared to placebo, among patients with co-occurring ADHD and cocaine dependence. This secondary analysis investigates the temporal relationship between ADHD improvement and cocaine abstinence in the first six weeks of the trial...
May 1, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775956/typology-of-new-psychoactive-substance-use-among-the-general-australian-population
#5
Rachel Sutherland, Amy Peacock, Amanda Roxburgh, Monica J Barratt, Lucinda Burns, Raimondo Bruno
AIM: The aim of this study was to examine the typology of Australian illicit drug consumers to determine whether those who use new psychoactive substances (NPS) differ from those using other illicit substances. METHODS: Data were from the 2013 National Drug Strategy Household Survey, a representative population study; analyses were limited to participants reporting past year illicit drug use (including NPS; n = 3309). Latent class analysis identified groups based on past year substance use, and a weighted multivariable, multinomial regression model was used to examine characteristics associated with group membership...
May 3, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760666/candyflipping-and-other-combinations-identifying-drug-drug-combinations-from-an-online-forum
#6
Michael Chary, David Yi, Alex F Manini
Novel psychoactive substances (NPS) refer to synthetic compounds or derivatives of more widely known substances of abuse that have emerged over the last two decades. Case reports suggest that users combine substances to achieve desired psychotropic experiences while reducing dysphoria and unpleasant somatic effects. However, the pattern of combining NPS has not been studied on a large scale. Here, we show that posts discussing NPS describe combining nootropics with sedative-hypnotics and stimulants with plant hallucinogens or psychiatric medications...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709847/big-data-on-a-big-new-market-insights-from-washington-state-s-legal-cannabis-market
#7
Jonathan P Caulkins, Yilun Bao, Steve Davenport, Imane Fahli, Yutian Guo, Krista Kinnard, Mary Najewicz, Lauren Renaud, Beau Kilmer
INTRODUCTION: Voters in eight U.S. states have passed initiatives to legalize large-scale commercial production of cannabis for non-medical use. All plan or require some form of "seed-to-sale" tracking systems, which provide a view of cannabis market activity at a heretofore unimagined level of detail. Legal markets also create a range of new matters for policy makers to address. DATA: Publicly available data were obtained on approximately 45 million individually priced items purchased in the 35 million retail transactions that took place during the first two and a half years of Washington State's legal cannabis market...
July 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669395/characterisation-of-aqueous-waste-produced-during-the-clandestine-production-of-amphetamine-following-the-leuckart-route-utilising-solid-phase-extraction-gas-chromatography-mass-spectrometry-and-capillary-electrophoresis-with-contactless-conductivity-detection
#8
Frank M Hauser, Janneke W Hulshof, Thorsten Rößler, Ralf Zimmermann, Michael Pütz
Chemical waste from the clandestine production of amphetamine is of forensic and environmental importance due to its illegal nature which often leads to dumping into the environment. In this study, 27 aqueous amphetamine waste samples from controlled Leuckart reactions performed in Germany, the Netherlands, and Poland were characterised to increase knowledge about the chemical composition and physicochemical characteristics of such waste. Aqueous waste samples from different reaction steps were analysed to determine characteristic patterns which could be used for classification...
April 18, 2018: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668345/prevalence-and-psychosocial-correlates-of-party-drug-use-and-associated-problems-among-university-students-in-the-netherlands
#9
Laura E Kunst, Winifred A Gebhardt
BACKGROUND: Recent developments in drug use patterns call for an investigation of current party-drug use and associated problems among college students, who appear to be an important target population for harm reduction interventions. OBJECTIVES: In addition to reporting on party-drug use prevalence, we investigated whether initial use and continuation of party-drug use among students was associated with demographic, personality and psychosocial factors. METHODS: An online questionnaire was administered to 446 students from a Dutch university, inquiring about party-drug use, demographic characteristics, social norms and personality (big five, impulsiveness, aggression)...
