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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220642/substance-use-patterns-associated-with-recent-exposure-to-fentanyl-among-people-who-inject-drugs-in-vancouver-canada-a-cross-sectional-urine-toxicology-screening-study
#1
Kanna Hayashi, M-J Milloy, Mark Lysyshyn, Kora DeBeck, Ekaterina Nosova, Evan Wood, Thomas Kerr
INTRODUCTION: Vancouver, Canada is experiencing an opioid overdose crisis where fentanyl, a potent, synthetic opioid contaminating the illicit drug supply, has been detected in the majority of fatal overdose cases. Despite its growing presence throughout North America, few studies have characterized exposure to fentanyl among people who use illicit drugs (PWUD). We sought to identify the prevalence and correlates of fentanyl exposure among PWUD in Vancouver. METHODS: Data were derived from cohort studies of PWUD in Vancouver...
December 5, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128711/polysubstance-use-profiles-among-electronic-dance-music-party-attendees-in-new-york-city-and-their-relation-to-use-of-new-psychoactive-substances
#2
Fermín Fernández-Calderón, Charles M Cleland, Joseph J Palamar
BACKGROUND: Electronic Dance Music (EDM) party attendees are often polysubstance users and are at high risk for use of new psychoactive substances (NPS). We sought to identify patterns of use of common illegal drugs among EDM party attendees, sociodemographic correlates, and use of NPS as a function of patterns of use of more common drugs to inform prevention and harm reduction. METHOD: Using time-space-sampling, 1045 individuals aged 18-40 were surveyed entering EDM parties in New York City...
November 4, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104427/patterns-of-marijuana-use-in-a-6-month-pain-management-sample-in-the-united-states
#3
REVIEW
Hope M Smiley-McDonald, Katherine N Moore, David C Heller, Jeri D Ropero-Miller, Gregory L McIntire, Frank N Wallace
This study is a 6-month retrospective analysis of urine drug testing (UDT) data from a pain management population among specimens with clinician-ordered marijuana testing (N = 194 809). Descriptive statistics about the specimen positivity of clinician-ordered marijuana UDT are provided as well as other drug positivity. Specimens from men and adults aged 18 to 34 years had the highest prevalence rates of marijuana positivity. The prevalence of past-month marijuana use among a comparative national population was lower than the prevalence of positive marijuana tests in the UDT specimens by all characteristics...
2017: Substance Abuse: Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991519/association-between-binge-drug-use-and-suicide-attempt-among-people-who-inject-drugs
#4
Charles Fournier, Maykel Farag Ghabrash, Adelina Artenie, Elise Roy, Geng Zang, Julie Bruneau, Didier Jutras Aswad
BACKGROUND: People who inject drugs (PWID) have an elevated risk of suicide attempt. Although different substances are associated with suicide attempt, the overall risk posed by binge behavior, a high-risk pattern of drug use, remains unclear. The objective of this study is to assess the association between binge drug use and suicide attempt in a prospective cohort of PWID in Montreal, Canada. METHODS: Participants answered a biannual interviewer-administered questionnaire compiling information on sociodemographics, pattern of substance use (cocaine, amphetamine, opioids, sedative-hypnotics, alcohol, and cannabis), and psychosocial stressors and related markers...
October 9, 2017: Substance Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984477/pediatric-pharmacoepidemiology-safety-and-effectiveness-of-medicines-for-adhd
#5
Antonio Clavenna, Maurizio Bonati
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neurobehavioral disorder in children and adolescents that comprises core symptoms of developmentally inappropriate levels of inattention and/or hyperactivity and impulsivity. Stimulant (methylphenidate, amphetamines) and non stimulant (atomoxetine, clonidine and guanfacine) are the treatment usually prescribed for ADHD. Area covered: This review covers the safety of ADHD medications in children and adolescents. MEDLINE, EMBASE and PsycINFO databases were searched with the aim to retrieve prospective studies that monitored the incidence of adverse events (AEs) in children receiving drug therapy for ADHD...
