Read by QxMD icon Read

Natural immune system repair

Liz Gough, Lindy M Castell, Rosalba Gatti, Richard J Godfrey
BACKGROUND: Growth hormone (GH) has many direct and indirect actions and roles including substrate regulation and priming of some cells of the immune system, and the expected aspects of growth and repair. Different concentrations in human body fluids reflect the exercise-induced growth hormone response (EIGR) after exercise. In populations such as elite athletes, the invasive nature of venous sampling is poorly accepted. Thus, this study examines possible viable alternatives such as urine and saliva samples and the GH concentration...
December 2016: Sports Medicine—Open
Daniel M Vasconcelos, Raquel M Gonçalves, Catarina R Almeida, Inês O Pereira, Marta I Oliveira, Nuno Neves, Andreia M Silva, António C Ribeiro, Carla Cunha, Ana R Almeida, Cristina C Ribeiro, Ana M Gil, Elisabeth Seebach, Katharina L Kynast, Wiltrud Richter, Meriem Lamghari, Susana G Santos, Mário A Barbosa
The hypothesis behind this work is that fibrinogen (Fg), classically considered a pro-inflammatory protein, can promote bone repair/regeneration. Injury and biomaterial implantation naturally lead to an inflammatory response, which should be under control, but not necessarily minimized. Herein, porous scaffolds entirely constituted of Fg (Fg-3D) were implanted in a femoral rat bone defect and investigated at two important time points, addressing the bone regenerative process and the local and systemic immune responses, both crucial to elucidate the mechanisms of tissue remodelling...
October 4, 2016: Biomaterials
Andreia M Silva, José H Teixeira, Maria Ines Almeida, Raquel M Gonçalves, Mário A Barbosa, Susana G Santos
Inflammation is a complex and highly regulated biological process, crucial for a variety of functions in the human body, from host response against infectious agents to initiation of repair/regeneration of injured tissues. In the context of tissue repair, the action of different immune cell populations and their interplay with tissue specific cells, including stem cells, is still being uncovered. Extracellular Vesicles (EV) are small membrane vesicles secreted by cells in a controlled manner, which can act locally and systemically...
September 17, 2016: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Won-Cheol Jung, Jean-Pierre Levesque, Marc J Ruitenberg
Inflammation is a natural part of wound healing but it can also cause secondary (bystander) damage and/or negatively interfere with endogenous repair mechanisms if non-resolving. Regulation of inflammation is traditionally looked at from the perspective of danger signals, cytokines and chemokines, and their respective receptors. A neuronal contribution to the regulation of inflammation is, however, increasingly appreciated, and this has important implications for the bodily response under conditions where the nervous system itself may be damaged...
August 11, 2016: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
S C Gominak
STUDY OBJECTIVES: Vitamin D blood levels of 60-80ng/ml promote normal sleep. The present study was undertaken to explore why this beneficial effect waned after 2years as arthritic pain increased. Pantothenic acid becomes coenzyme A, a cofactor necessary for cortisol and acetylcholine production. 1950s experiments suggested a connection between pantothenic acid deficiency, autoimmune arthritis and insomnia. The B vitamins have been shown to have an intestinal bacterial source and a food source, suggesting that the normal intestinal microbiome may have always been the primary source of B vitamins...
September 2016: Medical Hypotheses
Bettina M Moehrle, Hartmut Geiger
Aging in the hematopoietic system and the stem cell niche contributes to aging-associated phenotypes of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), including leukemia and aging-associated immune remodeling. Among others, the DNA damage theory of aging of HSCs is well established, based on the detection of a significantly larger amount of γH2AX foci and a higher tail moment in the comet assay, both initially thought to be associated with DNA damage in aged HSCs compared with young cells, and bone marrow failure in animals devoid of DNA repair factors...
October 2016: Experimental Hematology
Seema Nandi, Ashley C Brown
Platelets closely interface with the immune system to fight pathogens, target wound sites, and regulate tissue repair. Natural platelet levels within the body can be depleted for a variety of reasons, including excessive bleeding following traumatic injury, or diseases such as cancer and bacterial or viral infections. Platelet transfusions are commonly used to improve platelet count and hemostatic function in these cases, but transfusions can be complicated by the contamination risks and short storage life of donated platelets...