April 18, 2018: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29520239/behavioral-phenotyping-of-dopamine-transporter-knockout-rats-compulsive-traits-motor-stereotypies-and-anhedonia
#10
Stefano Cinque, Francesca Zoratto, Anna Poleggi, Damiana Leo, Luca Cerniglia, Silvia Cimino, Renata Tambelli, Enrico Alleva, Raul R Gainetdinov, Giovanni Laviola, Walter Adriani
Alterations in dopamine neurotransmission are generally associated with diseases such as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Such diseases typically feature poor decision making and lack of control on executive functions and have been studied through the years using many animal models. Dopamine transporter (DAT) knockout (KO) and heterozygous (HET) mice, in particular, have been widely used to study ADHD. Recently, a strain of DAT KO rats has been developed (1)...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29516360/no-evidence-of-subgroups-found-in-amphetamine-consumers-in-iran
#11
Atireza Bananej, Sabine Völkl-Kernstock, Otto Lesch, Henriette Walter, Katrin Skala
Amphetamine type substances are the second most commonly consumed illicit drug type and their use is an important contributor to the global burden of disease. This investigation set out to determine whether, similar to alcohol or nicotine addiction, subgroups of consumers can also be found in amphetamine addicts. 204 consumers of methamphetamine only (n = 50) or both methamphetamine and heroin (n = 154) have been investigated in Mashhad, Iran by means of "Lesch Alcoholism Typology". No significant differences in consumption pattern or age of onset have been found between the different types...
March 7, 2018: Neuropsychiatrie: Klinik, Diagnostik, Therapie und Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29511334/psychostimulant-drug-effects-on-glutamate-glx-and-creatine-in-the-anterior-cingulate-cortex-and-subjective-response-in-healthy-humans
#12
Tara L White, Mollie A Monnig, Edward G Walsh, Adam Z Nitenson, Ashley D Harris, Ronald A Cohen, Eric C Porges, Adam J Woods, Damon G Lamb, Chelsea A Boyd, Sinda Fekir
Prescription psychostimulants produce rapid changes in mood, energy, and attention. These drugs are widely used and abused. However, their effects in human neocortex on glutamate and glutamine (pooled as Glx), and key neurometabolites such as N-acetylaspartate (tNAA), creatine (tCr), choline (Cho), and myo-inositol (Ins) are poorly understood. Changes in these compounds could inform the mechanism of action of psychostimulant drugs and their abuse potential in humans. We investigated the acute impact of two FDA-approved psychostimulant drugs on neurometabolites using magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1 H MRS)...
June 2018: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29482665/study-on-the-relationship-between-expression-patterns-of-cocaine-and-amphetamine-regulated-transcript-and-hormones-secretion-in-porcine-ovarian-follicles
#13
Pengfei Li, Jinzhu Meng, Jiongjie Jing, Qingling Hao, Zhiwei Zhu, Jianbo Yao, Lihua Lyu
BACKGROUND: Cocaine-and amphetamine regulated transcript (CART) is an endogenous neuropeptide, which is widespread in animals, plays a key role in regulation of follicular atresia in cattle and sheep. Among animal ovaries, CART mRNA was firstly found in the cattle ovaries. CART was localized in the antral follicles oocytes, granulosa and cumulus cells by immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. Further research found that secretion of E2 was inhibited in granulosa cells with a certain dose of CART, the effect depends on the stage of cell differentiation, suggesting that CART could play a crucial role in regulating follicle atresia...
February 26, 2018: Biological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462643/pirouetting-pigs-a-large-non-primate-animal-model-based-on-unilateral-6-hydroxydopamine-lesioning-of-the-nigrostriatal-pathway
#14
Anette Bro Christensen, Jens Christian Hedemann Sørensen, Kåre Schmidt Ettrup, Dariusz Orlowski, Carsten Reidies Bjarkam
INTRODUCTION: The rotating 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) rat model has long been important when developing new treatment strategies for Parkinson's disease (PD). Similar non-human primate models have been developed for translational research purposes as large animal models are required by regulatory bodies as an intermediate "phase 0" trial step. However, experimental research in non-human primates encounters several economical and regulatory issues, which may be avoided by the alternative use of pigs as a large animal model for experimental brain research...