October 12, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978661/studies-on-para-methoxymethamphetamine-pmma-metabolite-pattern-and-influence-of-cyp2d6-genetics-in-human-liver-microsomes-and-authentic-samples-from-fatal-pmma-intoxications
#6
Merete Vevelstad, Elisabeth Leere Oiestad, Elisabeth Nerem, Marianne Arnestad, Inger Lise Bogen
Para-methoxymethamphetamine (PMMA) has caused numerous fatal poisonings worldwide and appears to be more toxic than other ring-substituted amphetamines. Systemic metabolism is suggested to be important for PMMA neurotoxicity, possibly through activation of minor catechol metabolites to neurotoxic conjugates. The aim of this study was to examine the metabolism of PMMA in humans, and for this purpose we used human liver microsomes (HLM) and blood samples from three cases of fatal PMMA intoxication. We also examined the impact of CYP2D6 genetics on PMMA metabolism using genotyped HLM isolated from CYP2D6 poor, population average and ultrarapid metabolizers...
October 4, 2017: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903079/escalating-patterns-of-emergency-health-care-prior-to-first-admission-with-amphetamine-psychosis-a-window-of-opportunity
#7
Grant Sara, Julia Lappin, Timothy Dobbins, Adrian J Dunlop, Louisa Degenhardt
AIM: To describe health service contact in the two years prior to a first hospital admission with amphetamine-related psychosis, and to identify possible opportunities for early intervention. METHOD: Routine health data collections were used to identify 6130 persons aged 16-65 who had a first hospital admission with amphetamine-related psychosis in New South Wales (NSW), Australia, between 2005 and 2016. Health service contacts in the two years prior to first admission were identified, using public hospital, emergency department and community mental health data...
September 6, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893219/a-case-of-a-four-year-old-child-adopted-at-eight-months-with-unusual-mood-patterns-and-significant-polypharmacy
#8
Magdalena Romanowicz, Alastair J McKean, Jennifer Vande Voort
BACKGROUND: Long-term effects of neglect in early life are still widely unknown. Diversity of outcomes can be explained by differences in genetic risk, epigenetics, prenatal factors, exposure to stress and/or substances, and parent-child interactions. Very common sub-threshold presentations of children with history of early trauma are challenging not only to diagnose but also in treatment. CASE PRESENTATION: A Caucasian 4-year-old, adopted at 8 months, male patient with early history of neglect presented to pediatrician with symptoms of behavioral dyscontrol, emotional dysregulation, anxiety, hyperactivity and inattention, obsessions with food, and attachment issues...
September 11, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865391/discriminative-stimulus-and-locomotor-effects-of-para-substituted-and-benzofuran-analogs-of-amphetamine
#9
Sean B Dolan, Michael J Forster, Michael B Gatch
Novel psychoactive substances have maintained a prominent role in the global drug culture, despite increased regulation by governing bodies. Novel compounds continue to become available on the market, often in "Ecstasy" or "Molly" formulations in lieu of MDMA, at a much faster rate than they can be properly characterized. The current study aimed to investigate the discriminative stimulus and locomotor effects of three putatively entactogenic compounds that have become increasingly prevalent on the drug market: 5-(2-aminopropyl)-benzofuran (5-APB), 6-(2-aminopropryl)-2,3-dihydrobenzofuran (6-APDB), and 4-fluoroamphetamine (4-FA)...