May 2016: Experimental Biology and Medicine
Laura Menchetti, Giovanna Traina, Giovanni Tomasello, Patrizia Casagrande-Proietti, Leonardo Leonardi, Olimpia Barbato, Gabriele Brecchia
This paper reviews the composition of colostrum and the potential preventive and therapeutic use of this "first milk" for treating various gastrointestinal disorders in humans. Colostrum is a complex biological liquid that is richer in antimicrobial peptides, immune-regulating compounds and growth factors than the subsequent mature milk. The main functions of colostrum are to provide essential nutritional components, strengthen the natural defense system, modulate immune response, balance intestinal microbiota and enhance the growth and repair of several tissues...
2016: Frontiers in Bioscience (Scholar Edition)
Etsu Tashiro, Masaya Imoto
Cell migration is a fundamental step for embryonic development, wound repair, immune responses, and tumor cell invasion and metastasis. It is well known that protrusive structures, namely filopodia and lamellipodia, can be observed at the leading edge of migrating cells. The formation of these structures is necessary for cell migration; however, the molecular mechanisms behind the formation of these structures remain largely unclear. Therefore, bioactive compounds that modulate protrusive structures are extremely powerful tools for studying the mechanisms behind the formation of these structures and subsequent cell migration...
August 1, 2016: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
Sabino Padilla, Mikel Sanchez, Ione Padilla, Gorka Orive, Eduardo Anitua
Healing process might be considered as a byproduct of the mechanisms underlying the biological defense system consisting of hemostasis and clotting, the innate immune system, and fibrogenesis. But there is no biological process that does not potentially entail high costs through trade-offs with other life-history parameters and that might be seen as collateral damage. Depending on the balance among the robust and flexible modular defense system, which will be deployed in many different arrays, the structural outcome of the healing process will not resolve with a unitary outcome...
2016: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
Lite Ge, Miao Jiang, Da Duan, Zijun Wang, Linyu Qi, Xiaohua Teng, Zhenyu Zhao, Lei Wang, Yi Zhuo, Ping Chen, Xijing He, Ming Lu
Nasal olfactory mucosa mesenchymal stem cells (OM-MSCs) have the ability to promote regeneration in the nervous system in vivo. Moreover, with view to the potential for clinical application, OM-MSCs have the advantage of being easily accessible from patients and transplantable in an autologous manner, thus eliminating immune rejection and contentious ethical issues. So far, most studies have been focused on the role of OM-MSCs in central nervous system replacement. However, the secreted proteomics of OM-MSCs have not been reported yet...
2016: Stem Cells International
Adi Sagiv, Dominick G A Burton, Zhana Moshayev, Ezra Vadai, Felix Wensveen, Shifra Ben-Dor, Ofra Golani, Bojan Polic, Valery Krizhanovsky
Cellular senescence is a stress response mechanism that limits tumorigenesis and tissue damage. Induction of cellular senescence commonly coincides with an immunogenic phenotype that promotes self-elimination by components of the immune system, thereby facilitating tumor suppression and limiting excess fibrosis during wound repair. The mechanisms by which senescent cells regulate their immune surveillance are not completely understood. Here we show that ligands of an activating Natural Killer (NK) cell receptor (NKG2D), MICA and ULBP2 are consistently up-regulated following induction of replicative senescence, oncogene-induced senescence and DNA damage - induced senescence...
February 2016: Aging
Amanda S MacLeod, Jonathan N Mansbridge
Significance: This review article provides an overview of the critical roles of the innate immune system to wound healing. It explores aspects of dysregulation of individual innate immune elements known to compromise wound repair and promote nonhealing wounds. Understanding the key mechanisms whereby wound healing fails will provide seed concepts for the development of new therapeutic approaches. Recent Advances: Our understanding of the complex interactions of the innate immune system in wound healing has significantly improved, particularly in our understanding of the role of antimicrobials and peptides and the nature of the switch from inflammatory to reparative processes...