February 17, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29461932/clinical-outcomes-from-a-10-week-follow-up-psychoeducational-program-for-dual-diagnosis
#15
J Chilton, D Crone, P J Tyson
BACKGROUND: Dual diagnosis covers a broad spectrum of mental health and substance misuse conditions occurring concurrently (NICE, 2016 ). Its manifestation is complex and, as such, the disorder is recognized as influencing adherence to prescribed medication and service engagement and has a worse prognosis than substance use and mental health conditions occurring independently. AIMS: To determine the effectiveness of psychoeducational group therapy in a sample of dual diagnosis patients...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Dual Diagnosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29391843/associations-between-substance-use-and-type-of-crime-in-prisoners-with-substance-use-problems-a-focus-on-violence-and-fatal-violence
#16
Anders Håkansson, Virginia Jesionowska
Aim: The present study aimed to study the associations between substance use patterns and types of crimes in prisoners with substance use problems, and specifically whether substance use patterns were different in violent offenders. Methods: Interview data of prisoners with substance use problems (N=4,202, mean age 33.5 years, SD 9.8), derived from the Addiction Severity Index, were run against criminal register data on main types of crimes in the verdict. Results: In binary analyses, compared to those with acquisitive and drug crimes, violent offenders had lower prevalence of illicit drugs and homelessness, but higher prevalence of binge drinking, and higher prevalence of sedative use than clients sentenced with drug crimes...
2018: Substance Abuse and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29385033/changes-in-the-distribution-of-cocaine-and-amphetamine-regulated-transcript-containing-neural-structures-in-the-human-colon-affected-by-the-neoplastic-process
#17
Agnieszka Oponowicz, Anna Kozłowska, Sławomir Gonkowski, Janusz Godlewski, Mariusz Majewski
The present study analysed changes in the distribution pattern of cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) in the enteric nervous system (ENS) of the human colon challenged by adenocarcinoma invasion, using the double-labelling immunofluorescence technique. In control specimens, CART immunoreactivity was found in neurons of all studied plexuses, representing 30.1 ± 4.1%, 12.9 ± 5.2%, and 4.1 ± 1.3% of all neurons forming the myenteric plexus (MP), outer submucous plexus (OSP), and inner submucous plexus (ISP), respectively...
January 31, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343842/leptin-resistance-was-involved-in-susceptibility-to-overweight-in-the-striped-hamster-re-fed-with-high-fat-diet
#18
Ying Zhao, Li-Bing Chen, Si-Si Mao, Hong-Xia Min, Jing Cao
Food restriction (FR) is the most commonly used intervention to prevent the overweight. However, the lost weight is usually followed by "compensatory growth" when FR ends, resulting in overweight. The present study was aimed to examining the behavior patterns and hormones mechanisms underpinning the over-weight. Energy budget and body fat content, and several endocrine markers related to leptin signals were examined in the striped hamsters under 20% FR refed by either low-fat diet (LF group) or high-fat diet (HF group)...
January 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330986/use-of-psychoactive-drugs-among-medical-undergraduates-in-abbottabad
#19
Haq Nawaz, Aftab Alam Khan, Saima Bukhari
BACKGROUND: Psychoactive substance abuse is prevalent among medical undergraduates of Pakistan, India & Western countries which can adversely affect the physical & psychological grooming of a medical undergraduate thus threatening to compromise their role as future physicians & health-care providers in the society. The objective of the present cross-sectional study was to explore the prevalence and patterns of psychoactive substance/drug consumption among undergraduate students of a public sector medical college in Abbottabad...
October 2017: Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad: JAMC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324402/c-fscv-compressive-fast-scan-cyclic-voltammetry-for-brain-dopamine-recording
#20
Hossein Zamani, Hamid Reza Bahrami, Preeti Chalwadi, Paul A Garris, Pedram Mohseni
This paper presents a novel compressive sensing framework for recording brain dopamine levels with fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) at a carbon-fiber microelectrode. Termed compressive FSCV (C-FSCV), this approach compressively samples the measured total current in each FSCV scan and performs basic FSCV processing steps, e.g., background current averaging and subtraction, directly with compressed measurements. The resulting background-subtracted faradaic currents, which are shown to have a block-sparse representation in the discrete cosine transform domain, are next reconstructed from their compressively sampled counterparts with the block sparse Bayesian learning algorithm...
January 2018: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
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