August 24, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860974/striatal-distribution-and-cytoarchitecture-of-dopamine-receptor-subtype-1-and-2-evidence-from-double-labeling-transgenic-mice
#10
Keke Ren, Baolin Guo, Chunqiu Dai, Han Yao, Tangna Sun, Xia Liu, Zhantao Bai, Wenting Wang, Shengxi Wu
As the main input nucleus of the basal ganglion, the striatum executes different functions, including motivation, reward and attention. The functions of the striatum highly rely on its subregions that receive projections from various cortical areas and the distribution of striatonigral neurons that express D1 dopamine (DA) receptors (or D1 medium-sized spiny neurons, D1 MSNs) and striatopallidal neurons that express D2 DA receptors (or D2 MSNs). Using bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) transgenic mice, several studies have recently been performed on the spatial distribution of D1 and D2 MSNs...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28853020/illicit-drug-use-among-gym-goers-a-cross-sectional-study-of-gym-goers-in-sweden
#11
Yasmina Molero, Ann-Sofie Bakshi, Johanna Gripenberg
BACKGROUND: The use of anabolic-androgenic steroids has increased among gym-goers, and it has been proposed that this may be part of a polysubstance use pattern that includes the use of illicit drugs. Still, epidemiological data on illicit drug use among gym-goers of both genders are meager. The aim of the present study was thus to examine the use of illicit drugs and its correlates in a large sample of men and women who engaged in weight training at gyms across Sweden. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, a total of 1969 gym-goers who engaged in weight training in 54 gyms across Sweden were invited to fill in a questionnaire...
August 29, 2017: Sports Medicine—Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783904/five-year-monitoring-of-19-illicit-and-legal-substances-of-abuse-at-the-inlet-of-a-wastewater-treatment-plant-in-barcelona-ne-spain-and-estimation-of-drug-consumption-patterns-and-trends
#12
Nicola Mastroianni, Ester López-García, Cristina Postigo, Damià Barceló, Miren López de Alda
Illicit and legal drugs of abuse, including alcohol, continue to be in the focus of many governmental national and international studies due to the important consequences of their consumption at both individual and social level. Estimation of drug use at the community level from the concentrations of the drugs themselves or their major metabolites measured in wastewater has become an increasingly accepted and extended tool, complementary to the methods traditionally used for this purpose. The present work describes the application of this approach, generally known as wastewater epidemiology, to investigate the latest drug consumption patterns and trends in the European city of Barcelona...
December 31, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774856/modafinil-improves-attentional-performance-in-healthy-non-sleep-deprived-humans-at-doses-not-inducing-hyperarousal-across-species
#13
Zackary A Cope, Arpi Minassian, Dustin Kreitner, David A MacQueen, Morgane Milienne-Petiot, Mark A Geyer, William Perry, Jared W Young
The wake-promoting drug modafinil is frequently used off-label to improve cognition in psychiatric and academic populations alike. The domain-specific attentional benefits of modafinil have yet to be quantified objectively in healthy human volunteers using tasks validated for comparison across species. Further, given that modafinil is a low-affinity inhibitor for the dopamine and norepinephrine transporters (DAT/NET respectively) it is unclear if any effects are attributable to a non-specific increase in arousal, a feature of many catecholamine reuptake inhibitors (e...
October 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761409/psychoactive-substance-use-among-methadone-maintenance-therapy-clients-in-china
#14
Chunqing Lin, Xiaobin Cao, Li Li
A proportion of methadone maintenance therapy (MMT) clients in China shifted their substance use habit from opiate to psychoactive substances. The objective of this study was to examine the pattern and associated factors of psychoactive substance use among MMT clients. The study was conducted among 2,448 clients from 68 MMT clinics of China. The type and frequency of psychoactive substance use were self-reported. About 38.1% (N=933) of the participants reported psychoactive substance use in lifetime, and 6...