February 1, 2016: Advances in Wound Care
Saber Kariminekoo, Aliakbar Movassaghpour, Amirbahman Rahimzadeh, Mehdi Talebi, Karim Shamsasenjan, Abolfazl Akbarzadeh
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a population of multipotent progenitors which reside in bone marrow, fat, and some other tissues and can be isolated from various adult and fetal tissues. Self-renewal potential and multipotency are MSC's hallmarks. They have the capacity of proliferation and differentiation into a variety of cell lineages like osteoblasts, condrocytes, adipocytes, fibroblasts, cardiomyocytes. MSCs can be identified by expression of some surface molecules like CD73, CD90, CD105, and lack of hematopoietic specific markers including CD34, CD45, and HLA-DR...
May 2016: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
Maurizio D'Incalci, Alberto Zambelli
INTRODUCTION: Trabectedin is an anti-tumor compound registered in Europe and in several other countries, for the second-line treatment of soft tissue sarcoma (STS) and for ovarian cancer in combination with liposomal doxorubicin. Trabectedin inhibits cancer cell proliferation mainly affecting the transcription regulation. Trabectedin also acts as a modulator of tumor microenvironment by reducing the number of tumor associated macrophages (TAM). Because of its unique mechanism of action, trabectedin has the potential to act as antineoplastic agent also in several solid malignancies, including breast cancer (BC)...
January 2016: Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs
Shizuyo Sutou
The linear no-threshold model (LNT) was recommended in 1956, with abandonment of the traditional threshold dose-response for genetic risk assessment. Adoption of LNT by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) became the standard for radiation regulation worldwide. The ICRP recommends a dose limit of 1 mSv/year for the public, which is too low and which terrorizes innocent people. Indeed, LNT arose mainly from the lifespan survivor study (LSS) of atomic bomb survivors. The LSS, which asserts linear dose-response and no threshold, is challenged mainly on three points...
2015: Yakugaku Zasshi: Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
Mahboubeh Valiani, Jamileh Majidi, Marjan Beigi
BACKGROUND: Committing an error is part of the human nature. No health care provider, despite the mastery of their skills, is immune from committing it. Medical error in the labor and obstetrics wards as well as other health units is inevitable and reduces the quality of health care, leading to accident. Sometimes these events, like the death of mother, fetus, and newborn, would be beyond repair. The purpose of this study was to investigate the perspective of gynecological ward providers about medical errors...
September 2015: Iranian Journal of Nursing and Midwifery Research
Feng Wan, Emmanuel Letavernier, Claude Jourdan Le Saux, Amal Houssaini, Shariq Abid, Gabor Czibik, Daigo Sawaki, Elisabeth Marcos, Jean-Luc Dubois-Rande, Laurent Baud, Serge Adnot, Geneviève Derumeaux, Barnabas Gellen
The activation of the calpain system is involved in the repair process following myocardial infarction (MI). However, the impact of the inhibition of calpain by calpastatin, its natural inhibitor, on scar healing and left ventricular (LV) remodeling is elusive. Male mice ubiquitously overexpressing calpastatin (TG) and wild-type (WT) controls were subjected to an anterior coronary artery ligation. Mortality at 6 wk was higher in TG mice (24% in WT vs. 44% in TG, P < 0.05) driven by a significantly higher incidence of cardiac rupture during the first week post-MI, despite comparable infarct size and LV dysfunction and dilatation...
December 1, 2015: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Kevin Yao, Sharon D Ricardo
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short single strands of RNA responsible for post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression and have been implicated in the pathogenesis of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Emerging evidence reports that miRNAs can reduce kidney fibrosis through regulation of targets associated with collagen and extracellular matrix accumulation. However, the development of miRNA therapies has been hampered by the lack of targeted and sustainable methods of systemic miRNA delivery. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) provide a promising miRNA delivery platform to overcome toxicity, the potential for insertional mutations and the low efficiency of previous methods...
May 2016: Nephrology
Luke M Healy, Jack P Antel
Sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor (S1PR) modulators have entered clinical practice as immune-modulators for the treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS). Pharmacologic modulation of S1PR expression on lymphocytes inhibits these cells capacity to respond to the S1P gradient within regional lymph nodes (LNs) (and thymus) that promotes their exit into peripheral circulation. The resultant peripheral blood restricted lymphopenia is considered to underlie the capacity of S1PR modulators to reduce new inflammatory lesion formation in MS in the absence of global immune suppression...
October 1, 2015: Current Drug Targets
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"