August 2017: International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713291/an-expanding-world-of-novel-psychoactive-substances-opioids
#15
REVIEW
Jolanta B Zawilska
The abuse of novel psychoactive substances (NPS) has been increasing dramatically worldwide since late 2000s. By the end of 2015, more than 560 NPS had been reported to the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction. Although the most popular compounds are synthetic cannabinoids and psychostimulatory derivatives of cathinone (so-called β-keto-amphetamines), novel synthetic opioids have recently emerged on the recreational drug market. They include fentanyl (a potent narcotic analgesic) and its analogs (e...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661714/early-initiation-of-amphetamine-type-stimulants-ats-use-associated-with-lowered-cognitive-performance-among-individuals-with-co-occurring-opioid-and-ats-use-disorders-in-malaysia
#16
Weng-Tink Chooi, Norzarina Mohd Zaharim, Alethea Desrosiers, Imran Ahmad, Mohd Azhar Mohd Yasin, Sharifah Z Syed Jaapar, Richard S Schottenfeld, Balasingam K Vicknasingam, Marek C Chawarski
Amphetamine-type stimulants (ATS) use is increasingly prevalent in Malaysia, including among individuals who also use opioids. We evaluated cognitive functioning profiles among individuals with co-occurring opioid and ATS dependence and their lifetime patterns of drug use. Participants (N = 50) enrolling in a clinical trial of buprenorphine/naloxone treatment with or without atomoxetine completed the Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices, Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test, Digit Span, Trail Making and Symbol Digit Substitution tasks...
June 29, 2017: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525332/distribution-and-immunohistochemical-characteristics-of-cocaine-and-amphetamineregulated-transcript-positive-nerve-elements-in-the-pelvic-ganglia-of-the-female-pig
#17
A Zacharko-Siembida, M Matysek, R Szalak, A Radlińska, K Obszańska, M B Arciszewski
Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) peptides are widely expressed not only in the brain but also in numerous endocrine/neuroendocrine cells as well as in neurons of the peripheral nervous system. The present study investigated the distribution patterns of CART-like immunoreactivity in the pelvic plexus (PP) of the female pig. The co-expression of CART with principal neurotransmitter markers: choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), serotonin (5-HT) or biologically active neuropeptides: pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP), substance P (SP), calbindin was analyzed using double immunohistochemical stainings...
March 28, 2017: Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507321/pet-imaging-of-dopamine-d2-receptor-internalization-in-schizophrenia
#18
J J Weinstein, E van de Giessen, R J Rosengard, X Xu, N Ojeil, G Brucato, R B Gil, L S Kegeles, M Laruelle, M Slifstein, A Abi-Dargham
Recent genetic, molecular and post-mortem studies suggest impaired dopamine (DA)-D2 receptor (D2R) trafficking in patients with schizophrenia (SZ). Imaging and preclinical studies have shown agonist-induced D2R internalization can be imaged with positron emission tomography (PET) using D2R radiotracers combined with psychostimulant challenge. This is feasible if radiotracer binding is measured when postchallenge DA levels have returned to baseline, following the initial competition phase between DA and radiotracer for binding to D2R...
May 16, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485037/serotonin-axons-in-the-neocortex-of-the-adult-female-mouse-regrow-after-traumatic-brain-injury
#19
Tymoteusz J Kajstura, Sarah E Dougherty, David J Linden
It is widely held that injured neurons in the central nervous system do not undergo axonal regrowth. However, there is mounting evidence that serotonin axons are a notable exception. Serotonin axons undergo long-distance regrowth in the neocortex after amphetamine lesion, and, following a penetrating stab injury, they can regrow from cut ends to traverse the stab rift. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is clinically prevalent and can lead to pathologies, such as depression, that are related to serotonergic dysfunction...
May 9, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440810/naltrexone-modulates-dopamine-release-following-chronic-but-not-acute-amphetamine-administration-a-translational-study
#20
N Jayaram-Lindström, J Guterstam, J Häggkvist, M Ericson, T Malmlöf, B Schilström, C Halldin, S Cervenka, T Saijo, A-L Nordström, J Franck
The opioid antagonist naltrexone has been shown to attenuate the subjective effects of amphetamine. However, the mechanisms behind this modulatory effect are currently unknown. We hypothesized that naltrexone would diminish the striatal dopamine release induced by amphetamine, which is considered an important mechanism behind many of its stimulant properties. We used positron emission tomography and the dopamine D2-receptor radioligand [(11)C]raclopride in healthy subjects to study the dopaminergic effects of an amphetamine injection after pretreatment with naltrexone or placebo...
April 25, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
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